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you should.

This he expresses boldly—“But let both, how it was with Lady Macbeth, what she worlds disjoint and all things suffer, ere we thought, what she suffered, what she feared will eat our meat in fear.' Further than in time and in eternity, before her mind bethis the pestilence of selfishness could not came completely unhinged under the dread spread its infection. Lady Macbeth is here visitation of insanity. We behold her no beginning to lose her influence. She does more on the stage as a woman; for when not share all her husband's thoughts. When she appears in her night-clothes, washing moody, he retires from her, finding possibly the imaginary stains of blood from her hands, that her beauty brought him no comfort. or bearing the taper which her senses needed There existed a consciousness between them not, she is little better than a corpse endued which acted like the contrary of attraction. with the power of utterance. They read the record of their guilt in each other's faces.

Doctor.-I bave two niglıts watched with The last scene but one in which Lady When was it she last walked ?

you, but can perceive no truth in your report, Macbeth appears to us in person is at the Gentlewoman.-Since his majesty went into banquet, where she is surrounded by lords the field, I have seen her rise from her bed, throw and thanes, but has no female companion or her night-gown upon her, unlock her closet, take attendant. Are we from this to understand forth paper, fold it, write upon it, read it, and that she scorned the society of women—that afterwards seal it, and again return to bed: yet ambition had so far unsexed her that she had all this while in a most fast sleep. no relish for anything but politics and in receive at once the benefit of sleep, and do the

Doctor.-A great perturbation in nature ! to trigues of state ? Nowhere, however, does effects of watching.– In this slumbrous agitation, she show to greater advantage than at this besides her walking, and other actual performbanquet. She beholds her husband disturbed ances, what, at any time, have you beard her by supernatural agencies; but her spirit say? never quails for an instant. Nothing daunts « Gentlewoman.—That, sir, which I will not reher. When the whole court is disturbed by port after her. the king's vagaries—when suspicion and fear

Doctor.—You may, to me; and 'uis most fit look through every man's eyes—when she * Gentlewoman.—Neither to you, nor any one ; hears Macbeth holding discourse with an in- having no witness to confirm my speech. visible substance—she preserves the unshak * Enter LADY MACBETH, with a taper. en serenity of her mind, and the ruby on her Lo you, here she comes! This is her very guise; cheek is never blanched for an instant. She and, upon my life, fast asleep. Observe her; exhibits the ne plus ultra of self-possession-stand close.

Doctor.—How came she by that light? the proud dignity which springs not from

Gentlewoman.- Why, it stood by her; she place, or birth, or station, but from the indi- has light by her continually ; 'tis her command. vidual character. She was born to rule, Doctor.--You see, her

eyes are open. because superior to all around her; though Gentlewoman.—Ay, but their sense is shut. crime had cast a blot on her 'scutcheon. “ Doctor.- What is it she does now ? Look When the guests retire, we expect to hear how she rubs her hands. her chide Macbeth, but pity for his infirm

Gentlewoman.--It is an accustomed action ities subdues her anger, and she only bids known her continue in this a quarter of an hour.

with her, to seem thus washing her hands; I have him go sleep and forget it. I may here re

Lady M.-Yet here's a spot. mark that, with all Shakspeare's genius, he Docior.--Hark, she speaks: I will set down fails to impart life to the courtiers of Mac- what comes from her to satisfy my remenibrance beth, who in this scene appear like so many the more strongly. automatons. The king and his wife fill the

Lady M.-Out, damned spot! out, I say ! scene, as it were, and throw every one who One ; two; why, then 'tis time to do 't — Hell approaches them into shadow. The effect afear’d? What need we fear who knows it,

is murky!- Fy, my lord, fy! a soldier and might have been more powerful had the re

when none can call our power to account ?—Yet ality of a banquet been presented to our who would have thought the old man to have had minds. Before the murder and the spectre so much blood in him ?

* Doctor.--Do you mark that ? seem almost deprived of the power of speech, and do not even whisper aside to each other. Where is she now ?—What, will these bands Some critics may defend this, or even dis- ne'er be clean ?—No more o' that, my lord, no cover perfection in it, but to me it appears a

more o' that; you mar all with this starting.

Doctor.-Go to, go to; you have known what defect.

you should not. Our imagination is now left to conjecture Gentlewoman. She has spoke what she


his grave.

should not, I am sure of that; Heaven knows | sang-froid, he begins to moralize, but during what she has known.

his speech suffers it distinctly to appear that “ Lady M.—Here's the smell of blood still : all he considers the play of life over for him. the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little Hearing a shriek of women from the inner hand. Oh! oh! oh!

