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unison, tramping in one consent like the sim- | this theory somewhat the lie; not only in the ultaneous steps of an approaching army ; pomp and vanity of their luxurious accesthe “ Ante omnia secula” is an awful self-sus- sories, but in a suspicious fascination in the tainment of the music in regions separated music itself, leaving impressions on the mind in time and space from all we ever conceived that we have been rather listening to the Syin heaven or earth. Beethoven out-Beetho- rens of the “isle perilous” than the Bluses of vens himself in a sublimity of imagery no snow-peaked Olympus. musician ever before attempted; but as to the pure religious feeling, we neither fall on our knees as with Mozart, nor rise on wings as with Handel.
DruDGERY OF LITERATURE.—We present Where will the flight of musical inspira- our readers with a picture, from the pen
of tion next soar ? It has been cleverly said Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton, of the life of a hy Reichardt that Haydn built himself a popular author, which is as true as it is lovely villa, Mozart erected a stately palace graphic, and may serve to show that the wit, over it, but Beethoven raised a tower on the and imagination, and liveliness which sparkle top of that, and whoever should venture to upon paper, may after all be draining the lifebuild higher would break his neck. There blood from a trembling heart and weary brain. is no fear of such temerity at present. We- It is a sketch of Laman Blanchard. “ For ber, Spohr, and Mendelssohn have each add- the author there is nothing but his pen,
till ed a porch in their various styles of beauty, that and life are worn to the stump; and but otherwise there are no signs of further then, with good fortune, perhaps on his structure. The music of the day has a death-bed he receives a pension—and equals, beauty and tenderness of coloring which it may be, for a few months the income of a was never surpassed, but all distinction of retired butler! And so, on the sudden loss of form seems crumbling away.
It is like fair the situation in which he had frittered away visions in dreams, or studies of shifting his higher and more delicate genius, in all the clouds, or one of Tennyson's rhapsodies; drudgery that a party exacts from its defendthe strain delicate, the touches brilliant, but er of the press, Laman Blanchard was thrown the subject nothing if the finish were taken again upon the world, to shift as he might, away. They cannot be stripped to the level and subsist as he could. His practice in of a child's exercise and still show their periodical writing was now considerable ; hisbeauty of form, like a chorus of Handel or versatility was extreme. He was marked by an air of Mozart.
publishers and editors as a useful contributor, It is impossible to say what resources re and so his livelihood was secure.
From a main still undereloped in the progress of variety of sources thus he contrived, by conmusic. Fresh forms of nationality may stant waste of intellect and strength, to eke arise. The Italians may form a grand instru- out his income, and insinuate rather than mental school ; the father or grandfather of force his place among his contemporary pensome sublime English composer may be now And uncomplainingly, and with patiddling waltzes in one of our ball-rooms; the tient industry, he toiled on, seeming farther Greek church in Russia may foster some and farther off from the happy leisure in Palestrina of its own; new instruments may which the something to verify promise was be invented; the possibility of this may be to be completed.' No time had he for proconceived, but the probability not hoped in, found reading, for lengthened works, for the for earthly music must share the mortality mature development of the conceptions of a of all things here, and Mozart's “Requiem” charming fancy. He had given hostages to is above fifty years old.
fortune. He had a wife and four children, We have not mentioned the modern opera and no income but that which he made from -the subject has been too well treated but week to week. The grist must be ground, the other day in a contemporary journal* for and the wheel revolve. All the struggles, all us to venture on the same ground. Nor the toils, all the weariness of brain, nerve, does it square with our endeavor to prove the and head, which a man undergoes in his exclusive value of music as the only one of career, are imperceptible even to his friends-the arts exempt from the trail of the serpent. almost to himself; he has no time to be ill, There are few recent operas that do not give to be fatigued ; his spirit has no holiday ;
it is all school-work. And thus generally, *“A Few Words on the Opera," in Frazer's
we find in such men that the break-up of the Magazine for October, 1847.
constitution seems sudden and unlooked-for."
from the Edinburgh Review.
ETHNOLOGY, OR THE SCIENCE OF RACES.
1.-Researches into the Physical History of Mankind. By James CowLES PRICHARD.
M.D., F.R.S., M.R.I.A., Corresponding Member of the National Institute of
2547. 2.—The Natural History of Man ; comprising Inquiries into the Modifying Influ
ence of Physical and Moral Agencies on the different Tribes of the Human Family. By James Cowles PRICHARD, M.D., F.R.S., &c., &c. London :
1843. 8vo. pp. 556. 3.- Report of the Seventeenth Meeting of the British Association for the Advance
ment of Science, held at Oxford, in June, 1847. London : 1848. 8vo. pp. 523.
