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From the New Monthly Mag a zino.
JELLACHLICH, BAN OF CROATIA.
The Ban Jellachlich ! the
most dangerous frontiers, against the still plunges us into the midst of wild reminis more barbarous Turks. The “Ban" or cences, barbarous heroism, strange irregu " lord,” as the name signifies, is the third of lar grandeurs ! Sclavonic history is rich in the Hungarian barons of the empire, holds all these half savage, but fascinating glories. in his own land the rank of Palatine and preSee how they stride out before us, the two sides at the “ Bantafel,” or Ban council at Nicklas Zrinyi, the hero of Szigeth and his Agram, as the Hungarian Palatine at the descendants, Czerny Georg, leader of the royal council at Pesth. And high as is the Servians in their war for freedom, and a honor, it has been raised still higher by the whole host of others! The Ban !--the very great men, (some of whom have been just title is full of romantic mysticism. It is as noticed,) who have held it. Of these none if we heard that the Grand Master of the perhaps is even now more famous than the Teutonic Order or of the Swerdt-Brüder present bearer. And yet we are only at the was encamped before the Brandenburg gate first or at most at the second chapter of his at Berlin. We thought all these mediæval history. magnificences had disappeared under the Jellachlich is a Croat-a Croat to our ears peruques, Austrian as well as Prussian, of sounds something like Cossack. the eighteenth century. We knew of nothing We see a horde in the act of burning their more venerable than Frederick the Great's way through defenseless villages, or marchpig-tail and Kaiser Franz's jack-boots. But ing through towns from which their inhabitit seems all this not only lives, but lives very ants had fled, no grass growing where their energetically and effectively. People are horses' hoofs once had trod; famine before, beginning to ask not only what is a Ban, but and pestilence behind, more dangerous to who is the Ban? And both are very proper friend than foe, only a few massacres off from questions and well deserving to be answered, the exploits of the Turcoman and Tartar. as we hope to show before we have closed The leader of Croats, to keep Croats to
gether, must be the worst Croat of them all. A Ban is a very respectable and a very Jellachlich, as a sort of army-elected chief, real dignitary-something like our Lord could only have gained their hearts by much Warden of the Marches, or more resembling the same qualities as gave Alaric and Attila still, the old, not new. Italian Marchese, or their soldier sovereignties, daring, active, German Margraf, but somewhat higher than cunning, cruel; the more barbarian, the all these-a sort of Lord Lieutenant of Ire more likely to be successful.
Such certainly land, as he was wont to be in the times of has been very much the Magyar coloring of Henrys and Elizabeths, when he had Des- his portrait, and from old predilections in fainond insurrections to attend to--or in the vor of Magyars, partly owing to that magtime of Charles, when the Puritans of the nificent acclaim, “Moriamur pro Rege nostro North in fierce revolt against Charles repre- Mariâ Theresiâ,” and partly, we believe, to sented the Hungarians as the Catholics un their heroism, or at least heroic dress, we are der Ormonde for the moment, the Croats inclined to trust ourselves implicitly to their and Sclavonians. In olden times there were accuracy. Till lately, we candidly confess, many of these marches, or borders, or Ban we saw in the Ban little more than a stipenats, in the west and southwest provinces, diary of absolutism; hired by the Kaiser, until by successive absorptions they were re much as Goth or Dacian freebooter was duced to one, the united kingdom of Croatia, bired and converted into a patrician or conSclavonia, and Dalmatia, which held watch sul by the Cæsars of old to bring back, and ward for the Austrian empire, on its / when the empire was crumbling around
them, some rebellious fly-away kingdom to his age. When eight years old he was prea sense of unity and allegiance. The Scla- sented to the Emperor; Kasier Franz, struck vonic version is of course different; it comes by his intelligence and vivacity, took a parfrom the hand of an admirer. But there is ticular liking to the boy, and had him fortha third, wbich is neither Magyar nor Scla- with placed in the Theresian Academy, vonian, without favor as without hate. which, despite of its cloistral and even ascetic Many of the features in the following out- character, has, somehow or other, turned line come from one who stood near enough out, in both the military and civil departto see, but was clear enough from race-par- ments, some of the highest ornaments of the tialities to see rightly.
