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middle, not unlike the mould that the spectacle-makers grind their glasses on, but not so much a concave as that ; about half an inch thick at the brim or verge, but thicker towards the middle, with three feet like a pot, about six inches high, that fire may be underneath. To such a temper they heat this pone, (as they call it,) as to bake, but not burn. When 'tis made thus hot, the Indians, whom we trust to make it, because they are best acquainted with it, cast the meal upon
pone, the whole breadth of it, and put it down with their hands, and it will presently stick together : and when they think that side almost enough, with a thing like a battle-dore, they turn the other; and so turn and re-turn it so often, till it be enough, which is presently done. So they lay this cake upon a flat board, and make another, and so another, till they have made enough for the whole family. This bread they made, when we came first there, as thick as a pancake; but, after that, they grew to a higher degree of curiosity, and made it as thin as a wafer, and yet purely white and crisp, as a new-made wafer. Salt they never use in it, which I wonder at; for the bread being tasteless of itself, they should give it some little seasoning. There is no way it eats so well as in milk, and there it tastes like almonds. They offer to make pye-crust, but very few attain to the skill of that ; for, as you work it up with your hand, or roll it out with a roller, it will always crackle and chop, so that it will not be raised to hold any liquor, neither with, nor without, butter or eggs."
Maize is eaten only by servants and negroes, crushed into ' lob-lolly !”. The principal drinks are mobby, made from potatoes; rum, punch, and perino.—The latter beverage,
“ Which the Indians make for their own drinking, and is made of the Cassavy root, which I told you is strong poison; and this they cause their old wives, who have a small remainder of teeth, to chew and spit out into water, (for the better breaking and macerating of the root.) This juice, in three or four hours, will work, and purge itself of the poisonous quality."
“ Having shewed you, in the making of bread, that the moisture being pressed out, which is accounted the poisonous quality that root has, by drying and baking, it is made useful and wholesome, and now having the juice and root both used, and both these put into water, which is moist, I know not which way to reconcile these direct contraries, but this ; that poison of the old women's breath and teeth having been tainted with many several poxes, (a disease common amongst them, though they have many and the best cures for it,) are such opposites to the poison of the Cassavy, as they bend their forces so vehemently one against another, as they both spend their poisonous qualities in that conflict; and so the relict of them both becomes less unwholesome ; and the water, which in itself is pure, casts out the remainder of the ill qualities they leave behind."
Two negatives make an affirmative; therefore, two poisons cannot fail to make perino.-With regard to meats, they have pork and turkies.-Beef is such a dainty, that if, perchance, a planter ventured upon the slaughter of an ox, he invited all the island to a “ beef-feast.”—Wonderful are the ways
of nature ! A few leagues over the sea, on the plains of Cumana, you eat nothing but pure beef: in La Plata, according to Mr. Mawe, they make your
fire with it;— with now and then the addition of a “ mare !” But in England again, it is such a curiosity, that we have reverend clergymen, who prosecute men unto transportation for appropriating single slices. The Barbadians have but small store of fish : and even the great West-Indian dainty, the turtle, does not take kindly to their shores, because there are no shelving sands for them to take the air on, and lay their eggs.-Let the worshipful court of aldermen read the following, unmoved, if they can ; unless the magic word“ Calipee” hardens their hearts.
“When you are to kill one of these fishes, the manner is, to lay him on his back on a table, and, when he sees you come with a knife in your hand to kill him, he vapours out the grievousest sighs, that ever you
any creature make, and sheds as large tears as a staç, that has a far greater body and larger eyes. He has a joint or crevis about an inch within the utmost edge of his shell, which
round about his body, from his head to his tail, on his belly side; into which joint or crevis, you put your knife, beginning at the head, and so rip up that side, and then do as much to the other; then lifting up his belly, which we call his Callippee, we lay open his bowels, and taking them out, come next to his heart, which has three distinct points, but all meet above where the fat is; and if you take it out, and lay it in a dish, it will stir and pant ten hours after the fish is dead. Sure, there is no creature on the earth, or in the seas, that enjoys life with so much sweetness and delight as this poor fish the Turtle ; nor none more delicate in taste, and more nourishing, than he.”
