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They first arose in Venice and Florence, the

“ It is remarkable that the two greatest and great industrial centres of the middle ages ; | most salutary social revolutions which have taken and they arose from the increase of industry place in England, that revolution which, in the and its concurrent division of employments. thirteenth century, put an end to the tyranny of Moreover, the industrial element is demo-nation over nation, and that revolution which, a cratic. It brings the nation—the people-- few generations later, put an end to the property upon the stage, where, formerly, a few privi- effected. They struck contemporåry observers

of man in man, were silently and imperceptibly leged individuals strutted and declaimed. It with no surprise, and have received from historiwas the industrial element which first eman

ans a very scanty measure of attention. They cipated the masses from slavery and servage. were brought about neither by legislative regulaIt has now risen to such a height that, in- tion nor by physical force. Moral causes noisestead of suffering the nation to be ruled ac- lessly effaced, first the distinction between Norcording to the whims of a few captains and

man and Saxon, and then the distinction between

master and slave. None can venture to fix the chiefs, it has taken the government very precise moment at which either distinction ceased. much into its own hands. An army does Some faint traces of the old Norman feeling not govern: it is the bired servant of the might, perhaps, have en found late in thc fournation. Great warriors are not our leaders. teenth century. Some faint traces of the instiMen who have led victorious armies, and tution of villenage were detected by the curious extended our empire, have not more weight so late as the days of the Stuarts ; nor has that in the affairs of the nation than a Manches- | institution ever, to this hour, been abolished by ter manufacturer. There is one great influence traceable to that the chief agent in these two great deliver

“ It would be most unjust not to acknowledge the extinction of the military spirit as the was religion; and it may, perhaps, be preponderating element of society, which it doubted, whether a purer religion might not have would take us some pages to exhibit in full been found a less efficient agent

. The benevoforce, and we can only therefore give a passo adverse to distinctions of caste. But to the

lent spirit of the Christian morality is undoubtedly ing indication of it. The preponderance of the industrial spirit has powerfully acceler- odions, for they are incompatible with other dis

Church of Rome such distinctions are peculiarly ated our advance in civilization, by the destinctions which are essential to her system. She velopment of our social tendencies, and by ascribes to every priest a mysterious dignity the subjugation of those more animal and in which entitles him to the reverence of every laystinctive tendencies which created and fos man; and she does not consider any man as distered the military spirit.

qualified, by reason of his nation or of his family, We must not be led into an essay, though for the priesthood. Her doctrines respecting the

sacerdotal character, however erroneous they may the subject demands one. The observations

be, have repeatedly mitigated some of the worst already made will be sufficient for our

evils which can afflict society. That superstition present purpose, which is to point out a

cannot be regarded as unmixedly noxious which, serious deficiency in Macaulay's history. in regions cursed by the tyranny of race over race, Indeed, one may say, that what is called the creates an aristocracy altogether independent of philosophy of history has little troubled race, inverts the relation between the oppressor Macaulay ; neither the temper of his mind, and the oppressed, and compels the hereditary nor the direction of his studies have been the hereditary bondman. To this day, in some

master to kneel before the spiritual tribunal of such as to lead him to probe deep beneath countries where negro slavery exists, Popery the surface of events. History is to him a appears in advantageous contrast to viher forms subject for an artist, not for a philosopher. of Christianity. It is notorious that the antipathy Rightly considered, it is a subject for both, beiween the European and African races is by no and the historian should possess the deep means so strong at Rio Janeiro as at Washing. insight of the philosopher no less than the

In our own country, this peculiarity of the cunning hand of the artist. This is, perhaps, middle ages, many salutary effects. It is true

Roman Catholic system produced, during the an ideal we shall not see realized. But thus that, shortly after the battle of Hastings, Saxon much may contidently be asserted, that the prelates and abbots were violently deposed, and story of a nation's life is incomplete if it omit that ecclesiastical adventurers from the Continent any vital element; and the industrial ele were intruded by hundreds into lucrative benement is not only vital, it is one of the most fices. Yet even these pious divines of Norman powerful of those which have created our

blood raised their voices against such a violation

of the constitution of the Church, refused to achistory. Macaulay has not seen its signifi-cept mitres from the hands of the Conqueror, and cance, or seeing it, has omitted to proclaim charged him, on the peril of his soul, not to forit. He is only struck by the abolition of get that the vanquished islanders were his fellow slavery, which he attributes to the Church. I Christians. The first protector whom the Eng