In this school, Jellachlich The Ban is an European prince, in the developed those powers for the acquisition of decent European sense of the word; equal languages, which at a later period evinced to any in refinement, above most in energy themselves in the facility with which he and genius. And it is a singular phenom spoke German, Italian, French, Magyar, and enon, not less attractive to the philosophic the several idioms of the Sclavonic. His historian than to the poet, the contrast predilections, however, were military. Miliwhich these broken-down monarchies pre- tary tactics, with their accompanying sciences, sent to the young democracies. The im- history, especially ancient, and modern literpulse of progress seems to have worked less ature, were his favorite studies. With these wonderfully, to have thrown up less mind, if he combined the usual corporeal exercises, more minds, than the despair of dissolution. and became an expert fencer, a good rider, What has come forth from the cauldrons of and a first-rate shot. France, Italy, and Prussia ? Yet Austria At the age of eighteen, his physical and has made a new Æson out of an old ; in her intellectual preparation being completed, be agony she has given birth to Radesky, Win- entered the army as sub-lieutenant in the disch-Grätz and Jellachlich.
dragoon regiment of his maternal grandJellachlich-to begin with the man him- uncle, the General of Cavalry and Vice-Ban self—is no Francesco Sforza, no Condotiere, of Croatia, the Baron Kneserich, of St. no bucaneer of fame. He is of a noble, Helena, then under the command of Colonel almost of a Ban family. Joseph Jellachlich, Olab von Nanas, and was sent to join whilst (Jellacic,) Baron Jellachlich de Buszin, is the it was still in garrison at Tarnow in Gallicia. eldest son of the Baron Franz Jellachlich de In this service he soon acquired the love Buszin, who, as retired field-marshal and and esteem of those around him. Just and proprietor of the 62d regiment of infantry, humane to his inferiors, true-learted to his now Turszky, died at Agram in the year equals, punctual and submissive to his supe1810. Of Croatian parents on both sides, riors, he was at once regarded in every reJoseph was born at Peterwardein, on the spect as an excellent officer. The Austrian 16th of October of the same year, on the an- army abounds in small societies, fraternities niversary of the birth of the celebrated “auf Noth und Tod;" they go far to mainCzerny Georg, thirty years before. In the tain that military spirit and good fellowship child, the characters of father and mother which still keeps the army together. He were blended ; under the latter, during the was their very soul. His gay and intrepid prolonged absence of his father in the French bearing, his wild and vigorous enjoyment of war, the earlier part of his education was life, his invincible good temper, bis sparkling passed, and from her gentle teaching were wit, fascinated and informed as with one drawn all those soft and kindly affections, spirit every circle in which he moved. Of that early passion for poetry, and devotion an iron constitution, he was last at the table to intellectual pursuits, which so mark him at night, first on horseback in the morning; out from his fellows; his indomitable activity, in every freak, in every exploit always forehis frank and firm spirit, his unaffected, dash- most. "And under all this, which so marked ing cheerfulness, he inherits from his father. the future free-chosen chief of a bold, advenIn his earliest infancy he was remarkable for turous people, he concealed sources of the the quickness of his perception, and the ac- purest and gentlest poetry, a soul melting curacy and tenacity of his memory; as years with tenderness, a spirit of devotion and rolled on, he gave indications of great pre- self-sacrifice, almost absolute, to his own. cision in all he applied to; already indications Though often in female society, he is said to were visible of that eloquence for which he have scarcely noticed the passions he awakhas since been distinguished. His self-con- ened; his whole being hung upon bis comtrol and presence of mind were far beyond |panions in arms, and the charities of his own
