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booksellers; and the lexicographer engaged , ed the most perfect pattern of the Chrisa house in Gough-square, where, with the tian virtues ; should, in the close of life, beassistance of six amanuenses, he proceeded tray dreadful apprehensions of death. By rapidly in the execution of his plan. This degrees, indeed, the terrors which his imagigreat work, so honorable to the talents of nation had painted to itself, disappeared. the author, appeared, May, 1755, in 2 vols. Johnson expired on the 13th Dec., 1784, full without a patron. Lord Chesterfield, who of resignation, strong in faith, and joyful in had at first favored the undertaking, but had hope of a happy resurrection. His works afterwards neglected the author, endeavored, are very numerous, and all respectable. by a flattering recommendation of the work in “the World,” to reconcile himself to his Opposite Johnson, sits Sir Joshua REYgood opinion ; but Johnson, with noble in-nolds, eminent as an artist, and man of cultidignation, spurned at the mean artifice of his vated taste and literary zeal. He was born in courtly patron; and his celebrated letter re- 1723, at Plympton, where his father, a clerflected, with independent spirit and in severe gyman, was master of the grammar school. language, against his selfish and ambitious He had very early a strong partiality for views. In 1749 the Irene had been brought painting ; but being intended for the church, forward on the stage, by the friendship of he was sent to Oxford, where he took the Garrick, but with no success. The Rambler degree of bachelor of arts. Nothing, howwas undertaken 20th of March, 1750, and till ever, seemed so congenial to his taste as the 17th March, 1752, when it ceased, a pa- painting, and his father indulged him, and per had regularly appeared every Tuesday placed him in London under the care of Hud. and Saturday; and it is remarkable that son, after which, about 1749, he travelled during the whole of that time, only five num into Italy. His first production which atbers were contributed by other authors. tracted notice, was a portrait of his friend But these publications, popular as they were, Keppel, and other pieces equally correct, and still left Johnson in distressed circumstan- equally finished, continued to command the ces; and in 1756, the year after the publishing public attention, and to rank him among the of his dictionary, he was arrested for a debt greatest artists of the age. But not only as of five guineas, from which the kindness of a painter the name of Reynolds must stand Richardson relieved him. In 1758 he began respectable, but also as a literary character, the Idler, and continued it for two years with and as the active promoter of the literary club, little assistance; and on the death of his which was established in 1764, and which mother in 1759, that he might pay some de had among its illustrious members the names cent respect to her funeral, and discharge of Johnson, Burke, Garrick, Douglas, Goldher debts, he wrote his Rasselas, and ob-smith, the Whartons, Windham, &c. In the tained for it, from the booksellers, the sum of academic lectures which he delivered, Sir £100. Happily, however, these high services Joshua displayed not only great taste and a to literature were not to pass unrewarded : perfect acquaintance with his profession, but in 1762 he was honorably presented by the strong powers of language, sound judgment, king, on the representation of Mr. Wedder- an elegant style and luminous order. burne, with a pension of £300 per annum without a stipulation af future exertions, but Next is Edmund Burke, the splendid oramerely, as the grant expressed it, for the tor, and comprehensive statesman. moral tendency of his writings, a character born in Ireland, in 1730. His first acto which his Rambler was most fully entitled. knowledged work, which was of course pubIn 1777, he began his Lives of the Poets, lished anonymously, was his Vindication of which he finished in 1781, a work of great Natural Society ; an admirable imitation of merit, and which exhibits, in the most Lord Bolingbroke's style and manner of pleasing manner, the soundness of the critic, reasoning, which deceived even

some of the information of the biographer, and the best judges. This was followed in the benevolent views of the man. In a few 1757, by his Essay on the Sublime and years of gigantic labors, he found his health Beautiful. His career as an orator, one of gradually declining, from the united attacks the most brilliant in modern history, comof the dropsy and of an asthma. It is menced with his introduction into Parliament. remakable, that Johnson, whose pen was His speeches were numerous and always ever employed in recommending piety, and great." He died on the 8th of July, 1797. all the offices of the purest morality; and His compositions have been collected in sixwhose conduct and example in life exhibit teen volumes octavo. In private life Burke was