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lish found among the dominant caste, was Arch- | all the Greek philosophers would have prohishop Anselm. At a time when the English nounced impossible, and which the early name was a reproach, and when all the civil and Fathers would have pronounced indefinitely military dignities of the kingdom were supposed to distant-namely, the industrial element. belong exclusively to the countrymen of the Con

We have no more objections to make to queror, the despised race learned, with transports of delight, that one of themselves, Nicholas this history. We read it with exquisite Breakspear, had been elevated to the papal throne, pleasure, and have meditated on it with and held out his foot to be kissed by ambassadors profit. Many new lights have been thrown sprung from the noblest houses of Normandy. It upon old questions, and the whole story has was a national as well as a religious feeling that become clearer. The impartiality of a Haldrew great multitudes to the shrine of Becket, lam must not be looked for; and yet one the first Englishman who, since the Conquest, had must say that, on the whole, impartiality has been terrible to the foreign tyrants. A successor of Becket was foremost among those who ob- been well preserved. In ecclesiastical mattained that charter which secured at once the priv-ters this is a peculiar merit, for theological ileges of the Norman barons and the Saxon yeo- questions have in all times been firebrands. manry. How great a part the Catholic ecclesi. He seems to us to have stated the case with astics subsequently had in the abolition of villen- great fairness towards all parties; it is quite age we learn from the unexceptionable testimony evident that he has no partisanship. All of Sir Thomas Smith, one of the ablest Protestant councillors of Elizabeth. When the dying slave parties will, we suppose, be irritated at this holder asked for the last sacrament, his spiritual tolerance. Here is a striking picture of the attendants regularly adjured him, as he loved his composition of the Church of England—a soul, to emancipate his brethren for whom Christ picture for which he must expect some illhad died. So successfully had the church used will : her formidable machinery, that, before the Reformation came, she had enfranchised alınost all the

“ As the government needed the support of the bondmen in the kingdom except her own, who, to Protestants, so the Protestants needed the protecdo her justice, seem to have been very tenderly tion of the government. Much was therefore treated. 6. There can be no doubt that, when these two and the fruit of that union was the Church of

given up on both sides; an union was effected ; great revolutions had been effected, our fore England. fathers were by far the best governed people in "To the peculiarities of this great institution, Europe. During three hundred years the social and to the strong passions which it has called system had been in a constant course of improve forth in the minds both of friends and of enemies, ment. Under the first Plantagenets there had

are to be attributed many of the most important been barons able to bid defiance to the sovereign, events which have, since the Reformation, taken and peasants degraded to the level of the swine place in our country; nor can the secular history and oxen which they tended. The exorbitant of England be at all understood by us, unless we power of the baron had been gradually reduced. study it in constant connection with the history of The condition of the peasant had been gradually her ecclesiastical polity. The man who took the elevated. Between the aristocracy and the work-chief part in settling the conditions of the alliance ing people had sprung up a middle class, agricul- which produced the Anglican church was Thomas tural and commercial. There was still, it may Cranmer. He was the representative of both the be, more inequality than is favorable to the parties which at that time needed each other's ashappiness and virtue of our species; but no man sistance. He was at once a divine and a states. was altogether above the restraints of law; and

In his character of divine, he was perfectly no man was altogether below its protection.”

ready to go as far in the way of change as any

Swiss or Scottish reformer. In his character of This

passage is sufficient to convince us statesman he was desirous to preserve that organthat the writer has not speculated much ization, which had, during many ages, admirably upon the under-currents of history, or he served the purposes of the bishops of Rome, and would scarcely have attributed to the Church might be expected now to serve equally well the the amount of influence he there speaks of. purposes of the English kings and of their minis

