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country. In a limited sense, they idea is monstrous; and yet this Rea are colonies; but then they are es. viewer will insist on the vital importsential to the protection of our com- ance to the revenue and naval power merce in the Mediterranean, and to of this country, of keeping these the maintenance of our superiority colonies, drenched as they are with there, in case of hostilities with a so much human gore, and daily witnaval power. The expenditure on nesses of so much human suffering, these garrisons is therefore justifi- in the enjoyment of all the privileges able, on the plain principle, that which their owners have so long cona they do afford an equivalent, nay, tinued to abusé. far more than an equivalent, to the But the chief part of the article mother country, for that expense, in is devoted to a consideration of the the duties and profits drawn from importance of our North-American the trade of the Levant, which by colonies. The writer has most their means is rendered secure, and egregiously mistaken the views of in the advantage which their posses. Mr MacCulloch, when he states that sion gives in case of a naval war. this gentleman advises the giving up

Among other perverse and igno- all trade and connection with Canada, rant attempts made by this Review and our other provinces in that quarto support every established abuse, ter. We cannot conceive any more we may refer particularly to the bias violent perversion of all the prinit has always had to the maintenance ciples that it has been the object of of slavery in the West Indies, and the modern school of Political Econoconsequently of all those iniquitous my to inculcate, than that any one legislative proceedings by which branch of profitable commerce should slavery is upheld, and almost ren be abandoned. All that is said comes dered necessary. In speaking of our to this, if England can obtain better colonial system, therefore, the Re and cheaper timber from the Baltic viewer must attack the doctrines of than from Canada, and if by the those who, reasoning on the princi commerce with the Baltic she obples of common sense, in opposition tains a more profitable and extensive to those of sordid monopoly, argue market for her manufactures than that the ports of England should be the Canadas ever afforded, or ever open to the importation of tropical will afford, let not England sacrifice productions, and especially of sugar, this advantageous and comparatively from every quarter of the world, at home-market, for the sake of pama an equal duty. They state the fact, pering a colony, which, in a short that a single district of Bengal could time, must either become an inderaise, by free labour, as much sugar pendent state, or be merged in the as could supply the wants of all federal republic of North America. Europe, if an equality of duty were The glaring iniquity of the present established on the productions of the scale of duties on foreign and coloEast and West Indies. The Quar- “nial tiinber has been pointed out in terly Reviewer, however, thinks fit so satisfactory and convincing a to ineet these reasonings and state- manner in the last Number of the ments by an argument ad terrorem. Edinburgh Review, which, we pre" If you do any thing to render less sume, most of our readers have seen, tight the monopolizing grasp of the that we judge it unnecessary to adWest-India Planters, you imme- vért farther to the subject than to diately destroy a revenue of five state, that, independently altogether millions a-year, derived from the of the great additional charge for importations from these colonies." freight from Canada, compared with Is it possible to suppose, that a that from the Baltic, a duty is laid revenue would fall off, when the on Baltic timber, varying from six same ability remained to purchase to nearly ten times the amount of tropical productions, after the ports that applicable to Canadian timber; of the kingdom were thrown open to while, at the same time, it was comthe world, and when, from the pletely proved before the committees greater field of competition, these of Parliament on the timber trade, commodities became much cheaper that more than a half of all the timthan they can be obtained now? The ber called Canadian is actually proVOL. XVIII.