home. Over his mother and sister, of whom was a reckless rider. - On more than one he was early deprived, the latter in the full occasion horse and rider escaped from pit flush of youthful beauty, he still mourns; and morass by his presence of mind, or the to his two brothers, one, colonel in the Carl- timely aid of his companions. In the tumult stadt border regiment, the other Chef d'Es- of these wild expeditions it was that he comcadron in the dragoon regiment of the posed most of his war and soldier songs, and Archduke Franz Joseph, he was ever most in particular the “Garrison's-Lied,” or “Gardevotedly attached. But this somewhat dis- rison Song,” so well known and so heartily sipated life could not be continued long with sung through the whole of the Austrian impunity. After five years his vigorous con- army. A joyous chant it is, a biting satire stitution began to give way. He was at on the old antiquated martinet system of tacked with a serious illness, accompanied Austrian tactics, but withal full of right with much suffering : at any moment it good hope for the future, a hearty inspiriting might have terminated in sudden dissolution. cheer, like the call of a trumpet, to good Those who saw him at that period on his fellowship, brotherly union, and an honest bed of sickness, and possibly, as they then soldierly maintenance of military spirit and thought it, of death, speak with admiration discipline. of the unaltered composure, and almost de And now the French Revolution of July fying serenity with which he met the visita- broke out, and great was the bustle on every tion. And then, too, it was, that he com- side. In the apprehension of immediate war, posed most of his poems. They well preserve augmentations, advancements, promotions, a the temper of mind in which they were writ- general stir showed itself through the whole ten. They breathe the daring and lofty as- empire. Jellachlich profited with the rest. pirations of a young, unsatisfied mind after a Through the patronage of the then new Prenobler future, bitter sighs over his abruptly sident of the Council of War, Baron Von broken existence, and a thirst and hunger Radossevich, an old and grateful friend of for the energetic and useful in deed and his father's, he was promoted to the rank of word : should Providence vouchsafe him an captain-lieutenant in one of the Hulan border hereafter. And so it happened ; Provi- regiments. The separation from his old dence proved merciful. In 1825 he began fellow-officers was on both sides a severe gradually to recover; his convalescence soon trial. Nor to this day is it forgotten. proceeded rapidly ; before the year was over Eighteen years have now passed, but the he was enabled to rejoin his regiment, then evidences of his attachment are as strong as quartered at Vienna. It would be difficult ever; whilst he is now, as always, their to describe the joy, the jubilee with which favorite. His “Garrison's-Lied” they claim he was received by his fellow officers. He as their especial property; no joyous occawas at once chosen by Major General Baron sion is ever allowed to pass without thunderGeramb as his adjutant of brigade, and so ing it out, as of old, in hearty chorus. Nor serviceable did he render himself in this ca was this confined to them; he soon added pacity, that on his regiment moving under new friends to old; everywhere loved as soon Colonel Count St. Quentin for Poland, he as known, he succeeded in winning, as no was retained in the capital, nor allowed to other officer had yet done, the sympathy of follow till a year after.