" Doctor.--What a sigh is there! The heart apartments, he asks— is sorely charged. 6. Genulecomun.--I would not have such a heart

“ Wherefore was that cry ? in my bosom for the dignity of the whole body. Seyton.--The

queen, my lord, is dead. Doctor.–Well, well, well

Macbeth.-She should have died hereafter ; “ Gentlewoman.-'Pray God it be, sir.

There would have been a time for such a word.-Doctor. This disease is beyond my practice: To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow, Yet I have known those who have walked in their Creeps in his petty pace from day to day, sleep, who have died holily in their beds. To the last syllable of recorded time;

Lady M.-Wash your hands, put on your And all our yesterdays have lighted fools night-gown : look not so pale :-1 tell you yet The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle ! again, Banquo's buried; he cannot come out of Life's but a walking shadow; a poor player,

That struts and frets his hour upon the stage, " Doctor.--Even so ?

And then is heard no more: it is a tale Lady M.—To bed, to bed; there's knocking Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, at the door. Come, come, come, come, give me Signifying nothing." your hand: What's done, cannot be undone : To bed, to bed, to bed.

(Erit Lady M.) Doctor.- Foul whisperings are abroad : Un- Malcolm, Shakspeare insinuates that Lady

Afterwards, through the intervention of natural deeds Do breed unnatural troubles : Infected minds

Macbeth had laid violent hands on herself

, To their deaf pillows will discharge their secrets. and was her own executioner. Thus this imMore needs she the divine than the physician. petuous and fiery spirit, once so full of hope God, God, forgive us all! Look after her; and ambition, degenerates, under the corRemove from her the means of all annoyance, roding influence of remorse, into a species of And still keep eyes upon her:-So, good night; idiocy, and is ultimately quenched in suicide My mind she has mated, and amazed my sight; I think, but dare not speak.

-an instructive, but appalling lesson ! * Gentlewoman.--Good night, good doctor.

Throughout this play, more, perhaps, than (Exeunt.)” | in any other, not exoepting even “ · Hamlet,”

we obtain glimpses of a philosophy which, This whole scene is full of extraordinary on some future occasion, I may develop. An suggestions. When Macbeth, engaged in idea which forms one link in the chain occurs preparations for civil strife, had ceased to be in Banquo's speech to Fleance :-constantly by her side, her power of self-dependence would seem to have broken down Banquo.-Hold, take my sword. — There's immediately. She could not sleep without their candles are all out. —Take thee that too.

husbandry in heaven, a light in her bedroom, and the overwrought

[Giving his dagger. mind put the body in motion even after the A heavy summons lies like lead upon me, senses had yielded to the ordinary influence And yet I would not sleep. Merciful powers ! of sleep. I have known of a similar case, in Restrain me in the cursed thoughts that nature which a lady, who had contributed to her Gives way to in repose ! -Give me my sword !” husband's death, could never sleep without persons in the room with her. She had con Steevens has a note on the passage which sequently a relay of maids, who, when her indicates a finer perception than he usually husband was away, sat up in turn at her displays, though he does not seem to have bed-side, and these she would often terrify observed all that Shakspeare intends to exby waking suddenly with sharp screams, and press. Banquo says he is afraid to sleep, in convulsive muscular agony. Her seducer, because in that state he has to struggle with with whom she lived, died before her, and those tempters of the night, mentioned again the interval between his death and her own in “Cymbeline,” which prompt him to murwas one terrific display of the power of con ders, such, perhaps, as that of Duncan and science.

Macbeth. These are the evil spirits that When Macbeth is hemmed round by ene tend on mortal thoughts, and are gifted with mies in his castle of Dunsinane, he is startled the power to try men sleeping or waking, by a cry of women from the inner chambers. though they succeed only with those who He inquires what it signifies, and is told the wilfully entertain their suggestions. Milton queen is dead ; upon which, with affected represents Satan at the ear of Eve pouring

disturbing dreams into her soul, and Shak- | impartial rays over palace and hovel, on the speare would seem to insinuate that the same pure spring and on the fetid pool, and conevil intelligences which assumed the shape of tract no pollution by the process; and he weird sisters on the blasted heath came in- endeavored to make his fancy imitate the visibly to Banquo in his sleep to excite him Titan, and range over the whole face of earth to crime.

