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long columns of a clear white light, 40 degrees high, of a pale yellowish shooting up from the horizon to the colour, and sent out, on one side, a eastward, almost to the zenith, and process which approached the S. E. gradually spreading over the whole by E. point of the horizon, and on the southern part of the sky. These other was connected with a long recolumns were sometimes bent side- gular arch, terminated in the N. W. Ways at their upper extremities; and horizon, similarly constructed, and though in most respects similar to having the same waving motion with the northern lights of our hemis- the curtain itself. All this time the phere, yet differed from them in be- sky was perfectly clear, except in ing always of a whiteish colour; the southern quarter, which, to the whereas ours assume various tints, height of 4 or 5 degrees, was occupied especially those of a fiery and purple by dark clouds, apparently interme. hue. The sky was generally clear diate between stratus and cirrostrawhen they appeared, and the air tus.” Several theories have been sharp and cold, the thermometer proposed in order to explain the nastanding at the freezing point." ture of this meteoric appearance ;

The most complete series of obser but none of those which have yet vations on the Aurora that has yet been published are satisfactory. The been published, is given by Dr Rich- following account and explanation of ardson, in “ Franklin's Journey to the theory, which were communica. the Shores of the Polar Sea." We ted to me by Dr T. S. Traill of Li. extract the following: “I have verpool, are conclusive ;--the theory never heard any sound that could be agrees entirely with the phenomena, unequivocally considered as originae and leaves, I think, little more to be ting in the Aurora ; but the uniform desired on this subject : “ The extestimony of the natives, both Crees, tent of the Aurora in the Orkneys Copper Indians, and Esquimaux, I never accurately ascertained, but and of all the older residents in the I have occasionally observed it to country, induce me to believe that cover more than two-thirds of the its motions are sometimes audible. canopy of heaven. I once saw an These circumstances are, however, Aurora of a uniform blue colour slowrare, as will appear when I state, that ly rolling from the northern quarter I have now had an opportunity of of a cloudless sky, and extending even observing that meteor for upwards of beyond the zenith ; occasionally its two hundred different nights." The volume expanded so as to involve alAurora, of which the following is a most the whole heavens, presenting description, must have been exceed the magnificent spectacle of a vast ingly beautiful: " When the Au- dome of lambent Hame with a cire rora had exhibited itself in this form cular aperture in the centre. for a considerable space of time, the “ The most usual periods for the whole mass of light suddenly appear occurrence of the Aurora in Orkney ed in motion, and sweeping round on are about the end of autumn, and the each side, was gathered together to end of winter ; but it occasionally octhe southward of the zenith. Im- curs at every season of the year, mediately after, a large portion of it though it is, in general, most vivid was seen in the S. E., assuming an in the absence of moonlight. Some exact resemblance to a curtain sus. philosophers have mentioned, that pended in a circular form in the air, they have heard a peculiar kind of and hanging perpendicular to the poise, like the rushing of air, or the earth's surface. The lower edge of rustling of silk, during the appearthis curtain was very luminous, and ance of the Aurora Borealis ; this is had a waving motion; and the illu. a circumstance, the truth of which I sion was farther heightened by the am able to confirm by repeated obmomentary appearance of perpendi- servations. I am quite certain that cular dark lines, or breaks in the I have heard this rustling noise, light, in rapid succession round the which was once particularly distinct circle, exactly as the waving of a cure as I stood alone, at midnight, on the tain would cause the dark shades of top of a lofty tower, when every thing its folds to move along it. This was still around. The real height beautiful curtain of light was about at which this meteor accurs has never yet been ascertained. In 1716, 1726, from comparing the Aurora Borealis and 1729, the Aurora Borealis was as it appears in our high northern latiobserved in every part of Europe; tudes, with the appearance of the Aubut we do not know that it was the rora Australis as it appears in much very same Aurora which was observe lower southern latitudes. Some phi. ed at distant places, else we could losophers have ascribed the Aurora to ascertain its elevation in the sky. At the inflammation of hydrogen gas in any rate, the Aurora is a meteor which the upper regions of the atmosphere. must be very high in the atmosphere, There is considerable reason to supfrom the distance at which we know pose, that while various processes are one has been visible. It cannot, how going on at the surface of our earth, ever, be higher than the upper limit and particularly during the action of of the atmosphere, which does not evaporation, that some water is deexceed 70 or 80 miles; and it is ex- composed. If this process really goes tremely probable that no Aurora has on, it must be allowed that the hy. ever been observed at an altitude drogen thus liberated, being much greater than 45 miles; and, there lighter than air, would rise to the fore, it follows, that the immense top of the atmosphere, and, after heights given to this meteor, from rolling down the inclined planes observations made by Mairan, and formed by its upper surface, would others, were obtained from false data. accumulate near the poles. If the Mairan (at page 74 Traité Physique electric fluid pass through this hyHistorique de l'Aurore Boreale) has drogen, it may set it on fire, and determined the height of an Aurora thus produce the Aurora. This hy. to be 200 leagues, which is evidenta pothesis is, perhaps, the most plausi. ly false ; but we are to consider that ble that has yet been advanced, to he had a particular object in view account for this extraordinary me he had formed the strange notion teor. The successive ignition of the that the Aurora, as well as the zodi. portions of hydrogen, as they come in acal lights, are both produced by the contact with the oxygen of the air, solar atmosphere. The supposition are supposed to occasion the corruscahas, however, been completely re- tions of the Aurora; and the small . futed by Laplace: for this illustrie quantity of oxygen present in such pus philosopher has proved, that the rare air accounts for the duration of sun's atmosphere cannot extend to the combustion. Granting that this the orbit of Mars, much less then hypothesis is correct, there should can it extend itself as far as the be a vacuum formed towards the orbit of the earth; and, consequente pole by the condensation of the gases, ly, it can never be the cause of the and an Aurora in our hemisphere Aurora. It is evident that the Aurora ought generally to be followed by a cannot be above the earth's atmos- southerly wind. Now, Mr Wynne, phere, because, as it apparently re- in the Philosophical Transactions of mains stationary for several hours, it the Royal Society of London, inmust partake of the common motion forms us, that in twenty-three cases both of the earth and the atmosphere. which he observed, an Aurora was, This meteor increases in brilliancy as without exception, followed by a we advance towards the north ; and, southerly wind. When the Aurora for nearly half the year, it supplies was very brilliant, the south wind the absence of the sun to the shi- came on with considerable force vering tenant of the frigid zone.' within twenty-four hours; when For a long time the northern lights the Aurora was faint, the wind were supposed to be peculiar to the was longer in coming on, was weaker northern hemisphere, but the voy. also, but continued longer. In the ages of discovery in the southern Orkney and Shetland Isles, where ocean, and the increasing intercourse the Aurora is usually much more between the northern and southern brilliant than I recollect ever to have hemispheres, have shown that they seen it in any other part of Britain, prevail also towards the south pole. it is usually reckoned to be the foreThe Aurora Australis has been de runner of a gale ; and I have obscribed as paler than the Aurora Bore. served, after a vivid appearance there, Alis; but, in all probability, this arises in several instances, that it was soon