His temper and his understanding eminentThat the church was a powerful agent is in- ly fitted him to act as a mediator. Saintly in his contestable; that her doctrines are opposed professions, unscrupulous in his dealings, zealous to slavery is no less so. But there is no for nothing, bold in speculation, a coward and a fact more certain than that Christianity as a

time-server in action, a placable enemy and a doctrine, or the Church as an establishment, lukewarm friend; he was in every way qualified could not, and did not abolish slavery. in religious and the worldly enemies of Popery.

to arrange the terms of the coalition between the early times, nor has it succeeded in abolish

To this day the constitution, the doctrines, and ing slavery even in our own times. It has the services of the Church, retain the visible done its part, and done it well, but it has marks of the compromise from which she sprang. been by means of that great agent, which / She occupies a middle position between the


churches of Rome and Geneva. Her doctrinal to the horror of weak minds, the robe of white confessions and discourses composed by Protest- linen, which typified the purity which belonged to ants, set forth principles of theology in which her as the mystical spouse of Christ. Discarding Calvin or Knox would have found scarcely a word a crowd of pantomimic gestures which, in the to disapprove. Her prayers and thanksgivings, Roman Catholic worship, are substituted for inderived from the ancient liturgies, are very gene- telligible words, she yet shocked many rigid Prorally such, that Bishop Fisher or Cardinal Pole testants by marking the infant just sprinkled from might have heartily joined in them. A controver- the font with the sign of the cross. The Roman sialist who puts an Arminian sense on her arti- Catholic addressed his prayers to a multitude of cles and homilies, will be pronounced by candid saints, among whom were numbered many men men to be as unreasonable as a controversialist of doubtful, and some of hateful, character. The who denies that the doctrine of baptismal regene- Puritan refused the addition of saint even to the ration can be discovered in her liturgy.

apostle of the Gentiles, and to the disciple whom “ The Church of Rome held that episcopacy Jesus loved. The Church of England, though was of divine institution, and that certain super- she asked for the intercession of no created being, natural graces of a high order had been transmit still set apart days for the commemoration of ted by the imposition of hands through fifty gene some who had done and suffered great things for rations, from the eleven who received their the faith. She retained confirmation and ordinacommission on the Galilean mount, to the bish- tion as edifying rites, but she degraded them from ops who met at Trent. A large body of Protest- the rank of sacraments. Thrift was no part of ants, on the other hand, regarded prelacy as pos- her system. Yet she gently invited the dying itively unlawful, and persuaded themselves that penitent to confess his sins to a divine, and emthey found a very different form of ecclesiastical powered her ministers to soothe the departing soul government prescribed in Scripture. The found by an absolution, which breathes the very spirit of ers of the Anglican Church took a middle course. the old religion. In general, it may be said, that They retained episcopacy; but they did not de- she appeals more to the understanding, and less clare it to be an institution essential to the wel to the senses and the imagination, than the fare of a Christian society, or to the efficacy of the Church of Rome--and that she appeals less to the sacraments. Cranmer, indeed, plainly avowed understanding, and more to the senses and image his conviction that, in the primitive times, there ination, than the Protestant churches of Scotland, was no distinction between bishops and priests, France, and Switzerland.” and that the laying on of hands was altogether unnecessary.

In closing our notice of this work, let us “ Among the Presbyterians, the conduct of not omit to mention the decided position its public worship is, to a great extent, left to the author takes up against the grumblers who minister. Their prayers, therefore, are not exactly the same in any two assemblies on the same

laud the days that are gone, and see only day, or on any two days in the saine assembly. In degeneracy and misery in the present. These one parish they are fervent, eloquent, and full of grumblers are not unhappily confined to the meaning, In the next parish they may be lan- twaddlers who provoked the scorn of Horaguid or absurd. The priests of the Roman Cath- tius Flaccus. When such men as Carlyle olic church, on the other hand, have, during many denounce the present as the age of cant, as a generations, daily chaunted the same ancient con

miserable time, in which all sense of truth, of fessions, supplications, and thanksgivings, in India and Lithuania, in Ireland and Peru. The morality, and of spiritual supremacy is exservice, being in a dead language, is intelligible tinct, and “flunkeyism,” “egotism,” and only to the learned ; and the great majority of the “shams” fill men's souls, it is worth while to congregation may be said to assist as spectators rise up against the old dogma, and to test it rather than auditors. Here, again, the Church of by an examination of the past. Macaulay's England took a middle course. She copied the volumes form an ample refutation ; and he Roman Catholic forms of prayer, but translated them into the vulgar tongue, and invited the illit has in three or four places admirably vindi