and society, without succumbing to the evil This leads me to make, ere I conclude, influences of either. No man's writings another observation. All readers must have make us so completely feel, that the little felt, that one of the most peculiar and pow-circle in which we move in this world, is erful charms of Shakspeare's poetry lies in encompassed by another, invisible but not the communication which his soul appears to unfelt. With him, we occasionally walk out be carrying on before us with the invisible of reality into this sphere of dreams and world. No other writer, if we except, per- visions, spectres and apparitions, and all that haps, Plato, scems to be so completely im- spiritual machinery by which the thoughts bued with spirituality. He threw up the of some men are moulded, as it were, into pinnacles of ihe material universe, till they greatness, and impressed with the image and touched the spiritual, and effected, as it were, superscription of God. I find, consequently, a mingling of the two worlds. His imagery more religion in him than in a thousand appears often to be bathed in supernatural homilies. His spirit, every now and then, light, and to glitter with the dew of heaven. treads the empyrean, whither also those who Even natural agencies assume, at his bidding, habitually converse with him must ascend. metaphysical qualities, and claim affinity with His mind was as limitless as the universe. celestial things. Nor is there in this any in- He knew not what he believed, because he consistency with what we find elsewhere in knew not what was possible, but had a faith his writings, where he throws the splendor of as boundless as omnipotence. He felt that, his genius over gross and offensive images, in this only, it is given to man to equal his which, in themselves, would be revolting. Creator, in that he can believe whatever he In him they seem to be introduced, because can do. This divine principle accordingly they are in nature; and because he thought pervades the whole works of Shakspeare, it perhaps no sin to speak of anything which who, of all men, past or present, is perhaps God has made. He saw the sun shine with I the furthest from a skeptic.

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From the North British Review.


Memoirs and Correspondence of Viscount Castlereagh, second Marquess of Londonder

ry. Edited by his brother, Charles Vane, Marquess of Londonderry, G.C.B., &c. London: 1848.

The present circumstances of Ireland have , lature has consented to bury in darkness the attracted our attention to the documents con crimes of rebellion, is it too much that rebels, tained in the "Memoirs and Correspondence after twenty years, should forgive the crime of Lord Castlereagh.” The amount of posi- of being forgiven ?" Without imputing to tive information, in any true sense new to the Tone, and M’Nevin, and such writers, any depublic, is far less than we had anticipated. sire to falsify the real facts of the case, and Much, however, that had been floating about while forming our notion of the scenes in unfixed is here authenticated or disproved. A which, very much from their own accounts, good deal that had been misrepresented is it is plain that they had not the means of corrected, or the means of correction supplied. knowledge which would enable them to repThe activity of those who war against the es resent truly either the motives or the acts of tablished institutions of society is sustained by the Government. Of the crimes of the leadan untiring impulse. Those who are satisfied ers of the Irish insurrections of 1798 and with things as they are, or contemplate im- | 1803, we think it impossible to form an exprovements in institutions chiefly as the result aggerated estimate, as whatever be the real of the improvement of those by whom they or supposed wrongs which armed resistance are administered, are impatient of the dog would redress, no wrong can be so great—no matic and disputative spirit when it is disposed evil so hopelessly intolerable, as the disturbto disturb our enjoyments by vindications ance of the settled order of society. A nawhich, however well-meant, we feel to be un- tion must be all but unanimous to justify Revnecessary and intrusive--and thus the voice olution. of assailants will for a while win an unde The strong opposition with which the served triumph. The character of Lord Cas measure of a legislative union with Great tlereagh has suffered more from these causes Britain was regarded at the time by the than that of any other public man of our weaker island, and the continued agitation times. The object of Lord Londonderry's for its repeal, kept alive a feeling of resentpublication is, by such documents as he pos- ment against the chief instruments in carrysesses illustrative of Lord Castlereagh's offi- ing it out, and to this we owe the remarkable cial life, to place his brother's character in a fact, that to this hour it is difficult to form true light.

any distinct notion of the character of Lord The history of the earliest period of Castle Castlereagh or Lord Clare. If the family of reagh's life was more frequently brought be Lord Clare possess the means of bringing the fore the public in accounts of the Irish Re- history of that remarkable man before the pubbellion by the families of the defeated party lic, or if even the few fugitive pamphlets in than in any other way, and their language which his speeches, during the period in was naturally colored by their feelings. which he swayed the destinies of Ireland, When Lord Castlereagh was taunted in 1817 were printed, could be collected and publishas the perpetrator of savage cruelties, in the ed with such notes as, after an interval of Irish Rebellion of 1798, cruelties utterly alien fifty years, are necessary to render them fully to his nature, and which in point of actual intelligible, something would be done for the fact, he was the chief person to terminate, history of the country that in a few years Mr. Canning indignantly asked, “ If the Legis- I will be impossible. Mr. Wills in his Lives of

