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This gentleman, who had proved his skill and conduct abroad, both in France and Flanders, did the more willingly charge himself with the message, as he had resolved to join with General Monk at all hazards. Nevertheless, would he act like a soldier, and, as a man of honour, deliver his message first; and then, if the General would not consent to the proposition, why he was at liberty to join with him. This ttle man was of more worth, at that time, to us than the seventeen score of officers that had deserted. With General Morgan came also John Troutbeck, doctor in physick and chirurgeon, whose company the General always loved,* and who was very pleasing to all the officers of the army.

He brought an assurance from the Lord Fairfax, that his Lordship would not fail to be assistant to the General; which message was kept very private, that his Lordship might meet with no prevention.

After divers letters and messages, the General's council of officers did agree to treat, and that too at London; and three commissioners were sent with public instructions from the council and private directions from the General. The latter respected the use they were to make of their eyes, and ears, and discretion, in sounding the state of matters on the spot. But, on their arrival in London, they were made almost prisoners, and watched day and night; till, by importunity and false rumours of the General's army having deserted him, the English officers extorted from them their consent to a treaty.

There was in the General's quarters at this time a gentleman of good parts and well bred, who had come down as a mediator from the English army. Him they sounded on the subject of Lambert, and affected to wonder why a person of valour and some honour, like that leader, should engage with persons that had neither one nor the other; hinting, that if he would withdraw his opposition, the lieutenancy of Ireland might easily be obtained. The gentleman, having first desired to hear this assurance from the General's own mouth, communicates it to Lambert, who is said to have returned for answer, “ that he was not able to govern that unruly army, to which he was the head.”

Though a treaty was on foot, the wiser sort looked for no good from it, and therefore all diligence was used to newmodel the army. Several regiments were drawn down towards Edinburgh; and some loose companies, that were quartered nearer, were ordered to be enrolled along with them; but the officers of the latter deserted, and the soldiers themselves re

* “ He [the Duke of Albemarle) is grown a drunken sot, and drinks with nobody but Troutbecke; whom nobody else will keep company with."- Pepys, in his Diary.


fused to engage, unless they might have the election of their officers,-a pleasant notion, but withal to be borne with, for a civil war admits not of severe discipline. So they must needs choose their own serjeants and corporals; but, like the people of Capua, in Pacuvius bis time, all were for being commanders, and none for being commanded; whereupon they, at last, consented to receive such as their superiors appointed. Thus did we see a comedy, that had heretofore been enacted at London, represented in Musselburgh. “Man's extremity is God's opportunity; and the greatest anarchy is the readiest means to a just settlement."

And now the General, by his letters to the shires and burghs of Scotland, calls a convention to meet at Edinburgh ; whither, accordingly, repaired a brave show of nobles and burghers, to whom he tenders a proposal, that, seeing the ne-. cessity he was under of marching into England to free it from the usurpation and tyranny of the army, they should forthwith advance the assessments that were in arrear; craving also their advice how the country of Scotland might be preserved in peace, and what order should be kept in the Highlands and Borders to prevent plunderings and misdemeanors in his ab

After taking time to deliberate, the convention answered, by the mouth of the Earl of Glencairn, that they humbly thanked the General for consulting them on his great affairs; and for his desire touching the assessments, that they would take especial heed to advance them timely enough for his march; which they faithfully performed. Now, some do think that the Scotch raised the money “ upon their own account;" but it is a mistake, for Scotland was at that time, with all its people, very poor, though very loyal; and they offered bravely to raise 20,000 men, officered with the best nobility of all Scotland, and to march along with the General. The Scots' fingers did itch to be handling arms, like as children will cry for the knife that has heretofore cut their fingers. The General was sensible of their great loyalty; and, had his troops not stood firm, would have engaged with them, and resolutely have espoused the king's quarrel. Thus were the Scotch 'nation furtherers of the king's restoration; and thereby did witness to all the world, that, though deluded, they were not obstinate sinners against his majesty; the name of Commonwealth being odious to them even as the worst of tyrannies.

The General having now, about the 10th of November, drawn down his forces to the south, all new-modelled and officered, very brisk and courageous; and being at Haddington, in order to his journey to the Borders, was, as he sat 'one night at supper, saluted with the agreement which his own commissioners had entered into with the officers at London. Having

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read it, he hands it over in silence to his officers, without ex• pressing so much as an opinion thereupon; but they fall into a rage at it, as a thing destructive not only of their interests but of those of the three nations. Next day the General, having returned to Edinburgh, comes into the public room, where he walks up and down very melancholy and dark, but says not a word all the while. One with whom he was always wont to be free and pleasant, in what humour soever he was, happening to enter the room, the General, who had not as yet spoken a word to any of his officers, cries out to him, “How now, what say you to this agreement?”—“ Truly, sir," returns the other, “I hear so well of it, that I am come to make a little request; even that you would sign me a pass to go into Holland; and, by good luck, yonder is a ship at Leith ready to sail.”—“What,” demands the General, “ will you leave me?"_“I know not," replies the other, “how you may shift for yourself, with your greatness, but I doubt they will never rest till they have torn from you your command; and what they will do with you then, it concerns yourself to consider. But as for me, poor though I am, I will not put myself in their power ;-it will not be for my safety.” To this the General answers hastily, “ Do you lay the blame on me? If the army will stick to me, I will stick to the army.” Upon his saying which, all present gave him assurance, that they would live and die with him; and such was the joy among the officers, that some expressed it with tears in their eyes ; for all had been ready to mutiny. because of that agreement. For their honesty and gallantry herein, these officers (wheresoever they be) deserve his majesty's gracious favour; for had they tamely entertained this agreement, those, that now boast of having done his business without them, might not have worn so much as a head upon their shoulders.