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duced in the Western territory of on the Bench some allusion to that the State of New York! Far be it frightful event. Some Jobn Doe from us to undervalue the commerce and Richard Roe came with a cause of any quarter of the world, much before his Lordship. John sought less of colonies so much attached to that Richard should be ordained to this country as those of the Canadas remove a dungbill as a nuisance, are; but let that commerce be found and more especially as it was a nur. ed on a mutual interchange of bene, sery of rats. His Lordship, how. fits. As matters stand at present, ever, gave his opinion in favour of the benefit is entirely on the side of Richard, confirming the rights of the colony, without the possibility of Richard and the rats. “ Thankful obtaining in any one shape, on the may Richard be," said the antipart of England, any corresponding revolutionary Judge, " that he lives advantage. England suffers in two under the protection of the free and ways by the unnatural fostering of happy constitution of this country, this settlement: in the first place, where men and rats enjoy equal she pays a high price for an inferior laws; and doubly thankful, that he article; and, in the second place, and the tenants of his dunghill know she loses that beneficial market for nothing of the dreadful convulsions the sale of her produce along the which have desolated revolutionary shores of the Baltic and North Sea, France; and long, very long may which she enjoyed to & vastly greater this country be preserved from the extent previous to the laying on of horrid atrocities of the Robespieres the ill-judged and most impolitic and Marats of that unhappy and induties at present levied on foreign, fatuated country." In such strains not colonial, timber. But it is really does the Quarterly Review sum up needless to waste words on a subject & pleading in favour of colonial jobs which is palpable to the capacities of and abuses. It calls to witness every one, who is not, like the writer heaven and earth, that the Edinof this article, blinded by prejudices, burgh Review is co-operating with most of which have been exploded the enemies of social order, in their more than half a century ago. The nefarious attempts to overtbrow all paragraph of outrageous vitupera- that is most hoary, and venerable, tion with which the writer closes and villanous, in the institutions of this article is worthy of the spirit England ; and hence that, when this which presides over the whole move- Review has demonstrated the folly ments of this Review : he attacks, of maintaining distant and unprofit with incomparable vehemence, the able colonial settlements, it has nomodern opinion upheld by the Edin- thing else in view than to overturn burgh Review, and by all men of the throne and the altar,--to prosense, that the diffusion of education claim the doctrines of liberty and and intelligence among all orders of equality,-to destroy the sacred right the people has been attended with of property,--and to elevate an ige most beneficial effects. The Quar- norant and furious mob to the chief terly Reviewer sees, in the promul- pinnacle of power in our land. Oh, gation of this, and some other doc sapient, and second-sighted Quartrines of its contemporary, the over- terly ! Oh, seditious and short-sightthrow of all social institutions, and ed Edinburgh Review! the most dreadful consequences to . The next article refers to the everhuman society. The horror expresslasting subject of the Poor Laws. ed at the attempts made in the Edin- We observe nothing very particular burgh Review to destroy the wretch- in it, except a recommendation, aped quackeries in politics and political parently backing the bint of Lord economy, which are supported by Liverpool thrown out during last the Quarterly Review, reminds us year, with the view to introduce the very forcibly of the never-varying pe English Poor Laws into Ireland. rorations of the speeches of a late Scot. We should ask no other proof of the tish Judge. This worthy person had utter incompetency of a writer to been so terror-struck with the French open his mouth upon any subject Revolution, that he could never avoid connected with Political Economy lugging into the end of his speeches than the bare whispering of a proposal to introduce the Poor Laws of or additional shillings, are made up England into any corner of the earth, to the labourer out of the general except into the dominions of a more contributions of the parish. Now tal enemy, who was bent on our de. we rejoice to observe the reprobation struction; and even in such a case, with which this wicked system is humanity would induce us to try branded by the Reviewer. He says, some other method than this cruel, " in truth this is an iniquitous but most effective one, to sap the scheme, devised by the owners and foundations of the power of a hostile occupiers of land, with the view of nation. The writer shows some shifting from their own shoulders a glimmerings of sense, however, when considerable part of the wages of he reprobates the present administra- agricultural labourers, to be borne tion of the English Poor Laws, by others who do not employ them. which he seems to make out to be; The allowance made out of the poorin reality, contrary both to the words rates to labourers in agriculture is and spirit of the existing law. The levied upon the property of manusystem which prevails at present facturers, mechanics, and tradesmen ; was introduced about thirty years and the proportion of the rates thus ago, in consequence of the Act 36 raised, which is expended in the Geo. 3. enabling overseers, with the payment of labourers' wages, is unapprobation of the parishioners or justly taken from these classes, and any Justice, to relieve poor persons transferred into the pockets of the at their own houses, in cases of tem- cultivators and owners of land. That porary illness or distress, although a class of men, who in general apthey should refuse to be taken to the pear vigilant enough where their ins work-house. Previous to the year terests are concerned, should thus 1795, when this statute was passed, stand tamely by and suffer themthe English poor-rates fluctuated but selves to be plundered, is a circumlittle in amount: they were expend. stance for which we cannot account.” ed exclusively upon aged, lame, Certainly it does seem rather unacblind, and impotent folk, unable to countable that such things should work, together with a few orphan or happen ; but we may perhaps help illegitimate children, and when it the Reviewer to a sort of solution of became necessary to place an old the difficulty, when we direct his pauper on the parish list, it general. attention to the fact, that parish ly happened that an older pensioner overseers,-a set of men sometimes had died off to make room for him. little interested, at other times not This is the case to the present day at all interested in the economical in almost every agricultural and pas- distribution of the poor funds, are toral parish in Scotland. But by the by law appointed to make this dism Act referred to the overseers of tribution. The evil would be corparishes in England have thought rected, if not entirely remedied, if, themselves warranted in affording as in Scotland, the payers of this indiscriminate assistance to all who tax were made the judges, both of demand parish aid. A scale of wages the sums to be raised, and of the has been fixed capriciously by these manner and quantities in which the overseers; and if the labourer is not produce of the tax was to be distri. able to gain this sum at work, it is buted. There is scarcely an iota of made up to him out of the parish difference between the Poor Laws of funds. Thus, suppose that these England and Scotland ; and yet, till pverseers, in the depth of their wis- very lately, we have never heard of lom, should say that every unmar. one fraction being raised by assessried labourer should receive twelve ment for the support of the rural shillings a-week, and every married population. The fact may be ac labourer should receive fourteen, counted for, by the mode in which with three or four more, in propor our Poor Laws are administered. ion to the number of his children; The third politico-economical artiand suppose that these labourers cle is entitled “ Irish Absentees;" should receive of wages from their and in it the chief object of the mployers only six or seven shillings writer seems to be, to hold up to ri. b-week, the remainder of the twelve, dicule the name of Mr MacCulloch