the entire army. In the beginning of 1837, When once more among his old comrades, Jellachlich advanced another step. We find he resumed all his old habits; he was the him major of the Gollner regiment of inbeginning, middle, and end of all proceed- fantry, now the regiment of the Archduke ings. Jellachlich was everywhere in demand ; Ernest
, and adjutant general to Count Vetter nothing could be thought of, nothing done of Lilienberg, then military governor of Dalwithout Jellachlich. No one more precise, matia. or even pedantie, in the performance of his From this period forth we must look on military duties ; but no sooner was the sabre Jellachlich as a new man; the turbulence of thrown aside, than he was sure to be found his youth began to settle down; he gradually at the head of his fellow-officers, in some assumed the more earnest passions of mandesperate chase, through thick and thin, hood. In his new situation, and under the night and rain, after amusement. After guidance of his gifted chief, he applied himpassing a joyous day in the stations near, he self with eagerness to the study of the and his detachment were often in the habit character and position of Dalmatia ; a poor of riding back miles together, to be in time province, but to Austria of incalculable imfor the parade of the morning. Jellachlich | portance, as was well seen by the sagacity
of Napoleon. On the death of Lilienberg, | ticipation. A Magyar ascendency was esJellachlich, with the rank of lieutenant tablished; not in the sense of the common colonel, was appointed to the first Border interests of Hungary, but of those of a facregiment of the Banat, and in 1842 took its tion in Hungary : like all factions, unjust and command as colonel. At the head of this unwise, it claimed all for itself, and would distinguished corps he repelled the incursions share nothing with its fellow-subjects and of the Bosnians, and by his courage and judg- fellow-countrymen, the Sclavonic races of ment at the affair at Posvid, gave already Croatia and Dalmatia. There was no excuse promise of his future military glory. for this. These races in number are superior
But military glory and talent were only to the Magyar, nor was there any other means to an end. Jellachlich was soon to ground more tenable to justify such assumpappear in a higher position and character tion. In a mere brute conqueror such course than that of a mere successful commander. might have been consistent; in men who
The revolution of March, 1848, opened demanded rights for themselves, who justified altogether a new era to the Austrian empire. their efforts for separation on the ground of Rights, which had been well won by many a these rights, who went so far as to attempt bloody and prolonged war, long claimed and to enforce them against Austria in favor of long promised to a devoted people, were at Italy, it was an absurd and unendurable length conceded, when they could no longer atrocity. It will best be understood by Engbe refused, to all his states by the Emperor lish readers by referring to similar hypocrisies Ferdinand. In the time, in the manner in in Irish history; to that cry of the Irish Prowhich these concessions were made, there testant Parliament of 1782' for independence were many elements of confusion. The from England, in the name of Ireland, at the court was reluctant, the people distrustful. same time that they were disdainfully shutThere had been a long inward struggle, un- ting out a large portion of Irishmen, the der outward appearances of stagnation, not whole of the great Catholic masses, from its merely between sovereign and subject, but, enjoyment; clamoring for a free constitution, as it is now known, between court and cabi as if a constitution for a party, and not for a net. Even Metternich, behind the country, country, could by any possibility be free. was far in advance of the Camarilla. For Whilst in connection with Austria, as a some time past, at least wise, if not liberal, dependent member of the empire, as one he saw, and warned, and would have effected only of the three united kingdoms, this as he had advised, many changes, as indis- monopolizing and excluding policy was hardpensable as they were just, not so much ly practicable. To leave full range for the through love of reform as through fear of injustice, the Magyar must, in the first inrevolution. No wonder then that with this stance, be left to himself. To oppress
Sclavconsciousness—nations in these moments and ism there must be no monitor German or matters have a sort of instinct—Hungary Tzeckian ; no empire, no head, to control or should have endeavored to secure, beyond command. Hence, as the obvious prelimithe contingency of a reaction, her own nary, separation from Vienna became necesliberties, and, as the most effectual mode, sary, not so much from hostility to the Kaiser, should have resolved to separate from the as through detestation of the fellow-subject empire, and to set up for herself. Not so Sclave. Not equality or freedom, but right Croatia-her object was the same as that of to rule, and not be ruled, was their demand. Hungary, but the means sound policy pointed And there soon could be no mistake about out for its attainment widely different. Had the means. Short only of a state of open Hungary been an homogeneous community, revolt to her still recognized king was the with no antagonism of language, race, and condition of Hungary from the month of religion, the course for each of the three April on. She sent her ambassadors to states which compose her kingdom ought in Vienna, and later to Frankfort, as if altopolicy and patriotism to have been the same.gether to a foreign power; she claimed the But such is not the case; and here, as else- right of raising and disposing of her own where, the results, naturally flowing from troops, bound not by the general but special such diversity, have followed. Apprehension Hungarian oath ; she used every effort to of the future, resentment for the past, soon divert from their allegiance troops till then produced a total opposition of thought and devoted to the emperor; she expressed her action. The possessors of power feared to sympathies openly and unequivocally with share their power; the excluded from power the 'insurgents of Italy; she recalled her claimed and proceeded to enforce its par- 1 regiments from Lombardy, and refused all
