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accumulation Adam Smith advantage agricultural amount applied capital capitalist causes circulating capital circumstances commodities competition condition considerable consumed consumption cost of production cultivation dealers degree demand depends diminished division of labour duction ductive effect employment England equal exchange exchange value exertion exist expense farmer farms favourable fixed flax France funds greater habits human hundred quarters improvement income increase individual industry Ireland kind labouring classes land landlord Law of Value less limited machinery manufacture manure material means ment metayer mode natural necessary obtained occupation operations paid peasant permanent persons political economy population portion possession present principle produce productive labour profit proportion proprietors purchase quantity rate of profit remuneration render rent saving society soil subsistence sufficient supply suppose surplus taxes things tion unproductive wages wealth whole workmen yield
Сторінка 245 - A greater number of people cannot, in any given state of civilization, be collectively so well provided for as a smaller. The niggardliness of nature, not the injustice of society, is the cause of the penalty attached to overpopulation. An unjust distribution of wealth does not aggravate the evil, but, at most, causes it to be somewhat earlier felt. It is in vain to say that all mouths which the increase of mankind calls into existence bring with them hands.
Сторінка 166 - ... the invention of a great number of machines which facilitate and abridge labour, and enable one man to do the work of many.
Сторінка 164 - ... performed two or three distinct operations. But though they were very poor, and therefore but indifferently accommodated with the necessary machinery, they could, when they exerted themselves, make among them about twelve pounds of pins in a day.
Сторінка 295 - sacredness of property " is talked of, it should always be remembered, that any such sacredness does not belong in the same degree to landed property. No man made the land. It is the original inheritance of the whole species. Its appropriation is wholly a question of general expediency. When private property in land is not expedient, it is unjust.
Сторінка 268 - ... if this, or Communism, were the alternative, all the difficulties, great or small, of Communism, would be but as dust in the balance.
Сторінка 471 - ... first, the agreeableness or disagreeableness of the employments themselves ; secondly, the easiness and cheapness, or the difficulty and expense of learning them ; thirdly, the constancy or inconstancy of employment in them ; fourthly, the small or great trust which must be reposed in those who exercise them ; and fifthly, the probability or improbability of success in them.
Сторінка 267 - If, therefore, the choice were to be made between Communism with all its chances, and the present state of society with all its sufferings and injustices; if the institution of private property necessarily carried with it as a consequence, that the produce of labour should be apportioned as we now see it, almost in an inverse ratio to the labour...
Сторінка 165 - But if they had all wrought separately and independently, and without any of them having been educated to this peculiar business, they certainly could not each of them have made twenty, perhaps not one pin in a day...
Сторінка 473 - A mason or bricklayer, on the contrary, can work neither in hard frost nor in foul weather, and his employment at all other times depends upon the occasional calls of his customers. He is liable, in consequence, to be frequently without any. What he earns, therefore, while he is employed, must not only maintain him while he is idle, but make him some compensation for those anxious and desponding moments which the thought of so precarious a situation must sometimes occasion.