who maintained some doctrines on abroad,' we admit, at once, that Irethis subject before the committee of land will be impoverished by such a the House of Coinmons last summer, transfer: and the proposal at which which doctrines displease the Quar- the Reviewer hints, of imposing a terly Reviewer, first, because they discriminating tax on the property are embodied in an article in the Edin- of absentees, is just such a measure burgh Review ; secondly, because as would have the undoubted effect they contradict several antiquated of making them sell their land, and notions of the Quarterly Reviewer, carry both capital and the revenue touching the infalliblé integrity, derivable from it out of the country. and intelligence, and undeviatingly It is on this ground that fortunately good moral conduct, of country no such insane proposition has ever 'squires, when kept a-fox-hunting received any countenance in Parliaupon their own estates, instead of ment. The obtuse brain of Old dancing quadrilles and waltzes at Nicholas himself could understand Almack's, or running a muck upon this notion of the matter; and yet hosts of valets and postilions in here is a Reviewer, who, after a Paris and Rome; and, thirdly, be flood of light has been from day to cause the Quarterly Reviewer knows day poured on questions of this nanothing at all about the subject. ture, still continues to broach such Some seven or eight months ago we blundering ideas, which any child took occasion to lay before our read that had read Mrs Marcet's Converers the whole of the evidence which sations on Political Economy would was given by Mr MacCulloch before be ashamed of entertaining. The the select committee of the House best, and indeed the only unexcepof Commons on this eternal subject tionable part of this article, has been of Irish Absenteeism. We subjoin. stolen from one which appeared lateed various additional documents with ly in the Edinburgh Review. It reour own observations on this much- lates to the mischiefs and misery contested question, and we think which have arisen from the minute that sufficient was there brought for subdivision of land in Ireland. The ward to satisfy any one who would Reviewer's opinions entirely coincide trouble himself so far as to study the with our own upon this subject, and subject in its most prominent bear. We rejoice to think that the matter ings, that, as things now stand with has been taken up by Parliament, a regard to Ireland, she is rather bene. Bill having been passed for renderfited than injured by the non-resi. ing all sub-letting of land, without dence of a great portion of her land, the consent of the proprietor, illegal owners. Were these proprietors to and void. In course of time this be gods, knowing good and evil, and measure will, we doubt not, operate doing only good, we will grant that a most beneficial change on the potheir residence on their estates, pulation of that country. It is at though it should not add to the the same time consolatory to be inwealth, might, in some degree, in- formed, that the population which crease the happiness of poor Ireland; may hereafter be ejected, or preventbut as by far the majority of these ed froin settling in the country, will persons happen at present to be only be employed in various manufactures, men, who know rather more, and do which have lately been established rather more of evil than of good, we in some of the principal towns in can have no hesitation in saying, Ireland. Reference is made to the that their continuing abroad is rather salutary change which, in the course a blessing than a curse to Ireland. of the last twenty years, has taken As to the blind and absurd asser- place on the vast estate of the Martion, that the country is drained of quis and Marchioness of Stafford, in its wealth to support these absentees, Sutherlandshire; and the humane we need only remark, that, as long conduct of these personages towards as the capital of Ireland remains, their ejected tenantry, is pointed out and revenue only is sent abroad, no as an excellent example to the Irish harm whatever is done by the fo- landlords, who now appear to be apreign expenditure of her land-owners. plying themselves with vigour to If the capital of Ireland is carried thin the beggarly population on their