He was

amiable and benevolent; in public, indefati- tained a pension. On the breaking out of gable, ardent, and abhorrent of meanness the French revolution, he returned to Corsica, and injustice. It was this latter quality and prevailed upon his countrymen to submit which made him a persevering advocate of to the English government, after which he the Irish Catholics. As an orator he ranks returned to London, and died in 1807. among the first of modern times ; and as a writer, whether we consider the splendor of his diction, the richness and variety of his literary character, was born at Shrewsbury,

CHARLES BURNEY, a doctor of music, and imagery, or the boundless stores of knowl- in 1726, and studied music under Dr. Arne. edge which he displays, it must be acknowl; He died in 1814, at Chelsea Hospital, of edged that there are few who equal, and which he was organist

. Besides many musical none who transcend him.

compositions, he produced several works,

one of the chief of which is, a Life of MetasDavid GARRICK, the illustrious actor, was

tasio, in three volumes. born in 1716. He was educated at Litchfield school, but was more attached to theatrical pursuits than io learning, so that he acted

The Marquis of Wharton was one of the with his fellow pupils the play of “ the Re- members of the circle of which Burke, Garcruiting Officer,” and supported himself the rick and Johnson were the chief lights. He

was an enthusiastic lover of literature, though character of Sergeant Kite. He went afterwards to reside with his uncle, a wine mer

not distinguished for talents or labors. He was chant at Lisbon, but soon returned to Litch

a zealous politician, and a steadfast friend. field school, and after being six months the pupil and companion of Dr. Johnson, he ac GOLDSMITII, the celebrated poet and miscompanied him to London, in 1735. The cellaneous writer, was the son of a clergypowers with which nature had endowed him man; was born, in 1731, in Ireland ; and were fostered and improved by the conversa was educated at the universities of Dublin, tion and company of the most popular actors, Edinburgh, and Leyden, with a view to his but Garrick, still diffident, flew from a London adopting the medical profession. Leyden, audience to Ipswich, where in 1741, he per- however, he quitted abruptly, with no money formed the part of Aboan in Oroonoko, un and a single shirt in his pocket, and wanderder the assumed name of Lyddal. His ef- ed over a considerable part of Europe. Duforts were received with repeated and in- ring his peregrinations he was sometimes increasing applause, and thus flushed with pro- debted to his German flute for procuring vincial approbation, he came to Goodman's him a meal or a lodging from the peasants. Fields, and acted Richard III., October 19th, In 1759 appeared his first work, an Essay on 1741.' So superior were his abilities, and so the Present State of Polite Literature. His powerful their display, that the other thea- subsequent labors were multifarious ; for he tres were now left empty, and the house in soon gained an honorable popularity, and Goodman's Fields was daily crowded with all seems never to have been unemployed, but the beauty, the fashion, and the taste of the his want of economy kept him always emtown. Besides the display of his astonishing barrassed. Among his friends he numbered powers on the stage, Garrick merited the pub- Johnson, Burke, Garrick, and many other lic approbation as a writer. The Biographia eminent characters. As an author he stands Dramatica mentions not less than 38 of his high. His poetry, natural, melodious, affectplays, some of which were original, and some ing, and beautifully descriptive, finds an echo translations, besides a great number of pro- in every bosom; and his prose, often enlilogues, epilogues, songs, and elegies. vened with humor, and always adorned with

graces of a pure style, is among

the best Gen. Paoli was born in the Island of Cor- in our language. The Traveller abounds sica, in 1726. In his twenty-ninth year he with elegant and animated description, and was chosen generalissimo of Corsica, where as Dr. Johnson observed, no poem of greater he exerted himself in promoting such objects excellence has appeared since the days of as were best calculated to secure the inde- Pope. The Deserted Village exhibits beaupendence of the republic. The Genoese, ties peculiarly its own, and while the simple however, having made a transfer of the tale of indigent nature and suffering humaniisland to France, that power sent such an ty can interest and captivate the heart, so overwhelming force into it as compelled Paoli long will the lines of this correct poem conto seek an asylum in England, where he ob- tinue to be read and admired.