[The following article condenses the latest results of investiga- ) grade among the sciences,-the place with tion and reasoning in this new but important science in a style so which its votaries must be at present conlucid and pleasing that the general reader will be weari d with neither its length nor its statistics. It is by far the briefest and
tent, and where indeed they may think themablest exposition of the science we have met with.-ED ]
selves fortunate that they can secure a place
at all. Among the new sciences which the progress But we may well take courage, when we of human knowledge is calling into exist- reflect not merely upon the industry and ence from time to time, and which find dev- enthusiasm of its votaries, but also upon the otees no less earnest and sincere than those fact that the number of those who are indiwho continue to worship at the older rectly contributing to the progress of Ethnolshrines, Ethnology, or the Science of Races, ogy is far greater than that of its professed is not the least interesting nor the least prac
followers. For whilst the traveller who tically important. It may be difficult to as examines into the physical characters and sign the period when the investigations with the mental condition of the new races of which the ethnologist is concerned, first be- 'm
men with whom he comes into contact, who gan to assume a really scientific form, in- studies their vocabulary and inquires into stead of presenting their results as a mere their grammar, who is a spectator of their chaos of dispecta membra-crude materials, religious observances, and pries into the waiting the hand of the architect to work dark mysteries of their traditions and superthem
up into an edifice worthy of the object stitions, who watches their habits of life for which they were collected. As yet, we and acquaints himself with their laws and fear, we must satisfy ourselves with the de- usages,-furnishes the most important quota sign, rather than boast of its execution ; and to the accumulation of materials : scarcely please ourselves with the anticipation of less valuable are the materials collected by what is to be accomplished, rather than him, whose tastes lead him to attend rather dwell with complacency on what has been to the physiognomy of the country than to already effected. When we look, indeed, at that of its human inhabitants, to its climate the amount of toil which ethnological in- and its soil, its products and its capabilities, vestigations require for the development of rather than to their faculties and actions. even their least extended results, and the For in the determination of the important small number of laborers who are profes- problem, how far the characters of particusedly devoted to their advancement, we lar races are dependent upon those of the might doubt whether Ethnology would countries they inhabit, the latter set of data emerge in our own time from the lowest'are as useful as the former; and no satisfac
tory result can ever be anticipated, until study of the psychical constitution of the sevboth have been ascertained with equal ac eral races; in the extraction of their respeccuracy. So, again, the philologist who is tive mental and moral characters from their working out, in the solitude of his study, habits of life, their languages, and their religthe problems involved in the history and ious observances. It is his business to inscience of language, though he may little quire how far one common psychical nature is think of connecting his conclusions with the to be inferred from such diverse manifestaaffinities of nations, is an invaluable ally. tions : that is, how far the differences which In the same manner anatomists and physiol. he cannot but observe in intellectual capacity, ogists, in scrutinizing the varieties which and in moral and even instinctive tendencies, the typical form of humanity undergoes, and are fixed and permanent, or are liable either to contrasting the extremes of configuration, spontaneous variation, or to alteration from of color, and of constitutional peculiarity, the modifying influence of education and as observable among the inhabitants of dis- other external conditions. The Physical tant climes, cannot enlarge the boundaries Geographer lends his aid by bringing to of their own sciences, without at the same bear upon the inquiry his knowledge of the time rendering the most essential assistance outward circumstances under which these to the ethnologist.
