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iron used in their construction. A is dried. If a shower of rain falls, large tree, the length of the vessel as well as during the night, the heaps runs along the bottom, to which the of wheat on the shore are thrown to timbers are secured. This roughly- gether in the form of the steep roof cut keel rises nine or ten inches of a house, that the rain may run from the floor, and hurdles are laid off, and are covered with a linen on it, which extend to the sides. cloth. It is thus frequently a long They are covered with mats, made time after the wheat has reached of rye straw, and serve the purpose Dantzic before it is fit to be placed of dunnage, leaving below a space in in the warehouses. " which the water that leaks through Dantzic, which is by far the greatthe sides and bottom is received, and est port for corn in the north, has this is dipped out at the end and warehouses capable of storing 500,000 sides of the bulk of wheat. Vessels quarters, but had only a stock of of this description draw only from 288,000. Bremen receives wheat ten to twelve inches of water, and from Brunswick, &c. and had a yet they frequently get aground in stock of 27,900 quarters. Hamdescending the river. The cargoes burgh receives wheat from the counusually consist of from 180 to 200 tries along the Elbe as far as Bohequarters of wheat.
mia. The best comes from that The wheat is thrown on the mats, country (a distance of 400 miles); piled as high as the gunwale, and but the freight by the river is about left uncovered, exposed to all the in- 12s., tolls 35. 6d., charges Is. d., clemencies of the weather, and the and this heavy expense acts as a propilfering of the crew. During the hibition, except in seasons of great passage, which varies from three to scarcity. Hamburgh receives wheat four or five hundred miles, the barge also from Russia and Denmark. is carried along by the force of the Stock about 100,000 quarters, but stream, oars being merely used at its annual average exports for ten the head and stern, to steer clear of years have only been 48,000 quarthe sand-banks, which are numerous ters. Denmark has but little wheat and shifting, and to direct the vessel to export, and part of that goes to in passing under the several bridges. supply the consumption of HamThese vessels are conducted by six burgh; and Mr Jacob thinks that or seven men. A small boat pre- the whole quantity of wheat in store cedes, with a man in it, who is em- in that kingdom in October last ployed in sounding, in order to avoid scarcely amounted to 20,000 quar. the shifting shoals. This mode of ters. navigating is necessarily very slow; " Mr Jacob found very little wheat and during the progress of it, which stored at Warsaw, Sassimir, Pula lasts several weeks, and even months, way, and other places on the Vistula, the rain, if any falls, soon causes which have warebouses capable of the wheat to grow, and the vessel storing vast quantities of grain. At assumes the appearance of a floating Cracow, the warehouses, which are meadow. The shooting of the fibres extensive, were quite empty. soon forms a thick mat, and prevents The whole stock of wheat stored the rain from penetrating more than in the north is brought into view by an inch or two. The main bulk is Mr Jacob as follows: protected by this kind of covering, and when that is thrown aside, is
Quarters found in tolerable condition. The
Dantzic and Elbing, vessels are broken up at Dantzic,
Lubeck, and usually sell for about two-thirds
. . . 29,900 of their original cost. The men who
458,503 conduct them return on foot. When the cargo arrives at Dantzic
Conjectural. or Elbing, all but the grown sur- Denmark, . . . 25,000 face is thrown on the land, spread Rostock and Wismar,
25,000 abroad, exposed to the sun and air, Petersburg, Riga, and Memel, 100,000 and frequently turned over, till any moisture that it may have imbibed Carry forward, 608,508
361,500 Qurters. whole mass of consumers, now so Brought over, . 608,503 anxiously wish. If a brisker trade In ports in the North Sea,
in foreign corn were to increase the as ascertained :
quantities produced abroad, there Hamburgh, . . . 105,000
seems the strongest reason, from Mr Bremen, . . . 27,970
Jacob's statements, to conclude, that
the prices abroad would rise so high, Total, . 741,473 from increased freights and tolls on
the rivers, and other sums charged Mr Jacob was assured, that of the higher in proportion to the larger wheat thus accumulated in these demand for corn, that there would different ports, nearly one-fourth be no danger of a competition matewas of so bad a quality as to find no rially to injure land-owners at home. market in this country, except in With a very low duty on the foseasons of uncommon dearth. If, reign importations, no danger would then," he adds, “ 556,330 quarters, arise to our too sensitive landlords, or three-fourths of the whole corn even in years of the greatest plenty in the storehouses, were brought to abroad. England, it would not be more than ten days consumption.” How utter The Prussian provinces, which ly absurd, therefore, are the terrors have access to the Baltic Sea, comof our agriculturists, that the prices prehend East Prussia, West Prussia, of grain would become ruinously and Pomerania. - From official doculow, even by the opening of the ports ments obtained by Mr Jacob, these to the freest admission of foreign provinces appear to have exported corn! The whole quantity of wheat 447,000 quarters of wheat, and consumed in this country in a year 1,218,916 quarters of rye, barley, and has been estimated, and, we believe, oats, beyond their own growth, in with tolerable accuracy, at fourteen eight years previous to 1824. millions of quarters. Would the ad. - Villenage existed in these Prusmission of a thirtieth part of this sian provinces till 1807, but has now grain from abroad overturn the been abolished, and the right of pos. whole of our agricultural