From the English Review.


The Protestant Reformation in France ; or, The History of the Hugonots, by the

Author of " Father Darcy,Emilia Wyndham,« Old Men's Tales, &c.

2 vols. Bentley. 1847. The History of the Popes in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, by LEOPOLD

Ranke. Translated from the German, by Walter Keating Kelly, Esq., B. A., of Trinity College, Dublin. 1 vol. Whittaker & Co.

The sixteenth century may be considered nots, after severe trials and several victories, as the opening of modern improvement in re were at last driven from the field. ligion, government and civilization; three In examining the characters presented to hundred years ago, the great states of the our view, the first which deserves our attention world presented a very different picture from is Catherine herself: with as much ambition as what we

see at present; but the seed Elizabeth, and with the same desire of persown by the invention of printing, and the sonal authority, she fell far short of her great diffusion of knowledge, was even then begin contemporary in the art of acquiring and rening to show itself as a vigorous plant, from taining power. Elizabeth had a certain object ; which future centuries were to reap

the ma

she was determined to advance the Reformaturer fruits. Our object in considering the tion, and to improve England, and by both works before us, is to examine the state of these means to increase her own power ; she religion in France at the period, and, from a chose her instruments judiciously, and as long short view of the prominent characters, to in as her ministers served her purpose, she quire into the reasons why France rejected never betrayed them or consulted their

opp0those truths, which England and other na nents. Catherine, however, was exactly the tions eagerly received.

reverse; she had no fixed principle, and no During the middle and end of the sixteenth definite object; “divide and govern" was her century, the two greatest countries of the motto; she was like the man in the Gospel, world were governed by women,-England out of whom the evil spirit was departed, by Queen Elizabeth, and France by Cathe "empty, swept, and garnished," and so ever rine de Medicis ; their reigns commenced ready for the occupancy of any power of about the same period, if we date Catherine's evil

, who should seize upon the first possesaccession from the death of her husband sion. Her love of pleasure was unbounded ; Henry II. in 1559, and consider her as the she invented side-saddles, to enable her to acreal ruler of the kingdom during the lives company her husband in hunting ; she deof her unfortunate sons, Francis II., Charles lighted in tournaments, processions, masqueIX., and Henry III. The history before usrades, and all the gaieties of a dissipated includes only the reigns of the two former of court. Her young ladies, about two hundred these princes, from 1559 to 1574, a period in number, called “the queen's daughters,' when events were crowded into a space al added much to the splendor of her train, most incredibly small; a violent persecution, and were a special object of her care : she three civil wars, several sieges, murders of attended to their education, chastised them if the chiefs on both sides, and the massacre of they displeased her, and was extremely strict St. Bartholomew, succeeded each other with in repressing scandalous conversation or wrifrightful rapidity. France became the arena tings. She considered herself a warrior as on which the world's great contending par well as a queen ; she attended several sieges, ties tried their strength ; liberty of conscience and loved to see a battle : when the English struggled for existence against papal tyranny reinforcements were allowed to enter Rouen, and the superstition of ages, and the Hugo- she got into a violent passion, and swore at