We erate multitude to join its voice to that of the min. cated the character of the present. ister.

would especially direct attention to pages “In every part of her system the same policy 424, 425, and 426, of the first volume ; inmay be traced. Utterly rejecting the doctrine of deed, to the whole of that chapter. transubstantiation, and condemning as idolatrous

And having applauded him for the spirit all adoration paid to the Sacramental bread and

of his work, we have only to declare our conwine, she yet, to the disgust of the Puritan, required her children to receive the memorials of | viction, that with all its faults it will become divine love, meekly kneeling upon their knees.

an English classic, and to express a desire Discarding many rich vestments which surround) for the speedy publication of the remainder. ed the altars of the ancient faith, she yet retained,


the North British Review.


The History of England, from the Accession of James II. By Thomas BABINGTON
MACAULAY. In 2 vols. London, 1849. 1300 pp.

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We have never perused a work of litera- | and in the bloodthirstiness of its captainsture or science, or even one of fiction, with we see the germ of that revolutionary temsuch an intense interest as that with which pest which swept into one irresistible tide we have devoured the two remarkable vol- the otherwise conflicting elements of society. umes now before us. We have cheated our The Giant of Reaction, in his most grim and mind of its usual food, and our body of its savage form, summoned a patient and opusual rest, in order to grasp, by one mental pressed people to revolt, and with its scoreffort, the great truths which they teach, and pion lash hurried one sovereign to the scafimbibe the noble lessons which they convey. fold, and another into exile. Were we among the personal friends of Mr. But while we shudder over the recitals in Macaulay, or did we adopt the latitudinarian which these crimes are emblazoned, and views of religious truth which he has pre- , through which our liberties were secured, sented to us in all the fascination of language the mind searches for some powerful prinand of sentiment, we might have suspected ciple of action to which they can be referred. that our judgment was partial, and our ad- Why was the prince perfidious, the judge miration extravagant; but, though our Pres- sanguinary, and the priest corrupt ? It was byterian feelings have been often offended, because an idolatrous superstition reigned and our most venerated martyrs but slightly in Christendom—irritated at the progress of honored, and our national creed not unfre- Protestant truth—inculcating the heresy of quently reviled, yet these penumbral spots passive obedience to kings-exercising an disappear, while we study in his bright and authority over the souls and bodies of meneloquent pages the vindication of our coun- usurping the sceptre, and assuming the ertry's liberties,—the character and the fate of mine of the Church's Head-sealing the ark the sages who asserted them,—and the right- of divine truth, and closing or poisoning the eous but terrible doom of the Princes from fountains of education and knowledge. In whom they were wrung.

the lap of this superstition even Protestant There is no period of the history of Eng. England slumbered. Truth, secular and diland in which the events are so closely re- vine, bad indeed begun to throw its mingled lated to those of the present day as the few radiance among the ignorant and immoral years of oppression and judicial murder which masses of English life. It had long before constitute the reign of James II. In watch- gilded and braced the Scottish mind, and ing at present the revival of Popery, and in raised the Scottish heart to a sense of its resisting its insidious approach, we must duties and its wrongs. The noble doctrines study its spirit and its power previous to the of the school of Calvin, which Scripture Revolution; and in contemplating our domes- taught and philosophy confirmed, had been tic disturbances, and the political convulsions | accepted as the creed of Presbytery, and which are now shaking the civilized world, formed the basis of its simple discipline and we may discover their cause and their cure worship. Through the unity and power of by a careful study of Mr. Macaulay's vol- her faith, and the indomitable courage of her