variations in bodily and mental constitution In thus drawing within its grasp,
are most constantly found. And it is from verting to its own purposes, the results sup- the materials which he contributes, that the plied by the investigators of various and physiologist and the psychologist have to dewidely dissimilar branches of science, Eth- termine the degree in which these circumnology bears a striking analogy to Geology ; stances can be justly considered to be the an analogy of which Dr. Prichard has dex causes of variation ; more especially, whether terously availed himself, in vindicating the the coincidences between particular bodily claim of Ethnology to rank as one of the configurations or mental constitutions, and departments to which the attention of the certain combinations of climatic and geologiBritish Association should be primarily di- cal conditions, are the result of induced difrected. They are both histories of the past, ferences among the human races which are and depend for their successful cultivation respectively subject to them, or are to be on the unconscious co-operation of many attributed to oriyinal dissimilarity of stock. minds, often ignorant of each other's labors. But in order to carry on these researches,
Of all the problems of Ethnological Sci- historical information is continually needed, ence, the relation in which the various races on the actual descent, migrations, conquests, of mankind stand to each other and to our &c., of the nations whose physical and menselves, is perhaps the most attractive. The tal characters we are comparing. The quesdetermination of this relation is, in fact, the tion of the fivity of all or any of the characultimate aim to which its departments sev ters by which the races of mankind are at erally converge, however widely they ap- present distinguished from each other, reparently divaricate. The Anatomist exam- quires for its solution a comparison of the ines the configuration of the body, and present with the past. No valid proof of compares together the peculiarities of vari- their permanence can be drawn from the ous tribes, with the view of determining how limited experience of a few generations; and far structural differences prevail over resem no evidence of change can be reasonably blances, and of ascertaining whether these looked for, except from the long-continued differences possess that constant and intran- agency of modifying causes. The required sitive character which the naturalist requires information is sometimes supplied by direct as a justificatien of specific distinction. The historical testimony; but this is frequently Physiologist searches into the history of the insufficient. And here it is that the comvital functions in the several types of hu- parative study of languages becomes so manity, and seeks for information with important to the ethnologist as an auxiliary regard to the permanence of anatomical dif- to history ; extending, combining, and conferences, the effect of external agencies infirming the evidence derived from sources modifying the configuration or constitution of which the historian has exhausted. the body, and the tendency to spontaneous Independent of the aid which philological variation in the forms presented by individu- research affords to other departments of Ethals, families, or tribes, known to be of the nology, it directly bears upon the great probsame stock. The Psychologist has a most lem of the unity or identity of mankind. interesting subject of investigation, in the Since it not merely answers a common pur
pose with historical testimony, in establish-, the other joining the most advanced points ing the genealogical relations of tribes long of the forehead and of the upper jaw-bonesince dispersed from their original centres was thought to afford a measure of the and separated at present by strongly marked capacity of the anterior part of the skull, and physical and psychical differences; but it of the size of the corresponding lobe of the also furnishes a powerful argument for the brain. And, with the large dimensions of common, or at least the similar origin of all these parts, common consent seems to have
For it shows that an articulate lan- connected the idea of intellectual power, guage, relating not merely to objects of even from remote times. Thus, whilst the sense, but to our spiritual nature-capable facial angle in the skulls of living Europeans of describing the phenomena of the external averages 80°, in the ideal heads of the world, as well as of giving utterance to the Grecian gods it is increased to 90°. Camthoughts and feelings which constitute our per, too, inferred from his measurements, internal existence—and susceptible, too, of which were made upon a small number of decomposition into a limited number of ele- skulls, that a regular gradation is exhibited mentary sounds, which may be expressed by the different races of men, connecting by written signs applicable alike to all the highest European type with the Apes : tongues—not only now exists among all the facial angle in the skull of a Kalmuck nations, but has everywhere existed from being 75° ; that of a Negro only 70° ; and the earliest period of which we have any that of different species of Apes being 64°, knowledge. From this it is reasonable to 63°, and 60°. So that, by this test, the infer an original similarity in the endowments Negro would stand in as near a relation to of which language is the manifestation ; and the higher Apes as to a Kalmuck, and a the inference is confirmed by the fact that great deal nearer than to a European. But the thoughts, which are capable of being he committed an important mistake in his expressed in one language, may be translated estimate of the facial angle of the Apes ; for into
any other found in use among a people his measurements were all taken from young equally advanced. Any two barbarous skulls, in which the forward extension of languages, or any two that are highly culti- the jaws, which takes place on the second vated, are so pervaded by a sameness of dentition, had not yet occurred. In the character, notwithstanding they may not adult Chimpanzee, the facial angle is no have a word in common, that the identity of more than 35°, and in the great Ourang it the internal nature, whose states of conscious is only 30°, as we learn from the measureness they serve to express, can scarcely be ments of Professor Owen. However, under doubted by any one who attends fairly to the any circumstances, this method of comparievidence.
