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Adam Smith advantage agricultural amount applied Arthur Young capital capitalist causes circulating capital circumstances competition condition consequence considerable consumed consumption corn laws cottier cultivation degree demand depend desire of accumulation diminished division of labour employment England English equal exertion existing expense farmer favourable fixed flax France funds greater habits human hundred quarters idle class improvement increase individual industry interest Ireland kind labour employed labouring classes land landlord less limited maintain maize mankind manufacture manure materials means ment metayer mode nature necessary obtained occupation operations paid peasant proprietors persons political economy Poor Law population portion possession present principle productive labourers productive power profit proportion quantity quit-rent remuneration render rent require saving Sismondi small farms social society soil subsistence sufficient sumer supply suppose tenant things tillage tion unproductive wages wealth whole
Сторінка 121 - One man draws out the wire, another straights it, a third cuts it, a fourth points it, a fifth grinds it at the top for receiving the head ; to make the head requires two or three distinct operations ; to put it on is a peculiar business, to whiten the pins is another ; it is even a trade by itself to put them into the paper; and the important business of making a pin is in this manner divided into about eighteen distinct operations, which, in some manufactories, are all performed by distinct hands,...
Сторінка 121 - I have seen a small manufactory of this kind where ten men only were employed, and where some of them consequently performed two or three distinct operations. But though they were very poor, and therefore but indifferently accommodated with the necessary machinery, they could, when they exerted themselves, make among them about twelve pounds of pins in a day.
Сторінка 432 - Happily, there is nothing in the laws of Value which remains for the present or any future writer to clear up ; the theory of the subject is complete...
Сторінка 745 - But the best state for human nature, is that in which, while no one is poor, no one desires to be richer, nor has any reason to fear being thrust back by the efforts of others to push themselves forward.
Сторінка 798 - The tax which each individual is bound to pay ought to be certain and not arbitrary. The time of payment, the manner of payment, the quantity to be paid, ought all to be clear and plain to the contributor and to every other person.
Сторінка 948 - Laisser-faire, in short, should be the general practice: every departure from it, unless required by some great good, is a certain evil.
Сторінка 279 - Give a man the secure possession of a bleak rock, and he will turn it into a garden ; give him a nine years' lease of a garden, and he will convert it into a desert.
Сторінка 382 - First, the wages of labour vary with the ease or hardship, the cleanliness or dirtiness, the honourableness or dishonourableness of the employment. Thus in most places, take the year round, a journeyman tailor earns less than a journeyman weaver. His work is much easier.
Сторінка 198 - The distribution of wealth, therefore, depends on the laws and customs of society. The rules by which it is determined, are what the opinions and feelings of the ruling portion of the community make them, and are very different in different ages and countries ; and might be still more different, if mankind so chose.
Сторінка 368 - No remedies for low wages have the smallest chance of being efficacious, which do not operate on and through the minds and habits of the people. While these are unaffected, any contrivance, even if successful, for temporarily improving the condition of the very poor, would but let slip the reins by which population was previously curbed ; and could only, therefore, continue to produce its effect, if, by the whip and spur of taxation, • See Thornton on " Over-Population,