the French officers, saying, that had she councils of nations. The Cardinal of Lorraine, been in command it should not have happen- brother to the Duke of Guise, had returned ed; and that she had the courage, if not the from the Council of Trent with a full deterstrength of a man. Though a good French mination to uphold Catholicism; the duke woman (says Brantôme) she discouraged was the first warrior of his day, and though duelling. (Brantôme has written largely on so ignorant that he swore a New Testament duels, and is one of the best authorities on the could be worth nothing because it was only subject). “For,” he adds, “when one of a year printed, and our Lord died 1500 years my cousins challenged an officer, she sent ago, yet, as he said himself, he understood him to the Bastile; and suspecting that I the trade of chopping off heads, and that was was engaged as his second, she sent for me enough to give him the greatest inflence in a and reprimanded me severely, saying, that barbarous age. whatever excuse might be made for the folly With these men, the near relations of of a young man, there was none for me, as Francis II. and his beautiful bride, (the unbeing older I ought to have been wiser." fortunate Mary Queen of Scots,) nothing was But with all her physical courage, she was more easy than to obtain the ascendant over evidently deficient in moral courage; and a weak-minded and delicate boy of thirteen. for her cruelty she had not even the pretext Francis had attained his legal majority at of religious enthusiasm: after the battle of that age when some children are almost too Dreux, when the Hugonots were supposed young for a public school. The duke's habto have gained a victory, her only remark was, its of business were such, that he seldom “Then for the future we must say our pray- commanded his officers to do what could be ers in French."

done by himself; he was in the habit of exThe predominant party was of course Ro- amining the enemy's fortifications with his man Catholic ; these, represented by the Con own eyes, attending to the most minute destable de Montmorenci, the Duke of Guise, tails, and then sitting up during the whole and the Maréchal de St. André, who are night to write his own despatches : one of his known as the triumvirate, held possession of officers inquiring for him at the siege of Paris and the king's person. As Catherine Thronville, was told that he was writing ; he disliked all authority except her own, she replied by cursing his writings, and added, feared and hated these nobles; to check What a pity he was not brought up to be a their power she encouraged the Hugonots, clerk !” “ Well, Montluc,” said the duke, overat the head of whom were Anthony, king of hearing him, “ do you think I am the right Navarre, the father of Henry IV., his brother stuff to make a clerk ?" and then, coming the Prince of Condé, and the Admiral Coligny. out of his tent, he gave his orders with his These generally seemed Catherine's favor customary decision and authority. He was ites, except when they were in arms against killed by Poltrot, an assassin, at the siege of the king, yet this was the party afterwards Orleans, in 1563. While the Duke of Guise massacred by her orders. In order therefore was the pope's temporal agent, his brother to gain a true view of the times, we must the cardinal was no less useful in spiritual consider Catherine as vacillating in her matters ; like his brother, he had great talintentions, the creature of those around her, ent for business, and was besides an excelalways wishing to advance her own power, lent courtier and fluent speaker. He spared but never hesitating to take the advice of the no expense to have the earliest intelligence most depraved religionist who should promise from all parts of Christendom; and thus, by his her her object, even by the most unworthy paid agents, he enacted the part which Eugene

Let us recollect that the Roman Sue attributes to the superior of the Jesuits; Catholic Church had not been idle in its op- he organized a sort of spiritual police, who position to Luther; a vast and irresponsible could inform him of the secret intentions, as power had now been created, ready to espouse well as the actions of men; and of course, as the cause of Rome, and bound to advance the a cardinal, he was bound to wield this powspiritual empire of the Church by every art, er in the service of the pope. Though whether lawful or unlawful. Ignatius Loyo- learned, eloquent and polite, the cardinal was la had received the sanction of the Pope for essentially vicious; he was a persecuting the incorporation of the Jesuits in 1543. bigot without the excuse of religious zeal. Now the secret influence of their crafty policy, A Roman Catholic writer tells us, that he in which the end sanctifies the means, and all used his religion chiefly as a means to build things expedient are considered lawful, had up his greatness; he often spoke highly of already begun to exert its influence upon the the confession of Augsburg, and at times al


most preached it to please the Germans: his a warrior, with little idea of religion. He own party accused him of extreme haughti- was scrupulously exact in saying his prayers ; ness in prosperity; and when he once spoke but, like those of William of Deloraine, they more graciously than usual to some of the seem to have partaken of the nature of a boryoung ladies of the court, one of them re der foray. His soldiers used to say, “ The plied, flippantly enough, but with some truth, Lord deliver us from the pater-nosters of