There was a class of men at this time in the West Indies, and the colonies of North America, that exists no longer-the purchased White servants, or Redemptionists. If a presbyterian weaver were discontented with prelacy; if an independent tailor found a presbyter's finger too heavy for his loins; if a pickpocket found the Three Kingdoms too hot to hold him ; if a pauvre diable's socraticism could not hold out against his scolding wife; or if a man had any other reasons, either of the spirit or the flesh, to go forth from the country; it was the fashion to bie to Bristol, and embark for the plantations; and to pay their passage by allowing the captain to sell one's-self for five years, as a servant or slave, on his arrival. Sometimes, the magistrates of the Western counties engaged in this traffic, to get rid of a vagrant or a foe.—'Squire Western wanted to ship off Jones.
The Bristol justices used their warrants to kidnap poor wretches for sale. Cromwell sometimes shipped off the Royalists, instead of shooting them; and George the Second, the Highlanders, and other savages, whom the Chevalier led to Derby, instead of imitating the summary manner of William the Third, at Glenco. The moderate party in the French Convention deported the Terrorists, and directed the Royalists to Guiana, which went by the facetious name of the dry guillotine; but they were not forced to work.
“Upon the arrival of any ship, that brings servants to the island, the planters go abroad; and having bought such of them as they like send them with a guide to his plantation; and being come, commands them instantly to make their cabins, which they not knowing how to do, are to be advised by other of their servants, that are their seniors; but, if they be churlish, and will not shew them, or if materials be wanting, to make them cabins, they are to lie on the ground that night. These cabins are to be made of sticks, withs, and plantine leaves, under some little shade that may keep the rain off; their suppers being a few potatoes for meat, and water or mobbie for drink. The next day, they are rung out with a bell to work, at six o'clock in the morning, with a severe overseer to command them, till the bell ring again, which is at eleven o'clock; and then they return, and are set to dinner, either with a mess of lob-lolly, bonavist, or potatoes. At one o'clock, they are rung out again to the field, there to work till six, and then home again, to a supper of the same. And if it chance to rain, and wet them through, they have no shift, but must lie so all night. If they put off their clothes, the cold of the night will strike into them; and if they be not strong men, this ill lodging will put them into a sickness: if they complain, they are beaten by the overseer; if they resist, their time is doubled. I have seen an overseer beat a servant with a cane about the head, till the blood has followed, for a fault that is not worth the speaking of; and yet he must have patience, or worse will follow. Truly, I have seen such cruelty there done to servants, as I did not think one Christian could have done to another."
Of another race of men, we believe hardly a vestige remains, except in one or two of the islands, where a few of them still exist, as debased specimens of the once fierce and formidable Caribbees.- Ligon says :
“ The women, who are better versed in ordering the Cassavie and making bread than the negroes, we employ for that purpose, as also for making mobby: the men we use for footmen, and killing of fish, which they are good at; with their own bows and arrows they will go out, and, in a day's time, kill as much fish as will serve a family of a dozen persons, two or three days, if you can keep the fish so long. They are very active men, and apt to learn any thing sooner than the negroes; and as different from them in shape, almost, as in colour;
the men very broad-shouldered, deep-breasted, with large heads, and their faces almost three square, broad about the eyes and temples, and sharp at the chin; their skins, some of them brown, some a bright bay: they are much craftier and subtiller than the negroes ; and in their nature falser; but in their bodies more active: their women have very small breasts, and have more of the shape of the Europeans than the negroes; their hair black and long, a great part whereof hangs down upon their backs as low as their haunches, with a large lock hanging over either breast, which seldom or never curls : clothes they scorn to wear.”
The following touching story is not unknown to our readers ; it has been cited in the" Spectator," and dramatized on the stage.
