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crying “ that they would go up to London, and see the parliament sitting.” At Morpeth, the army was met by the swordbearer from London, bringing an express from the common council and a declaration of their desires for a full parliament; alleging that, in the present one, they had never a member to represent their renowned city. Whither came also the swordbearer from Newcastle, with compliments and kind invitations from that town. These wary citizens did not care to appear publicly till the coast was clear, and they might address with impunity. And here I cannot but relate a pleasant story to the purpose; after David Lesly had routed Montrose, the committee of estates appointed commissioners, whereof the Earl of Lanerick, a stickling covenanter, was one, to examine those who were charged with having addressed Montrose as the king's lieutenant. Among these was Stewart, of Minto, who, being asked whether he did not kiss the cheek of Montrose, (a ceremony in Scotland peculiar to the king's viceroy,) and not denying it, Lanerick calls out, “ Mark that, clerk ;" upon this cries Minto, “ My lord, if you had been there as I was, you would have been glad to have kissed a worse part, (be spoke plain Scotch)-mark that, clerk,—to have got off as I did!” Lanerick, upon this, dissolved the commission with a laugh, and would act no further in the business.
And now began the General to govern his army more monarchically, and to dispense with all general councils of officers, pretending that there was no danger or necessity for them; but, in reality, not considering them as agreeable to his designs, which required above all things secresy and silence. The saying of Metellus on this head is well known : “ that if his shirt were privy to his thoughts, he would burn it.” On the fourth of January, the General quartered at Newcastle, where great multitudes of the common people met him upon the road, with acclamations, and railings upon Lambert, and extolling the General to his face, crying "that he looked like a General." From this place he dispatched a messenger to London, with letters and instructions to sound the designs of those in power, and inform him truly of all that was going on; he himself, in the mean time, resolving to make short marches, and linger upon the road till he was fully advertised upon these heads. During the whole march, the General wrapped himself in silence and darkness, and though accosted by many great and worthy persons, gave only a general answer, “that his endeavours should never be wanting for the welfare of his country.” As he approached nearer to London, he grew more and more reserved, and his confidents took pains to refute the rumors that were circulated against him, and he did, himself,cudgel some fanatics in Yorkshire for raising malicious reports ; all which was
to lay asleep the jealousies of the Rump, who dreaded nothing ·so much as the return of majesty. In the course of his journey, also, he took upon him, by his own authority, to new-model and reduce many of the English forces, that had been the great abettors of the anarchy and disorders of the army. At York he remained five days, during which he had very secret and private conference with the Lord Fairfax.
Meanwhile, after a tedious journey by night and by day, through Lambert's army, to many of whom he was known for an incendiary, as they called him, with repeated hazard of his life, over roads covered with great drifts of snow, the General's messenger* arrived in London. That day, he attended the House and produced his letter, and, being called in, was introby the sergeant at arms with his mace to the bar, that they might learn his errand, which was not expressed in the letter, but referred to his own report. He em he was commanded to assure them of the great affection of the Scottish army towards the House; that the soldiers did, upon the arrival of the messenger with the tidings of their return to power, express their joy in acclamations, and desire to come off to see them in that power; that he had also in particular, from the council of officers, to tender their best services, and withal their humble entreaties that they would not employ persons of unsettled principles, either in the army, or the fleet, or in any posts of authority, but men of sober judgments and moderate opinions ; that the General did further recommend to them the encouragement of an able and learned ministry, and the maintenance of schools and universities, and that so many mechanic persons might not be intruded upon the functions of preachers of the gospel; -finally, that he desired an act of indemnity might pass for all he had done in that undertaking ; and that he did not nor would keep any correspondence but what was for their service, with some other matters upon which he dealt very freely, and then withdrew.
This pretended parliament neither dared trust, nor yet openly distrust, the General; and, perhaps, they had reason. The same night, he attended the council of state, sent in his letter, and waited, with great patience, till after midnight, without being called in. At last, he was directed to go to a private lodging, and there to stay their leisure. Here came a committee of the council, rather to examine him than to hear his propositions ; but he refused to answer any questions, except before a full council. They, however, had heard too many documents in
* This messenger, the reader need hardly be told, was the reverend divine himself.
the House that morning, and were unwilling, to hear more. Their great apprehension was, that General Monk had the king in his heart, and upon this they much insisted. He replied, that he had no knowledge of any such matter, and believed it was a suggestion of their own fear, and so he took his leave.
Though this person spent but three days in London, he had time to observe that the prevailing interest in the parliamant consisted of a few and inconsiderable persons, who looked upon all that had either been courted into Oliver's service, or had joined with the Committee of Safety, as apostates from the good old cause; that these scraps of a parliament were divided into many interests and factions, and so might the more readily be devoured; and that the more assuming portion of the House were either hare-brained fools, or obscure and unregarded knaves.
Addresses now poured in upon the General from mast part of the counties in England, of which some, in very bold terms, required a full and free parliament; and, after these, and the City had led the way, all the rest charged with the like courage. But many, who appeared not at all till this time, have arrogated all the merit to themselves; and, having set their names to an address, do swear that they, not General Monk, were the restorers of his majesty.