further aid for the continuance of the war; | perilous. He was called on to master and she repudiated all share in the imperial debt, guide it. Thereby only could the rights of all joining in the imperial contributions, all his own race, religion, and land be vindicated, help of blood or money, were the monar the rights and power
of the emperor mainchy itself thereby to fall to pieces ;"' in a tained, the freedom, with the order of the word, in terms as plain as deeds could speak whole community consolidated. “My lot,” it, she declared her fixed determination to says he, writing confidentially at this time to have nothing henceforward in common with a friend, “is cast. I take the straightforthe empire. In this emergency Croatia saw ward path, the frank and open course; if I herself a serf still, in a free country, involved stand, well; if I fall, I fall as a soldier, a in a life and death struggle for right and patriot, and a faithful servant of my emperor equality, in a furious contest for home and and lord !" altar-the worst of all civil wars. Aid had But this was no easy task; to master the she none against the menaced wrong, but in movement, it was first necessary to master her own right arm and the protection of the the sympathies of his countrymen, to peneempire, which, however weak it might be trate himself with the fullness of Sclave against all, was all-powerful against each. nationality, to seize and wield the common To the empire, then, and to its head she heart. But this he sought not by blind flew. The emperor and the monarchy, one fanaticism to the phantom of Pansclavism, as and undivided, was her battle-cry along the the German papers have asserted, nor by whole of her borders, a cry which burst the servile submission to the pretensions of the bonds which for 800 years had bound South Czar, its assumed head, as was echoed from Sclavonia to Hungary, and let loose on that the Tribune of Pesth to the Aula of Vienna, devoted land, against the will and in despite still less by any miserable coqueiry for a of the remonstrances of Croatia herself, the momentary popularity with all parties. Jelwild hordes of the Raizes and Servians. lachlich was the idol of his nation, but his
It was at this moment, pregnant with the secret was simple and honest. He was so destinies of their country and the integrity by force of character and virtues; he was of the monarchy, that a Croatian deputation so because quick and bold in the hour of arrived at Vienna. They came to lay at the danger; with iron hand he seized and worked foot of the throne the expression of their the rudder of the state, and over surf and fears-of their devotedness. They pledged rock bore the laboring vessel gallantly and “Gut” and “Blut" for the maintenance of safely into port. Indefatigable, universal, the Imperial crown, the union of the empire. everywhere present, and on every emergency, But they implored the emperor to give them haranguing the people, admonishing the means and opportunity to redeem this pledge. authorities, adjuring the clergy, in the street, They prayed him to place at their head a at the council, from the altar, praising and chief who could lead them, and whom they punishing, conciliating and organizing, he would follow. They solicited him to nominate was the very man for the times, as the times a man equal to the emergency, to appoint as were the very times for him. Nothing distheir Ban the Colonel Joseph Jellachlich. couraged him; nothing daunted him. He
The emperor was not insensible to the met the popular tumult and the enemy's dangers which were fast gathering around charge with the same boldness, the same him, and sympathized in their apprehension composure. A turbulent meeting had just and resentment at the proceedings in Hun disputed some of his orders; he entered it gary. Ile granted the prayer. Jellachlich without notice or attendants; the murmurs, was appointed Ban of the three united king- every moment growing louder, rang along doms, and in a few days after covered with the benches, till at last one who seemed to honors. He was successively created privy act as spokesman for the others, relying on counsellor, field-marshal, proprietor of two their numbers stepped forward and exclaimed, regiments, and general commandant-in-chief “No! though at the head of ten thousand of the Banat, Waradin, and Carlstadt dis bayonets thou shalt never intimidate us.” tricts.
Jellachlich struck his sabre calmly aside, The new Ban at once comprehended the and repliedweight and responsibility of his position. “And without arms, the Ban keeps order They were not ordinary times; it was not an and quiet in the land.” ideal dignity. A great Sclavonic movement The resistance of the crowd was changed had begun; not volunteered, but provoked, into admiration ; enthusiastic “ Zivios !” burst therefore more likely to be passionate and forth from every side.