“An Indian woman dwelling near the sea-coast, upon the main, an English ship put into a bay, and sent some of her men ashore, to try what victuals or water they could find, for in some distress they were : but the Indians perceiving them to go up so far into the country, as they were sure they could not make a safe retreat, intercepted them in their return, and fell upon them, chasing them into a wood; and, being dispersed there, some were taken, and some were killed : but a young man amongst them straggling from the rest, was met by this Indian maid, who, upon the first sight, fell in love with him, and hid him close from her countrymen (the Indians) in a cave, and there fed him, till they could safely go down to the shore, where the ship lay at anchor, expecting the return of their friends. But at last, seeing them
upon the shore, sent the long-boat for them, look them a-board, and brought them away. But the youth, when he came ashore in the Barbadoes, forgot the kindness of the poor maid, that had ventured her life for his safety, and sold her for a slave, who was as free-born as he : and so poor Yarico, for her love, lost her liberty.”
However, a page or two further, we feel our tenderness for Yarico" very sensibly diminishing; for our author employed her as chiropodist to pick from his nether limbs certain vermin called “chigoes,” that insinuate themselves into you through the pores of ur skin, and raise excruciating tumors and pus, as if nature had not sufficiently balanced her account of turtle and spontaneous pine-apples, with musquitoes and cock-roaches that suck
your blood like tigers. Insects are the curse of the Americans. They are every where, and in every thing ; you eat them, drink them, breathe them, and sleep with them. In Buenos Ayres, locusts come in flights, a dozen leagues square, to eat you out of house and home, like Irish cousins; and then fall foul of each other like Algonquins; which, after all, is poor satisfaction for so feloniously putting all your property into their bellies.
In the West Indies, it is as much as your life is worth, or at least your wits, to brave the musquitoes; and even if the
gauze-beds of Exeter 'Change keep them out, you are sure to be sucked by a cock-roach as big as a beetle, that lies in ambush in your
bed all day, to carry away an ounce of your blood at night. Every pond and plash ought to have a society—for preserving--persons--nearly dead, not from drowning, but biting. The scorpions are, some of them, according to Ligon, " as big as rats;" but fortunately they do not hurt
The beautiful, and numerous. • This little animal loves much to be where men are, and is delighted to stand and gaze in their face, and hearken to their discourse," which shews a degree of good-breeding in the lizards, that we recommend, especially to Political Economists and Members of Parliament out of doors.
lizards are green,
“The next of these moving little animals are ants, or pismires, and those are but of a small size, but great in industry; and that which gives them means to attain to their ends, is, they have all one soul. If I should say, they are here or there, I should do them wrong; for they are every where, under ground, where any hollow or loose earth is, amongst the roots of trees, upon the bodies, branches, leaves, and fruit of all trees, in all places, without the houses and within, upon the sides, walls, windows, and roofs without; and on the floors, sidewalls, ceilings, and windows within ; tables, cupboards, beds, stools, all are covered with them, so that they are a kind of ubiquitaries. The cockroaches are their mortal enemies; and though they are not able to do them any mischief, being living, (by reason they are far stronger and mightier than a hundred of them, and if they should force any of them with multitudes, he has the liberty of his wings to make his escape,) yet, when they find him dead, they will divide him amongst them into atoms; and, to that purpose, they carry him home to their houses or nests. We sometimes kill a cockroach, and throw him on the ground, and mark what they will do with him ; his body is bigger than a hundred of them, and yet they will find the means to take hold of him, and lift him up; and having him above ground, away they carry him; and some go by as ready assistants,
weary; and some are the officers that lead and shew the way to the hole into which he must pass; and if the van-courriers perceive, that the body of the cock-roach lies across, and will not pass through the hole or arch., through which they mean to carry him, order is given, and the body turned endvise, and this done a foot before they come to the hole, and that without any stop or stay; and this is observable, that they never pull contrary ways.
“Those that are curious, and will prevent their coming on their tables, cupboards, or beds, have little hollows of timber, filled with water, for the feet of these to stand in; but all this will not serve their turn; for they will, some of them, go up to the ceiling, and let themselves fall upon
the teasters of the beds, cupboards, and tables. “To prevent them from coming on our shelves, where our meat is kept, we hang them to the roof by ropes, and tar those ropes, and the