estates. It may, however, be re- ! bling; ill-concocted article, giving marked, that the Sutherland estate an account of Denbam and Clapperis not quite the fairy land, or Go- ton's African Discoveries, of which shen, which the Reviewer would wish so much has been heard of late. The us to believe it to be. We appre- writer concludes his summary of the hend that some gentleman, whose work, with a most absurd attempt to imagination rather overcame his maintain an hypothesis, which has senses, must have informed the Re- been repeatedly brought before the viewer of the magnificent fields of public in this Review, namely, that Sutherlandshire, waving with drill the river Niger falls into the Nile. sown wheat equal to any in Norfolk.' No support whatever is given to this We will take upon us to say, that of vague and most improbable conjecthe 750,000 acres of which this great ture in the work of Denham and estate consists, there is not half a Clapperton, and it therefore stands thousand, por a quarter of a thousand, by itself as a specimen of miserable nor even fifty, on which the drill- tomfoolery, engendered in the brain sowing of wheat has been introduced. of the Reviewer himself. We wonA great, a most important benefit, der that he did not try to digest however, has been done by the somewhat better the statements withmeasures pursued by the enlightened in his reach, connected with the visiand humane proprietors, accompa- ble and tangible objects which these nied, no doubt, as every change, interesting travels communicate to even from the most execrably bad us, instead of puzzling his brain, and system to the very best, must always exposing his ignorance, to the sciennecessarily be, with a considerable tific world at home and abroad. We proportion of temporary distress and' do not entertain a doubt, that this misery.

riyer will be found to fall into the sea We shall say very little more of towards the south instead of the east; this Review. There is a sort of a but this matter, so long bid in darknamby-pamby article on Tremaine, ness, will soon, we trust, be brought Matilda, and Granby; three novels to light, by our enterprising countrywhich have lately made some noise men, who have landed at the Bight among the frequenters of Circulating of Benin, with a fairer prospect of Libraries. An Essay on West-India penetrating thence into the interior of affairs follows this. It is an apology Africa, than ever could reasonably be for the planters, and for all the mon- entertained by any former travellers. strous wickedness which accompanies The last article refers to the Life a state of slavery. It deserves not of Sheridan, as written by Dr Watto have any thing more said of it. kins and by Mr Moore;msed jam Next in succession follows a ram- satis.

The Prodigal.
O far, far away, on the limitless sea,
I remember'd the hearts that were breaking for me!
And the deep hollow voices of years that were past
Came more fierce to my soul than the howl of the blast:

For they told me of youth that had dwindled away,
Like a frost-bitten blossom, from hope to decay ;
Of the joys I had cherish'd in life's happy morn,
Like the hours that had brought them--ah! ne'er to return !

For the voice of the tempter my heart had assail'd,
In my dread hour of darkness had come and prevail'd;
And the tempest that rages on Passion's release,
Like the breath of the Evil One, blasted my peace.

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