Pray, Monsieur le Cardinal, what reverse of Monsieur le Connetable!" "He would turn fortune has befallen


condescend about between his beads, and say, “ Hang to speak to us ?

such a one for disobedience !" Burn three The cardinal, though outwardly a strict villages on yonder hill!” “Let another be member of the Church of Rome, was equally run through with pikes!" He was inferior anxious for the independence of the French to the Duke of Guise in talent; but by a Church. At the Council of Trent (says gravity of manner, and a certain degree of Ranke*) he demanded the cup for the laity, reserve, he could often, like Solomon's fool, the administration of the Sacraments in the pass for a wise man by holding his tongue. vulgar tongue, the accompaniment of the He was killed at the age of seventy-nine, at mass with instruction and preaching, and per- the battle of St. Denys, where he commandmission to sing psalms in French in full con- ed the king's army; after several successful gregation ; besides, in conjunction with the charges, his squadron of cavalry was routed other French bishops, he maintained the by the Prince de Condé, and having received authority of a council as above the pope. In several wounds, he was retiring from the these matters, however, he was overruled ; field, when a Scottish adventurer, Robert the Spaniards did not concur in his de- Stewart, levelled his piece, and Montmorenci mands, and the Italian bishops gave the


exclaimed, “ I am the constable !" • Therean overwhelming preponderance. Lorraine fore,” said Stewart, “I present you with seems to have considered himself bound by this.” Though severely wounded, the courthe decision of the council, and was all his ageous old man dashed the broken hilt of his life a most unrelenting persecutor. Two sword into the face of his adversary with so years before, he had revived a confession of much force that he broke several of his teeth, faith which had been used in the reign of and felled him to the ground. The constaFrancis I.; he induced the king to issue an ble's wound proved mortal; a priest was sent order that any person who should refuse to for, but the old man told him not to molest sign it should be deprived of all offices, and him, as it would be a vile and unworthy thing burnt alive without further trial. He also if he had lived for nearly eighty years withadded a declaration, that all persons who out learning to die for half an hour. This should sign the confession should solemnly anecdote proves that zeal for a cause, loyalty engage to pursue all recusants as public to a king, and the desire of military glory, criminals, without regard to their nearest re were his ruling principles, rather than any prelations. The chancellor was bound to re ference of his own religion above Protestantism, quire the signature of the officers of state ; or any mistaken zeal in thinking that he was the bishops were to present it to the inferior doing God service by the extirpation of heresy: clergy; the curés were obliged to carry it

The constable and the Duke of Guise had from house to house; and the Queens were long been jealous of each other ; each thought cnjoined to require the signatures of their re himself entitled to be prime minister, and spective households. This scheme the cardi- each looked upon the other as a dangerous nal called his rat-trap. Supported by his rival. After the death of Francis II., the rank, his connections, his brother's authority, Maréchal de St. André undertook to reconand his own secret intelligence, we can easily cile these differences, and seems to have been imagine how dangerous an opponent the car

admitted to the triumvirate as a sort of medidinal must have been to the Hugonots, and ator between the two contending parties. how powerful a rivalry he must have pre-At Easter, 1561, the constable and the duke, sented to the views and ambition of Cathe- by St. Andre's advice, partook together of rine de Medicis.

the sacrament, and dined at the same table. The colleagues of the Duke of Guise in St. André did not long survive his union with the triumvirate were Montmorenci, generally these great men, as he was killed the next known as the Constable, and the Maréchal year at the battle of Dreux: he seems to St. André. The former, like the duke, was have had a presentiment of his approaching

end; on the morning of the battle, he came * Page 85.

to the tent of the Duke of Guise much de

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