prosperity ? sessing land, which belonged excluWould it throw out of cultivation a sively to the nobility, has been exsingle acre of land, which any man tended to all classes. The land is of ordinary prudence had thought fit either held in very large estates by to bring into cultivation ? It is true, great proprietors, or in very small that some very inferior land would portions, sufficient for half the susbe necessarily abandoned by the tenance of a peasant's family. With plough; but are imprudence and very trifling exceptions, each landfolly, when manifested in the culti- lord farms his own ground, and there vation of land, alone to be protected are no tenants, in our sense of the from the natural consequences of term, except on the domains of the their own proceedings ? The heavy Crown; and in these the farmers, for charges for warehousing, freight, in some years, have merely paid taxes, surance, commission, &c., which the low prices having rendered them must always attach to foreign corn, unable to pay rent. These domains ought to be the only protection ; and are let at from 6d. to 3s. 8d, an acre, we conceive they would, in the na- and may average about Is. 3d. Land tural state of the great corn market capable of cultivation sells only at of the world, be an adequate protec- from 15s. to 40s. English money per tion to our corn-growers; and thus, acre. as soon as we revert to the sound These three provinces contain aprinciples of free intercourse, not one bout 25,000,000 of acres (two-thirds acre will ever be thrown out of cul- the extent of England); the soil tivation in this country which ever generally level and sandy; and upon deserved to be cultivated. Besides these there were, in 1819, 557,000 all this, the great object would be horses, 1,171,000 cows, oxen, &c. attained of steadiness in the supply 2,050,000 sheep, and 617,000 swine. and price of corn,-an object for In England, the proportion of which landlords and tenants, and the horses, cows, and sheep, to the same surface, is from three to four times Of a list of 262 estates in West Prusas great. Hence, there is little sia shown to Mr Jacob by an official inanure to keep up the fertility of person, 195 were encumbered with the soil; and the most intelligent mortgages, and of these 71 were unagriculturists do not estimate the der sequestration. produce of wheat, rye, barley, and The abolition of feudal tenures oats, at more than four times the has raised the bondsmen to the rank seed. Mr Jacob thinks it does not of small proprietors. They generally. exceed three times. The farmers raise on their patches of land potafallow every third year, by plough- toes and bread-corn for themselves, ing three times when rye is to be with provision for two oxen, and sown, or five times for wheat, and sometimes for five or six sheep, whose allowing the land to rest without any wool, with a little flax, spun by crop the whole year. Very little of themselves, supply them with clothes. the land is fit for raising wheat. They consume nearly all their proRye is the grain universally con, duce themselves. Labourers receive sumed by the working classes, and about 5d. per day. There are small is even generally preferred to wheat local assessments for the support of by the wealthy. Hence, if there be the poor. no foreign demand for wheat, only a The value of live stock is low, very little of it can be sold for pastry, The best Merino sheep sell at 6s. or &c. A crop of barley or oats fol. 6s. 8d ; cows from 30s. to 65s. The lows wheat or rye, and thus the land land tax is 25 per cent. on the rent, bears corn only two years out of the land being valued and divided three; and the second crop does not into six classes, whose estimated yield more than three times the seed. rents rise from 73. to 4s. per acre. From a table given in the Appendix, The tax does not come to 3d. per acre it appears that in 1824, which was on an average in the three maritime considered a good year, 4864 culti, provinces, and yet it is found to be vated acres yielded only 10,000 quare very oppressive. There are no tithes, ters. Since the English market was the clergy receiving a fixed quantity closed against foreign corn, very lit of corn from the proprietors, in purtle wheat is raised, and the proprie, suance of an ancient arrangement. tors are now devoting their attention The military service is felt to be a to Merino sheep. Potatoes are cul. grievous burden. Every young man tivated, but, what appears strange, serves three years in the army, from chiefly for distillation. Every well the age of twenty-one to twentymanaged farm has a distillery annex four. ed to it, and the calculation is, that The Provincial States in their last two bushels of potatoes yield as much Session presented an address to the ardent spirit as one of barley, and King, complaining heavily of the dethe residuum, with which draft bul pressed state of agriculture," and locks are fed, still retains two-thirds urging the King to take some meaof the alimentary power originally sures of a decided nature respecting in the potatoes. Generally nine the introduction of British goods, in bushels of potatoes are mixed with order to induce our Government to one of malt. The spirit, which is wake some alteration in the Corn of our proof strength (50 per cent. Laws. The reply of the King, which alcohol), pays 6d. per gallon duty, has been published, gives an air of and is sold to retailers at ls. 2d. per probability to the rumours, that it gallon. Sometimes the potatoes are had an object in some degree of this converted into treacle, and this is kind." With regard to the prayer said to pay, though the manufacture for an intercession with the English of sugar from them did not. (The Government to repeal the Corn Bill, measures and the money referred to his Majesty expressed a hope, that, by Mr Jacob, conformably to his in- to improve the intercourse between structions, are always those of Eng- the two nations, a change will take land.)
