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wars with their keepers, and set even military force at defiance, if we did not treat our readers with a true and just account of a tiger-fight which took place in London on the 9th of March, 1698-9, under circumstances nearly similar to the conflicts of Nero and Wallace, at Warwick. It is recorded in a letter from Sir Hans Sloane to Mr. Ray.

“This day, a large tiger was baited by three bear-dogs, one after another. The first dog he killed; the second was a match for him, and sometimes he had the better, and sometimes the dog ; but the battle was at last drawn, and neither cared for engaging any further, The third dog had, likewise, sometimes the better, and sometimes the worse of it; and it came also to a drawn battle. But the wisest dog of all was a fourth, that neither by fair means, nor foul, could be brought to go within the reach of the tiger, who was chained in the middle of a large cock-pit. The owner got about £300 for this show, the best seats being a guinea and the worst five shillings. The tiger used his paws very much, to cuff his adversaries with ; and, sometimes, would exert bis claws, but not often ; using his jaws most, and aiming at under or upper sides of the neck, where wounds are dangerous. He had a fowl given him alive; which, by means of his feet and mouth, he, very artfully, first plucked, and then eat; the feathers, and such as got into his mouth, being troublesome. The remainder of his drink, in which he has lapped, is said, by his keeper, to kill dogs, and other animals that drink after him, being by his foam made poisonous and ropy. I hope you will pardon this tedious narration, because I am apt to think it is very rare that such a battle happens, or such a fine tiger is seen here.

As a supplement, though prior in date to this, we annex* an account of a lion-fight which took place in 1603-4, in the tower of London, in the presence of King James I., his queen, son, and courtiers.

« The king's majesty lodging in the Tower of London on the 13th of March, (after he had surveyed all the offices, store-houses, and the mint, where bothe the king and queene coyned money and gave to divers persons there present) being told of the lions, he asked of their being, and how they came thither; for that in England there were bred no such fierce beast it whereunto was answered, that no mention is made in any record, of lions breeding here : nevertheless, Abraham Ortelius, and other forraine writers, do affirme, that there are in Englande beasts of as great courage as the lion, namely, the mastiffe dog ; whereupon, the king caused Edward Alleyn, late servant to the Lord Admirall, now sworn the prince's man and master of the bear

* Extracted from No. 3 of Nichols's Progresses of King James.

+ It appears that the king, when in Scotland, had known lions only by report.

garden, to fetch, secretly, three of the fellest dogs in the garden; which being done, the king, queene, and prince Henry, and four or five lords, went to the lion's towre, and caused the lustiest lion to be separated from his mate, and put into the lion's den one dog alone ; who, presently, flew to the face of the lion, but the lion 'suddenly shooke him off, and grasped him fast by the neck, drawing the dog up staires and down staires. The king now perceiving the lion greatly to exceed the dog in strength, but nothing in noble heart and courage, caused another dog to be put into the denne, who proved as hot and Justy as his fellow, and tooke the lion by the face; but the lion began to deale with him as with the other; whereupon the king commanded the third dog to be put in before the second was spoiled, which third dog, more fierce and fell than eyther of the former, and in despite eyther of clawes or strength, tooke the lion by the lip; but the lion so tore the dog by the eyes, head, and, face, that he lost his hold, and then the lion tooke the dog's necke in his mouth, drawing him up and downe as he did the former, but, being wearied, could not bite so deadly as at the first. Now, whilest the last dog was thus hand to hand with the lion in the upper roome, the other two dogs were fighting together in the lower roome, whereupon the king caused the lion to be driven downe, thinking the lion would have parted them ; but when he saw he must needs come by them he leaped cleane over them both, contrary to the king's expectation, the lion fled into an inward den, and would not, by any means, endure the presence of the dogs, albeit the last dog pursued eagerly, but could not finde the way to the lion. You shall understand, the two last dogs, whilest the lion held them both under his pawes, did bite the lion by the belly, whereat the lion roared so extremely that the earth shooke withall, and the next lion ramp't and roared as if he would have made rescue. The lion hath not any peculiar or proper kinde of fight, as hath the dog, beare, or bull, but only a ravenous kinde of surprizing for prey. The two first dogs dyed within a few dayes, but the last dog was well recovered of all his hurts, and the yong prince commanded his servant, E. Alleyn, to bring the dog to him to St. James, where the prince charged the said Alleyn to keepe him, and make much of him, saying, 'he that had fought with the king of beasts should never after fight with any inferior creature.'"

Viewing the above exhibitions solely with reference to the characters and modes of defence adopted by the animals, we would compare them with the combats at Warwick, on July 26 and July 30, 1825; where, on the evening of the former day, Nero was matched against six dogs, and, on the evening of the latter, Wallace was exposed to the same number. Both of these noble animals were born in confinement, in Edinburgh, Nero being 51 years old, and Wallace six. The mother of the latter dying when he was two days old, the whelp was suckled and reared by a bull-bitch. Nero, in no part of his defence, attempted to bite; but, with his paws, and occasional use of talons, swept the dogs off, as they clung to him, three being sent in at each attack, and frequently striking his claws into their skins, inflicted deep wounds. Wallace, who manifested a much greater degree of ferocity and courage, was attacked by two dogs at a time; the first which came within his reach, he drew into his den with his paw, and, immediately seizing him in his mouth, carried him round the arena (like King James's lion) for several minutes, with as much ease, and pretty much in the same manner, as a cat would carry a mouse, and then, dropping him half dead, repeated the same process with his companion, and would have despatched him in a very short time, had not the temptation of a piece of raw meat induced the royal gourmand to let go his hold. The next two dogs met with nearly a similar reception; for, unlike Nero, Wallace used' his teeth in preference to his claws, with irresistible effect. We may add, that the greater part of the dogs, engaged in these contests, died of their wounds; whereas Nero suffered in a trifling degree, from bites about his lips and nose; and Wallace, we believe, received no injury whatever. The keepers in this and the tiger fight seem to have profited, in no small degree, by public curiosity, the prices for places at Warwick varying from three sovereigns to ten shillings.

