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was pleasanter and warmer, and the air sweeter, though on the Scottish side was much better land. So we resolved never more to laugh at the Highlander, who being at Edinburgh, and wishing the city was his, was asked what he would do with it?—“ Do with it?" replied he, “ I would buy land in the Hielands.” Not far from the castle of Wark was a gentleman's house, a person of some six score pounds a year—and that is a rich laird in the North country, where, by favour of one of our company that was a relation, we found a hearty welcome, and a dinner that kept us alive for another day. But, by this time, Berwick had supplied our troops with provisions, and all was well, on our return in the evening. Here we remained for six weeks; and this is that famous leaguer, where the General, as it were, encamped and besieged England and Ireland, and brought them to yield to terms.
The commissioners, whom the council of officers had sent up to London to treat, were now returned. They had, doubtless, authority for concluding the agreement, but they ought not to have done it so quickly, but have temporized, and well informed themselves what assistance was likely to come into the General, as well as spoken with the discontented officers. But they were overawed by the officers at London, and continually attended upon by them under pretence of civility, but really in order to prevent their communicating with such as might spirit them into resistance. Certain it is, that great good came by this agreement; not, indeed, by the ratification of it, but by suspending the ratification; for thus were the English officers, who imagined that any blind would serve to cheat General Monk, themselves ensnared. And be it also remembered, that the English officers themselves could not have observed the terms of that agreement; for no new called parliament, (which was an article in it,) would have countenanced them in what was inconsistent with every kind of government but that in which they were the governors.
And though his commissioners omitted, or were unable, to give him intelligence, the General had many, both in England and Ireland, from whom he received it twice in the week at least; the letters, to avoid interception, being sometimes directed to merchants in Edinburgh, sometimes conveyed into Scotland by market people, who went the way of Chevy-chase out of the line of the soldiery ; and sometimes concealed among bills of exchange and other letters of merchandise, that if inquisitive people chanced to search the packet, they might still find only mercantile business, and so make it up again, without being at the trouble to look through to the last. Messengers also he had, who came to him out of Yorkshire, not by the great road, but through by-ways and to the credit of the church be it said, that many clergymen, finding him zealous for the ministry as well as magistracy, did constantly bring him information from Newcastle, which they contrived to do, by riding northward, as on a visit to some neighbour parson,
who went with the news to his next neighbour, and so on till it reached the General.
In full expectation of having many pieces of intelligence, that he had received, confirmed, General Monk remains still at Coldstream ; where he appointed several days of public fasting and prayer, to implore God's blessing upon the means which he had used, and was about to use, for his country's weal. Religion, indeed, and virtue, the General did very much countenance at all times; swearing, drinking, and whoring were in his army only by their names known, and not by practice; or if any so monstrous action did appear, the offender was cashiered, lest, like a putrid member, he should corrupt others. Virtue hath always befriended courage, which is no modern opinion; for Godfrey of Boulogne, being asked, by a Saracen king, • How he had hands so able to fight?” replied, • Because he had never defiled them with
notorious sin.” And Colonel Washington, who was as stout as any, and had been a wild slip in his younger days, used to say that a man of great courage must be either a religious or a desperately wicked man.
The General had chosen his position so well, that he kept Lambert at bay, who could not quarter near him without being under the necessity of dispersing his forces over no less a space than twenty miles, or so. Lambert's army, moreover, at first coming down, had but a month's pay, whereas the General could have subsisted his forces above twelve months, what with the credit of his officers and the money he had in hand. This town of Coldstream, because General Monk did it the honour to make it his head-quarters, hath given title to a small company of men, whom poor though they were God made the instrument of great things, by the no dishonourable name of “ Coldstreamers ;"* that is to say, such officers, as, when all others in England and Ireland were obstinate to perpetuate the tyranny under which the country lay, did hazard their commissions and their blood to restore to their rightful prince his native land and lawful authority. The town of Coldstream is seated · upon
the banks of the Tweed, and was called a market; but I dare bring all the English that were in it, in my time, to swear the contrary. The ground about is very moist, being flooded
* Hence, perhaps, is derived the name of the 3rd, or Coldstream, regiment of Foot-guards.
by the Tweed; and, at this time, there was nothing but ice and snow to be seen, nor could we discover which was land and which was water. It had once a religious house in it, and penitents surely do they deserve to be thought, that live in this cold bleak place. The General's palace was a little cottage as black as a peat-stack, and about the height of the gudewife herself, with two great dunghills at the door, and a hall or entry so dark and narrow that a man could not turn in it. The room, which served him for both lodging and parlour, was too bad for description; his bed was like a bird's nest, into which he crept, having overhead a canopy of boards, for curtains were things unheard of in this place, and glass windows were as precious as crystal even at Edinburgh. And yet, in these strait quarters did his lady pay him a visit; but in business times he loved not such company, and dismissed her next day, and did a little chide her for that unseasonable kindness. But a cottage is the preface to a palace, and humility the way to greatness. The generous hawk that towereth above, and, as the falconer expresseth it, lessens and vanishes, stoops for to purvey entertainment and lodging, very low.