place in the English Corn Laws.The free produce of the land is Berlin, 26th November 1825, from extremely small, and hence nearly the Hamburgh paper The Corresponall the estates are under mortgage. dent.
From documents put into his the rains of autumn, and the melting of hands by a man high in office, Mr the snow on the Carpathian mountains Jacob estimates the cost of produ. in the spring, they form large chatinels, cing wheat on average soils at 28s. 9d.
extending on both sides to a great dis. per quarter ; and from a very detailed tance ; and their deposit, in many parts, table in the Appendix, it appears that enriches the land, and it presents, in the the average price of wheat sold at
summer, the aspect of verdant and lux. Dantzic and Elbing for exportation
uriant meadows. In other parts the peri
odical swellings of the streams have form. from 1791 to 1825, was 455. 11d.
ed morasses, which, in their present state, per quarter.
are not applicable to any agricultural : « Although, since the return of
purposes. The plains which extend from peace, no alleviation of the public the border of one river to another, are contributions has been applied, and open fields, with scarcely any perceptible no diminution of the other subjects division of the land, and shewing scarcely of expenditure, which compose the any trees even around the villages. The cost of growing corn, has been expe- portion of woodland on these plains is rienced, yet the contrast between the very extensive ; but they are in large first and last five years since that masses, with great intervals of arable event took place, in the prices of corn, land between them. is so striking, that it deserves to be The soil is mostly sandy, with occa, noticed. In Dantzic the average of sional mixture of a sandy loam ; it is very the five years, from 1816 to 1820 in
thin, resting chiefly on a bed of granite, clusive, gives for wheat 54s. 5d. per
through which the heavy rains gradually quarter, and that for the years 1821
percolate. Such a soil is easly ploughed ; to 1825 inclusive, 26s. 2d. In Ber
sometimes two horses or two oxen, and lin, the average for the first five years
not unfrequently two cows, perform this
and the other operations of husbandry. is 468 4d. and for the second 26s. 7d."
This representation of the kingdom of With these details, we must close
Poland is strictly applicable to six of the our notice of the state of the Prus
eight waiwodeships or provinces into sian provinces which have access to which it is now divided. the sea. Let us now advert to Mr T o the south of the river Pilica, (200 Jacob's statements, in reference to miles from the sea) which comprehends Poland. His details of the state of the two provinces of Sandomir and Cra. agriculture in this country are even cow, the appearance of the land and the more novel and interesting than those face of the country improve; and in prowhich relate to Prussia.
ceeding south to the banks of the Vistula, We shall lay before our readers, there is to be seen a more undulating in the words of Mr Jacob himself,
district, and a more tenacious and fruitful as much of his Report as we find
soil. Much of the land is a clayey loam, that our limits for the present month
requiring three or four horses to plough will admit. The net produce of the
it, yielding, when tolerably managed, soil in Poland above the gross pro
crops of excellent wheat and oats; and
where the husbandry is so good as to have duce is surprisingly small, and may
adopted the practice of sowing clover be partly accounted for by the ex- between the two corn crops, the produce haustion which the soil is undergo- is very abundant. The southern point of ing by overcropping, and the want of this district, forming now an independ. manure to renew its fertility,-by the ent Republic, called, from the name of unskilful and comparatively very ex- its capital, Cracow, is very fertile. It pensive manner in which the opera, extends along the Vistula about 20 miles, tions of agriculture are carried on, and contains in 500 square miles, or and chiefly by the want of easily-ac- 320,000 acres, about 100,000 inhabicessible markets for the sale of pro- tants. duce.