In the arbitrary rule of the House of people, the Church of our fathers would have Stuart—in the perfidy and immorality of its maintained her ground against all the power princes—in the bigotry and licentiousness of of the Papacy, if wielded only by her doits priests—in the venality of its statesmen- | mestic princes; but the Union of the Crown


of Scotland with that of England, which in up in rank luxuriance—now budding under happier times has been the source of her the surplice—now bearing fruit under the glory and her strength, threw her back a mitre. The breath of a bigoted minister, or century in the race of civilization and know- the fiat of an unprincipled monarch, is alone ledge.

wanting to plant the poison-tree in our land, Ă despicable king, in carrying off its and renew the battle of faith which was Crown, forgot his duty to the land which waged and won by our fathers. gave him birth, striving to overturn its blood It is not probable that such a direct agency cemented Church, and launching against its will be employed, but there are crooked lines priesthood and its people the formidable of policy by which treason finds an easier and power of his double sovereignty. Her hum- a quicker path to its crimes. There may be ble temple fell beneath the sword of the ty- a minister, and there may be a parliament, rant, but only to rise again with a nobler so blind to religious truth, so ignorant of the pediment and a loftier peristyle. The same lessons which history has read to them, and godless princes who had desecrated our al- so reckless of the temporal and spiritual intars and slain our martyrs lifted their blood- terests which they control, as to supply with stained hand against the Sister Church; but the munitions of war the enemies of our they lifted it in vain, for their dynasty pe- faith, and thus arm a Catholic priesthood rished in the wreck of the superstition which against a Protestant shrine, and marshal a they upheld. Under a Protestant race of wild population against the peace and liberkings, and a Protestant constitution, the ties of the empire. Had we at the helm of sceptres of England and Scotland have been State some modern Orpheus, who could welded into one. Their Churches have charm with his lyre of gold the denizens of flourished and grown together—the one the moral wilderness, or some Indian sage rich and powerful--the other humble and who could cajole the poison-tooth from the contented. Their literature and science snake in the grass, we might expect by a their trade and their commerce—their arts stipendiary bribe to loose the Jesuit from his and their arms—have achieved throughout vows, or the priest from his allegiance; but the civilized world a glorious and imperish history proclaims to us, by a handwriting on able name.

We have now nothing to fear the wall, what the experience of the nation from perfidious and criminal sovereigns, from confirms, that every concession which truth unprincipled statesmen, from venal judges, makes to error is but a new buttress to supor from sanguinary chiefs. We have nothing port it, and that every shackle which tolerato fear from political turbulence. The pro- tion strikes from fanaticism, adds but to its gressive reform of our institutions, and their virulence and power. To our Roman Cathogradual accommodation to the ever-varying lic brethren we would cheerfully extend necessities of man, and the ever-changing every right and privilege which we ourselves phases of social life, can always be secured enjoy—to every civil and military office we by the moral energy of an educated and re would admit them—with every honorable disligious people. We have still less to fear | tinction we would adorn them. Whatever, infrom foreign invasion. The diffusion of know-deed, be his creed, we would welcome the ledge, and the local approximation and mu- wise man to our board, and we would clasp tual interests of nations, have exorcised the the good man to our bosom—some mospirit of war; and should it reappear, with dern Augustine if he exists—some living its iron vizor and its bloody drapery, we have Pascal if he is to be found — but we bulwarks of steel and of oak that may defy would never consent, even under the torturethe hostile levies of the world.

boot of James II., to pay out of the hard have much to fear from that gigantic super- earnings of Protestant toil the stipend of a stition which has so often erected the stake Catholic priest, or build his superstitious aland the scaffold in our land, and which is tar, or purchase the relics of his idolatry: again girding itself for the recovery of its We have no desire to support these views power. Crowds of its devotees have been by any arguments of our own. We are conlong stationing themselves in our towns and tent to refer our readers to the truth-speakvillages. Idolatrous altars are rising thick ing and heart-stirring pages of Mr. Macaulay. around us.

The Upas seeds of Papal error, In his history of James II., every fact has but long concealed in the rubrics and liturgies of one meaning, every event but one tongue, a neighboring Church, have already begun and every mystery but one interpretation, to germinate—now hiding their blanched We here learn that with civil liberty Popery vegetation from the eye of day—now rising I cannot co-exist.—With Scripture truth it is

But we

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