The Generals chapel (for he was loth to accommodate himself at the expense of the Scots, by making use of their church, besides that it was a little remotely situate) was big enough for a barn, and none of the cleanest, it having been used for a cow-house, or worse. It was thought to have been part of the old priory, before-mentioned; but, if it were holy ground, I am sure it was unclean, until some honest red-coats, for now they were grown honest, were so devout as to make it clean, which devotion of theirs depended upon their officers' command. The best fare we had was lean mutton and tough stringy poultry; ale, brewed over-night,-rich liquor next day, and drunk with good commendation. Yet I have heard many of our party say afterwards, that they never enjoyed so much content in all their lives ; for we were merrier over our hard fare than aldermen at a city feast.
While the General kept himself close in his quarters, news was brought by Captain Campbell, (who, by this good message, did atone for the many sinners of his name) that the forces in Ireland had declared for the General, and secured all such as opposed him. The General, who was always, though without ostentation, truly pious, kept a day of thanksgiving to God Almighty for this return to our prayers; but before we had given thanks for this mercy, came intelligence of another, that the fleet in the Downs, and Hazelrig and others at Portsmouth, had declared for General Monk. To reduce this place, Fleetwood, it appeared, had instantly sent down forces; but these last joined with those in the town, and, returning to London, restored the pretended parliament.
And thus the Rump once again recovers its authority, which the Scotch army allowed them to enjoy for a short space; administering, in the meanwhile, fair words by way of diet-drink, but intending, hereafter, to prescribe strong cordials, such as the admission of the secluded members; the parliament having had purging medicines given it already but too often.
Upon this event, General Monk refuses to treat any longer with Lambert, on the ground that the parliament, “ by whose authority he acted,” had appointed commissioners for the government of the army; that the general council of his own officers had come to a resolution, to enter into no treaty nor ratify any agreement “without consent of parliament, and this resolution of theirs being reasonable and necessary, he could not oppose it. On being apprized of this, General Lambert laid his hand upon his breast, and exclaimed, " that the General had not well used him.” This being the civil death of that gentleman, needs must we say, that he was a person of great parts and good courage, and as fit for the Protectorship as Oliver, and some think fitter; but so foolish a farce was not to be again enacted in England. Lambert was close and reserved in his temper, of great pride and ambition, grasping at things above his reach, which was his ruin. It was the opinion of some of his friends, that, could he have new-modelled his officers, and reduced them to depend on himself, he would have pursued General Monk's line of conduct. Certainly, he had wit enough to know his true interest; but this was no opportunity to try what really was in his heart, since he was at the head of an army he could not rule.
General Monk having disposed all matters in Scotland so well as to ensure the quiet of the country, proposes to march into England, with four regiments of horse, and six of foot, not knowing what entertainment to expect at the hands of the English army. In these regiments was many a name deserving to be recorded at Coldstream in a table, in like manner as the followers of the Conqueror were registered in the abbey of Battle. These Coldstreamers were like the nobles of Israel, with whom Deborah was so much in love, and of whom she sings in the book of Judges, “because they offered themselves willingly among the people, and jeoparded their lives unto the death, in the high places of the field.”
The chaplains of the army were then but two, the rest having declined; Dr. John Price, an honest and learned gentleman,
* Also a biographer of General Monk.
and this relator, who was preacher to the council, and then had the most lucrative places in the army ; " but thanks to God he enjoyed them not one whole year.”
On new year's day, a good omen to begin a new world in England, and to bring a new year's gift, the General sent over most of his foot, and followed himself next morning with his horse. It is not to be imagined what offers he now had of regiments and troops of horse to be raised when the danger was over ; but he smiled at these addresses, remembering how, a short time before, in the Border counties, they had refused to sell him horses for money tendered on the spot. This minds me of a remark made to the General by a gentleman who happened, in the month of May following, to be looking, with him, out of a window in the General's quarters, at Canterbury ; observing the troops, as they marched past in green scarfs and feathers, and summer gaiety, on the way to welcome his majesty. “ The General,” he said, “ had none of these with him at Coldstream :-grasshoppers and butterflies never come abroad in frosty weather.”
After the restoration of the pretended parliament, upon the revolt and repentance of the English army in and about London, Colonel Salmon came post to inform Major General Lambert of the posture of affairs. The latter instantly quits Newcastle, and conceals himself, first, in Yorkshire, and afterwards in London. So that a gentleman that had lately triumphed over the Cheshire insurgents, and come down to the North with an army able to swallow all Scotland, has now not where to lay his head. The great ones that had attended him on his journey, and the preachers that had addressed him at his several stages with prayers and flattering sermons, now have the impudence to meet General Monk with their thanksgivings.
The General, when he received intelligence of Lambert's retreat, was already on his march. On the night of the 2nd of January his quarters were at Wellar, where we did eat and lodge like Christians ; but we had not been long retired to rest when a messenger from the Rump arrives, and obliges us to rise out of bed, though the night was extremely cold and snowed liberally. Their letter consisted of six lines as cold as the night, informing us how they were (unhappily) got together again ; and because something was wanted to fill up the space, they put in thanks at the conclusion. The same messenger brought orders for Lambert's forces to disperse to their quarters, and one little better to us, but that we resolved not to understand him. The General put a good face on the matter; the whole army was halted on its march, and the letter read at the head of the several regiments, the foot standing knee-deep in snow, and shouting very hard to get themselves into some heat, and many