And now there is another face on things-the General serene and cheerful-officers merry and jovial-being agreed, not indeed openly to refuse the agreement, but to demur upon some of the articles, as being vague or obscure, and by desiring explanation thereof to suspend the confirmation of the whole. To this politic suspension they owe their success; for time was thus given to many designs, which they knew to be on foot both in Ireland and England, to come to maturity. Before this time was Lambert come to Newcastle with all his forces, though ill provided with money; and his army itself a miscellany of confused interests jumbled together, some being for the parliament, some creatures of Fleetwood's, who were not hearty in the cause, lest Lambert should prevail, and give their master a lift out of his command; others, again, entertaining a strong affection for General Monk, and some not knowing whether most to fear Lambert's open ambition, or Monk's concealed intentions. Thus, though in appearance formidable, the English army was in reality weak; whereas the General's, being new-modelled, wholly depended upon himself and had but one mind.

The General now sets forth a second time from Edinburgh, and the Scots seem to part sadly with their old guests ;; and sure never soldiers left a country where they had been enemies, with such high testimonies of kindness. The head quarters being now at Berwick, the old course of scolding and expostulating is resumed ; and the English officers press the General to renew the treaty, whilst he craves time to speak. with his commissioners, who, as having debated the articles, could best explain them; and it might be that their explanation would spare the trouble of any further treating. All this was, however, only to gain time which is always precious, but which, in this juncture, did save much blood; and artifices to avoid shedding blood are most justifiable, for he must be a cruel beast that delights in so savage an employment.

Some time before this, the General had sent letters to the Lord Mayor and common-council, in which he set forth that. the authors of the violence done to Parliament had assumed a power, without consent of the people first had in Parliament, to raise money and make laws and repeal them; that if this were allowed, it was to no purpose that the people had expended their blood and treasure; that religion was not the subject of controversy, as "all were agreed for liberty of conscience;" that under an unlimited arbitrary power there was no certainty to them for their estates, liberties, or lives; and that if the General should miscarry for want of their timely aid, it would be too late for them then to attempt the recovery of their freedom, whilst, if he succeeded, it would be dishonourable for a City, so renowned, to have no share in asserting its own liberty. These incontrovertible statements did much awaken the City; and thus, though the General's sword had heretofore marked him with great honour, yet now his

pen did win for him much more. And, as was said of Philip the Second of Spain, (though it be a bold allusion) that with a goose-quill he had ruled the old world and the new, so, with the same implement, did the General raise and arm three nations. *

About the sixth of December came intelligence, that a

* These compositions, which were to gain the General more fame than his sword, were, no doubt, written by the reverend author himself.


party of Lambert's, consisting of three regiments of horse and one of dragoons, with two drakes, were marched into Northumberland, and had possessed themselves of Chillingworth castle, intending, it was thought, to seize the rents of the Lord Gray of Wark; howbeit this treasure they of the Scottish army had been beforehand with them in securing, and did afterwards safely restore. Upon this the General gets on horseback, by two in the morning, to visit the fords down the Tweed; and it being dark, and the ways covered with ice, and all up bill and down hill, we might well say we were set in slippery places for it was God's mercy that some of our necks were not broken, which, I fear me, the fanatics did heartily pray for. The General was so intent on his observations, that though we "entreated his great care,” he would keep a good pace; acting herein like the Theban Captain, who said, it was for private men to take care of themselves, but not for those to whom was committed the care of others. At eleven o'clock, the General took his quarters at Coldstream, where we found a regiment of foot already stationed: the honest red-coats bade us heartily welcome, but the knaves had eaten up all the meat, and drank all the drink of the town. The General being lodged, fell to his usual cheer-chcwing tobacco, which he used highly to commend: but this not being cheer to satisfy younger stomachs, a party of us, finding nothing in Coldstream to buy or sell, speeded to a hill about half a mile from the town, to look out for some gentleman's house. There we got sight of the Lord of Hume's chimneys, who lived half a mile further on; and riding hard to overtake a dinner, we found this noble earl, by whom we were entertained. We had all the civilities of the house, and among them the grace-cup, which is a great dish or cogue, with two handles, that would hold a good pail-fuli ; and yet, they told us, that several persons thereabout would empty it at a draught; so we concluded that these thirsty souls had been Jately at Coldstream, and drunk it dry. On our return we found our General fasting devoutly, and, I hope, praying too. He told us he had sent to Berwick for provisions, and so pacified us, who were exclaiming against the place we were in, where was nothing to drink but water, and that covered with ice so thick as could scarcely be broken.

Neither durst we cry “Roast-meat,” and tell our adventures, where we had been, for so envious is the world that men are forced to hide their happiness for quietness' sake.

Making what shift we could that night, a new confederacy of us, next day, resolve on a foot party to cross the Tweed upon the ice; an excursion not quite so safe, both by reason of the way, and Lambert's dragoons. But nothing could prevail on us to forbear treading on English ground, which we all thought

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