Some of the estates in Poland, belong
ing to the nobility of the highest rank, The far greater part of that division of are of enormous extent; but owing to the ancient Poland which is now compre system of dividing the land among all hended in the viceregal kingdom of that the children, unless a special entail sename, is a level country, with scarcely cures a majorat to the eldest son, which an ascent or descent, except where the is in some few instances the case, much courses of the rivers have formed chan- of it is possessed in allotments which we nels below the general level of the coun. should deem large, but wbich, on actry. As these rivers, though in summer count of their low value, and when com. they appear small streams, are swollen by pared with those of a few others, are not
so. Of these secondary classes of estates, who traffics in foreign loans and foreign 5,000 or 6,000 acres would be deemed exchanges, down to the lender of small small, and 30,000 or 40,000 acres large. sums, which the poor can obtain by
There are, besides these, numerous pledging their miserable furniture or im. small properties, some of a few acres, plements. which, by frequent subdivisions, have de. An estimate was made by a person scended to younger branches of noble eminently skilled in the value of land, families. The present owners are com who formed it upon actual sales made in monly poor, but too proud to follow any the last four years. He divided it into profession but that of a soldier, and pre- three classes, according to their fertility. fer to labour in the fields with their own The lowest land in a state of cultivation, hands rather than to engage in trade of with good building and a competent any kind. As titles descend to every son, number of peasants, he stated to be worth and are continued through all the succes. one thousand florins the huff Valuing sors, the nobility have naturally become the florins at sixpence, though worth a very numerous ; but since the Emperor fraction less, and taking the huff of thirty of Russia has gained the dominion over Magdeburg morgens as equal to twentyPoland, the use of titles has been re. two English acres, the estimate would be stricted. No one can assume that of a fraction less than twenty-ttoo shillings Baron, unless his clear income from his sterling the English acre. The other estates exceed 1,000 gulden, or £.25; kinds of arable.land of superior qualities none that of Count, whose rents are less vary. The great mass is of the second 3,000 gulden, or £.75; and none that class, or worth about thirty shillings; of Prince, who has less than 5,000 gul but some is estimated at five thousand den, or £.125.
florins the huff, or five pounds ten shil. Various important details on the
lings; but little, however, is in this state of Polish society and agricul
class, and that little is in the vicinity of
the cities, on the banks of the great ri. ture follow, which we regret we
vers, or in some favoured spots in the have not room to insert. We must
southern provinces. This estimate was close with the following quotation : ,
canon. rather founded on the state of affairs Among the real Poles, there is no re. three or four years ago, than in their gular gradation of ranks between the present condition ; for I was told that noble proprietor and the wretched pea. such a number of estates had lately been santry. The polish gentry are too proud offered for sale, that no price could be to follow any course but the military obtained for the greater part. career ; and the Government, by its large The Jews are almost exclusively the standing army, encourages the feeling, dealers in money. They are precluded though the pay is scarcely sufficient to from becoming landed proprietors, and supply the officers with their expensive their exclusion from the market tends to uniforms. The church has too few pri. depress the prices in a very great degree. zes, among many thousand blanks, to Though some of the richer individuals of induce any but the lower classes to enter that people pass through the ceremony of on that profession. The offices of Go. baptism, especially when they have mort. vernment can employ but few, and those gages on large estates, and mean to foreare ill paid, and said to depend on small close ; the whole number of those who peculations, rather than on their salaries. thus become qualified to purchase, bears Whatever difficulties may present them. but a small proportion to that of the selves to the placing out young men of properties that are offered for sale. I good family, none have had recourse to was assured from so many, and such vacommerce ; and if they had, such would rious quarters, that I have no reason to be treated by others as having lost their doubt the report, that almost every estate caste, and descended to a lower rank of is deeply involved in debt. The bankers society. The manufacturers and the of Warsaw discount each other's drafts at artizans in Poland are almost all of the per cent. per month, but 10 per cent. German nation. If a joiner, painter, may in general be easily obtained for mason, tailor, shoemaker, or a person of money. other similar occupations, including, too, Cows are of various races, and, I think, the medical profession, is wanted, he differ more in their value than in any will commonly be found only among country I ever visited. The common the Germans. The merchants, bankers, breed of the country are worth about and traders, are nearly as exclusively of 278. or 28s. per head. The Ukraine, or the Jewish race, and that, too, of all the best, from Podolia, are estimated classes, from the importer of wines and much higher, averaging £.3; and some, colonial produce to the dealer in rags few, very good, are worth £. 4.10s. and old clothes,- from the monied man Flocks of sheep vary too, but not so