son is of very little value; for the facial To give our readers an idea of the present angle is too much affected by the degree of range of Ethnological Science, we must prominence of the jaws, to afford any cerbring under their notice a summary of the tain information concerning the elevation labors of these several inquirers. The dif- of the forehead or the capacity of the craferences between different races, in form, nium. features, and complexion, have naturally It was by the venerable Blumenbach that attracted most attention. Accordingly, we this department of Ethnology was first culwill begin by examining, with the Anato- tivated in a manner worthy of its object. mist and Physiologist, the most striking He collected, with immense labor, a vast variations in bodily structure ;—with the mass of materials for a systematic account view of ascertaining how far they possess of the anatomical peculiarities of the different that fixed and definite character, by which races of mankind; which he arranged into alone the hypothesis of a diverse origin, in the five primary groups-chiefly according to races that now exhibit them, can be sustained. the configuration of the skull-designating
The first attempt to establish such distinc-them by the names either of the people comtions on a scientific basis, was made by the prised in each form, or of the regions of the celebrated anatomist Camper, whose name world where each was supposed to have is preserved in connection with the "facial originated. These divisions and their desigangle,” so commonly appealed to as a test nations having been adopted by Cuvier, and of the relative elevation or degradation of a having passed into our ordinary forms of race or individual. This angle—included expression, require a brief notice; although between two lines, one of them drawn from they are no longer scientifically appropriate. the orifice of the ear to the base of the nose, 1. The Caucasian form, which prevails
among European nations, was so termed elevated, the face small in proportion ; thus from Mount Caucasus, to which ancient traindicating the predominance of the intelditions refer the origin of many celebrated lectual powers over the instinctive propennations ; and in the neighborhood of which sities more directly connected with sensation. live the Georgian and Circassian tribes, com The Greeks are probably the most favorable monly regarded as displaying the highest examples of this symmetry; but other type of human beauty in shape and feature. instances of it may be found in almost any of There is not, however, any sufficient reason the great group of nations now termed Indofor regarding the Caucasian tribes as the Atlantic. These nations extend over the ancestral stock of the Indo-European nations, surface of the globe in a north-westerly direcwhose cranial conformation places them tior, from India and Persia, through Syria under this category : the Greek skull might and Asia Minor, stretching along the portion be selected with as much propriety for its of Africa north of the Great Desert, and covtype. 2. The Mongolian form, characteris- ering almost the whole area of Europe. tically seen among certain races inhabiting Nearly all of them have acquired a certain High Asia, was improperly named from a amount of civilization, living by agriculture, single and subordinate nation of that conti- and possessing settled habitations; and nent; one, too, which does not happen to among them, or among the offsets which possess the distinctive type in any remark- have proceeded from them, we find all the able degree. 3. The term Ethiopian, as nations which have been most distinguished applied to the great mass of African nations, by intellectual advancement. is faulty for a similar reason ; since the Ethi The form described by Dr. Prichard as opia of the ancients is but a small part of the the pyramidal skull corresponds with that African continent, and the people inhabiting termed Mongolian by Blumenbach, but which it are not those among whom the peculiari- is most characteristically seen in the Esquities of the African conformation are most
The striking peculiarity of these strikingly displayed. 4, 5. The terms Ameri- skulls is the great lateral prominence of their can and Muluyan are much less objection- cheek-bones and zygomatic arches, together able, as collective designations of groups of with an extreme flatness of the upper half of nations. It has been found impossible, how- the face, whilst the forehead rapidly narever, to assign to them any very definite rows at its highest part; so that, on a front types of cranial configuration, on account of view, the portion of the skull above the line the varieties which abound in the tribes joining the cheek-bone has an almost pyrainhabiting the several portions of the great midal form, that line serving as the base. American continent, and the remote islands The orbits of the eyes are large and deep; of the vast Malayo-Polynesian Archipe- and the bones surround them in such a manlago.
ner that, in most instances of this conformaThis distribution was as complete as the tion, the opening of the lids has a decided ethnographic knowledge of the time permit-obliquity, the inner angle being directed ted it to be ; but to hold it up as the system downwards. The whole face, instead of under which all subsequent observations were approaching the oval as in Europeans, is of a to be marshalled and arranged, would be lozenge shape : and the larger proportion about as absurd, as if we were to take the which it bears to the capacity of the cranium primary divisions of the animal kingdom, indicates in the pyramidal skull a more ample according to Linnæus, for the groundwork extension of the organs of sensation. The of our present zoological classification. Dr. greater part of the races of this type are Prichard has shown that there are but three nomadic: some of them wandering with leading types of cranial conformation; of their flocks and herds over the vast plains which all others are variations or combina- of High Asia; whilst others creep along the tions. Minute anatomical descriptions of shores of the Icy Sea, supporting themselves them will be found in Dr. Prichard's works. by fishing. It is a remarkable fact, howWe must content ourselves with their most ever, that we encounter the type again in a striking characteristics.
remote part of the globe, and in a race appaThe oral or elliptical form of skull, cor- rently of a totally different descent—ihe responding with that which Blumenbach Hottentots and Bushmen of Southern Africa. termed Caucasian, is distinguished by the They also were formerly a nomadic people, symmetry of its form—there being no excess and wandered about with herds of cattle either of prominence or compression. The over the extensive plains of Kafirland. The cranial cavity is large, the forehead full and Mongolian character of their skull and physi