And thus, having taken as wide a range as our limits would allow, of the interesting work before us; having smiled, praised, or criticised, as the case demanded, in our peristrephic view of the natural world and all that is therein, as here exhibited ; it remains for us to conduct our readers but one step farther, and that step to the death-bed of our most respected author. It is not often that we are enabled to judge of the last hours of human existence, by an appeal to documents expressing the feelings entertained when the hand of death is closing upon its victim; or a reference to a calm and dispassionate confession of opinions connected with the past, the present, and the future. But Mr. Ray has, in his own case, enabled us so to do ; and we know not how to conclude an article dedicated to his memory, more appropriately, than by devising them as a bequest from so invaluable a member of society, and so perfect a pattern of a Christian, in mind and manner of life.

“ The last letter which Mr. Ray wrote, which was to Sir Hans Sloane, and bears the marks of a dying hand in every letter.

“Dear Sir,—The best of friends. These are to take a final leave of you as to this world: I look upon myself as a dying man-God requite your kindness expressed any ways towards me an hundred

fold, -bless you with a confluence of all good things in this world, and eternal life and happiness hereafter; grant us an happy meeting in heaven,

I am, Sir,
Black Notley,

Eternally yours,
Jan. 1704.

JOHN RAY.

Postscript.-When you happen to write to my singular friend, Dr. Hotton, I pray, tell him I received his most obliging and affectionate letter; for which I return thanks, and acquaint him that I was not able to answer it.” Note added by Dr. Denham.-" His strength failing, as I perceive by his writing, (which was scarcely legible in this postscript) he was forced to break off abruptly."

“Mr. Ray's dying words and behaviour, before the Rev. Mr. Pyke, Rector of Black Notley, and Prebendary of Norwich.

"6"I am a priest of the Church of England, ordained by Dr. Sanderson, then Bishop of Lincoln. That I did not follow the peculiar duties of my function more, is now the greatest concern and trouble to me. I do here profess, that, as I have lived, so I desire, and, by the grace of God, resolve to die, in the communion of the Catholick Church of Christ, and a true, though unworthy, son of the Church by law established in this kingdom. I do think, from the bottom of my heart, that its doctrine is pure, its worship decent and agreeable to the word of God; and, in the most material points of both, conformable to the faith and practice of the Godly churches of Christ, in the primitive and purer times. I am not led to this persuasion, so much from force of custom and education, as upon the clear evidence of truth and reason; and, after a serious and impartial examination of the grounds thereof, I am fully persuaded, that the scruples men raise against joining in communion with it, are unreasonable and groundless, and that the separation which is made, may, very justly, be charged upon the dissenters themselves, as the blame-worthy authors of it. He then desired me to read to him the prayers of the church, which, in the visitation of the sick, are appointed to be used by us; and the absolution, in particular, he requested me to read : which I having pronounced to such a true, penitent, devout, and humble soul, I could not but have these comfortable thoughts, that what was thus declared remitted upon earth, would be remitted in heaven also. After this I gave him the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, which, as it is men's duty often to receive in the time of health, so, at the hour of death, he said, it was a necessary viaticum, he thought, for the great journey he was now a going.”

Art. II.The Present State of Russia, in a letter to a Friend at

London ; written by an eminent Person residing at the Great Tzar's Court of Musco, for the space of nine years; [Dr. Collins]. Illustrated with many Copper Plates.

O utinam ars mores animumque depingere posset,

Pulchrior in terris nulla tabella foret. London, 1671.-12mo.

The change in the times, between the date of the publication of this little volume and the present year, is scarcely shewn in any thing more conspicuously than in the outward form and appearance of this book. Had the materials of this work been imported from Russia by a learned physician of the year 1826, his notes and memoranda would have been put into the hands of a fashionable publisher, and by him into those of a professional arranger and digester of chapters, indices, and prefaces. The paper-manufacturer and printer would then have been required to perform their parts; engravers and artists would have been set to work; and just as the winter was commencing, the result of their labours would have been ushered into the world, amidst a well-maintained fire of puffs and advertisements, in the shape of a huge bulk of hotpressed paper, brilliant type, and luculent pictures, price six guineas. In the year 1671, Doctor Collins, or his friends, supplied to a bookseller in the Poultry the contents of this work, who, as in the present day, procured a crafty person to write the preface and divide it into chapters ; but here his art ended. The book is not so large as one of the volumes of a consumptive novel, containing but one hundred and forty one pages, printed in the homeliest manner ; adorned by a few rude engravings, and sold, probably, at the price of two shillings and sixpence. If the real information usually contained in these two forms were to be compared, we rather imagine the balance would not be found so decidedly in favour of the luxurious. quarto, as might at first be imagined. In the present instance, we can answer for the little 12mo, comprising a fund of amusing matter, infinitely more copious than many very large and fine, works, and that upon not very dissimilar subjects. Our readers shall have the means of judging of the truth of this remark.

The preface, written, we suppose, by the chapter-maker, opens with an assurance, that the author of this subsequent relation was “a gentleman of large parts, and had an esteem, proportionably, amongst those to whom he was willing to impart his sentiments of things, and those were many, not only in his native country, England, but in France, Italy, Holland, Germany, Flanders, Russia, &c. In which last place, he con

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