And now Mr. Scot and Mr. Robinson were sent down to meet General Monk, and accompany him; a duty to which they had been appointed chiefly at the instigation of his own friends, who had agreed with his messengers to rid themselves, in this way, of two persons that were over-busy in the House. These parliament commissioners the General did so charm with his humility and reserved deportment, that they conceived no jealousy even of the addresses which now came to him from all quarters; and the officers, well understanding the General's mind, never allowed the commissioners' coach to pass them in the march, without halting their regiments, and doing honour to them, as to their Generalisimo. This so gratified these vain-glorious persons, that they wrote to their friends in commendation of the excellent discipline and temper of the forces that had come up from Scotland. At Highgate, the General directs his army to rendezvous, and gave directions for the order of their march into London; viz: the horse regiments first, with himself and the parliament commissioners at their head, and after them, the foot; and thus, early in February, he enters London by Gray’s-Inn-Lane, and so to Whitehall, where lodgings were prepared for him.
On his arrival, he is visited and courted by the Commonwealth's men, and others of good degree. They invite him
to sit in council, as he was a member thereof; and being about to take his seat at the board, they tender him the oath of abjuration, which he demurred to rather than refused; for he had learned to temporize and deal with the subtlest of them. He said, that as "a part of their own body had refused that oath, he desired a conference with the non-abjurers, in order that he might proceed with the greater peace and content to himself." To this, though it gave them some apprehensions, they consented. The Monday following was appointed for his receiving the thanks of the House, when he was introduced by the sergeant with the mace, and a chair provided him within the bar. The Speaker addressed him in a plausible harangue, dwelling upon the dangerous estate of the nation, till his appearance with his army; which he likened to the little cloud seen by Elijah's servant upon Carmel, that instanstaneously spread itself over the heavens, and descended in refreshing showers. The General, in reply, said, that "among the many mercies of God to these poor nations, the peaceable restoration of the parliament was not the least;" and that he esteemed it a mark of “God's goodness towards himself, that, among many other worthier instruments, he had been enabled to contribute to so desired an end;" that in his march from Scotland hither he had observed the people in most of the counties had earnest expectations of a settlement, and that several applications were made to him, of which the principal heads were, a desire for a full and free parliament, that the present house would determine its sittings, and that the members excluded before the year 1648, might be re-admitted. He added, that, to these addresses he answered generally, that they were now a free parliament, and that if any fear remained upon them, he would endeavour to remove it; that they had passed a resolution to fill up
their House, and then they would be a full parliament also ; and that they had already determined their sittings; but as for the gentlemen secluded in 1648,“ that the house had already given judgment in that matter, and all people ought to acquiesce in that judgment; and that to admit any member to sit in parliament without the previous oath to serve the government in being, was not the practice of England."
The General, notwithstanding his compliance with the existing authority, was very popular; for people still pleased themselves with the hopes they secretly entertained of him, and which the discourse of his officers did countenance. But the Rump, who were hated by the country, for their usurpation of power and abuse of it, were desirous to involve the General in the odium that attached to themselves, and laid bold of the following occasion to accomplish their end. The City obligation. That same morning, he resolved to march into the city, betimes, before the letter should be read in the house; and, being arrived, he drew up his forces in Finsbury-fields. The citizens, doubtful what his purpose was, looked upon them with apprehension ; but this he quickly dispelled, by desiring the lord mayor to summon a common council, which, as that body had been voted down by parliament, was a direct denial of the Rump's authority. To these the General declares his trouble, at seeing the insults offered them by the council of state, whose orders, though he was under the necessity of obeying them, he did nevertheless dislike. He told them he had not forgotten their kind letter received by him at Morpeth, with which he heartily concurred, but that, like a fencer, he was forced to retire backward to make the better guard and the more advantageous assault. He added, that he had sent that morning to the house, to desire a full parliament, and a speedy termination to their sitting, and that he was come to stay among the citizens, and see his desires fulfilled. This declaration was received by the immense concourse of people in Guildhall, with loud acclamations; and, as the news spread abroad, bonfires were kindled, and bells set a ringing throughout the city. This is the night which was called “ The burning the Rump;" a night of such joy as was not seen in the city till his majesty's restoration. The soldiers, who had kept their post all day in the cold, are now welcomed with the best cheer of the city ; and the General had no occasion for a list of quarters, as every citizen begged to have some of these guests as a favour. So great was the concourse of people assembled, when the General went to Guildhall, that he had much, ado to pass in his coach ; and two of his servants, being mistaken for Messrs. Scot and Robinson, did run great hazard of their lives. Their only passport, as often as the people rushed towards the coach, crying out for Scot and Robinson, was to shout “a full and free parliament !” by way of a shibboleth to distinguish them from the Rumpers.
The pretended parliament beginning now to feel their own weakness, offer any conditions ; and propose anything and everything, by way of satisfaction. But they were told it was too late; that the people would be satisfied with nothing less than a full parliament; and, therefore, sadly they apply themselves to an act for filling up the vacant seats in the House with new elections, to which they inclined as a less evil than re-admitting the secluded members. It was an unsettled time while the General remained
quartered in the city-full of hopes and fears, and uncertainty ; like the latter part of Henry VIIIth's reign; when men were burnt in Smithfield, some for denying the king's supremacy, and others