Distinguished Irishmen-Mr. Grattan in the derry when he undertook this voluminous Memoirs of his father—Mr. Madden in his compilation, which, if continued on anything Life of Emmet—and the author of The like the scale on which it has been commenced, Gallery of Illustrious Irishmen," in the Dub must, we should think, reach some twentylin University Magazine, have each preserved five or thirty volumes. Four are devoted to many traits of the Irish Chancellor's charac- the time of his brother's Irish Secretaryship; ter. But what we want and wish are his own the two first of which (the Part now publishspeeches and letters-anything actually and ed) relate to the years 1798 and 1799. entirely his own. Differing with him in The work

opens with a biographical me. many things-agreeing with him perhaps in moir. We omit the links which connect the nothing, we feel in all that we have seen of Londonderry Stewarts with the kings of him the stamp of indomitable power—a man Scotland, and descend at once from the whose image should not be lost. With re- heights on which Lord Londonderry would spect to Lord Castlereagh, it is to be regret- place us to Robert Stewart who represented ted that the delay of bringing his biography the county of Down in the Irish Parliament, before the public has occasioned irreparable and who was the first Marquess of Londonloss. Lord Londonderry, who himself writes derry. Robert was twice married ; first to a memoir of his brother prefixed to these Frances, second daughter of Lord Hertford ; volumes, tells us, that after a communication of this marriage Lord Castlereagh was the with Sir Walter Scott, whom he wished to only surviving issue. His second wife, sister engage in the task, a series of private letters, of Lord Camden, was the mother of our auextending over twenty-five years, was con thor. fided to the care of the late Dr. Turner, Robert, our hero, was born in 1769. He bishop of Calcutta. The vessel that sailed received his early education at Armagh; for India with the bishop's effects was lost, and and, at seventeen, was entered of St. John's in it the letters of Lord Castlereagh, and, we College, Cambridge. He appears to have presume, other materials collected to illus- remained there but a year, or a year and a trate his life. His official correspondence was half. His tutor, writing to Lord Londonscarcely more fortunate. The executors of derry in 1840, describes him as remarkably Lord Castlereagh (we call him throughout by successful in his college examinations. At the name by which he will be remembered in his third half-yearly examination, the last history) thought the papers might be public which he passed, "he was first in the first property, and claimed as such by the Gov class.” After leaving college, he made the ernment. For the purpose of releasing them- Grand Tour; and on his return, commenced selves from responsibility, they placed them political life by a successful contest against under the control of the Court of Chancery, the Downshire family for the representation from which, after long delays, and what Lord of the county of Down. At the hustings he Londonderry describes as "the highly honor- gave a pledge to support Reform. This able and straightforward conduct of Lord was in 1790. When, in 1793, the Catholics Palmerston,” a great mass of papers, public were admitted to the elective franchise, he and private, were delivered to him. “On said, that he thought this a sufficient Reexamination of the documents,” he adds, “I form. regret to say that I discovered


chasms and losses." In short, anything that any one “For a few sessions he voted generally with the for any purpose might wish concealed, is not Opposition. However, the turbulent development to be found in the volumes now before us.

of the state of Ireland rendered it necessary for We do not believe that a single new fact, with him to come to more decided conclusions.' Acreference to any one concerned either in the

cordingly, when the system of strong measures

was adopted by the Irish Administration, in order suppression of the rebellion or the furtherance

to silence rebellion by terror, or extinguish it by of the legislative union, is communicated. severity, we find Lord Castlereagh among the There is nothing that throws any light on the warmest of its supporters.”—Vol. i. p. 9. secret history of either. The correspondence is the correspondence of the Irish secretary's Lord Londonderry passes rapidly over his office, after every document of any peculiar brother's public life in Ireland, leaving the interest has been withdrawn. Many of the documents given in his volumes to speak for letters cannot even be regarded as the letters themselves. When Lord Camden succeeded of the persons whose names are officially at- Earl Fitzwilliam as Viceroy, with Pelham as tached to them. The passion of authorship Chief Secretary, an incautious or intemperate must have been strong with Lord London- speech of Pelham's in the House of Com

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