followed by a strong gale from the dently caused by the frequent disa south, or from the south south-west. turbance in the motion of the needle According to the account given in which the Aurora occasioned ; for

Franklin's Journey to the Shores of on those days when it was not visible, the Polar Seas,' it is evident that, at the mean diurnal variation followed the time of an Aurora, electro-mag- the course Mr Hood had observed it netism is produced; for, at the time of to do at Cumberland House, being the appearance of an Aurora, the mo- most easterly at the time of the first tion of the magnetic needle was dis observation in the morning, and least turbed; and this circumstance is between three and four in the afterquite agreeable to the above hypo- noon. The change in the diurnal thesis. Franklin says, the appeare variation in these parts of North ance of the Aurora, and the disturbo America seems to be governed by ance it occasioned on the motion of the same law as in England, as the the needle at Fort Enterprise, were decrease in easterly variation between so frequent, that the mean monthly the morning and afternoon is, in fact, variation must have been deduced a motion of the needle to the westfrom but few observations if they ward.” had been rejected. And again, For much more interesting infor

the circumstance of the mean va- mation on the same subject, we reriation being least at midnight there, fer to the volume above quoted, and and at Moose-Deer Island, was evi- from which these are extracts.

Woman's Love. THERE's wassail in Lord Walter's hall, Full many a cheek grew pale beneath And smoking beeves and red-wine That bugle's wild and thrilling sound, flowing ;

For it seem'd the blast of one whom Merry are the hearts of his kinsmen all,

death And the dames' dark eyes are gladly Long since in foreign land had found. glowing;

But Walter started with a shriek While, lower ranged, his vassal train

“ He comes ! he comes! the grave Devoutly quaff the foaming ale,

hath giv'n Or with the blade, ne'er drawn in vain,

Him forth his guilty prey to seek, The sirloin's mighty mass assail :

To mark how poorly guilt hath

thriv'n.” The harp is sounding proudly too, While chaunts the minstrel old and Out flew bright blades from many a thigh, hoary,

The coming horror to destroy, From Norman spears how Saxons few

While ladies crept their lovers nigh, On Hastings' day of deathless glory. Jesu! 'tis but a tiny boy! And yet by friends though girded round,

His locks were of as dark a dye Though lovely lips and cyes are near

As ever rob'd the raven's wing ; him,

And his eyes shone out like the stars on Though lands, herds, flocks, and gold ce

high, bound,

When forth in gloaming hour they And kinsmen love and foemen fear spring. him,

He tripp'd to where Lord Walter stood, Lord Walter mute and sadly sits,

And in a soft and witching tone, As were nor guest nor kinsman near;

Which every angry thought subducd, And as his eye is rais'd by fits,

Thus the dark-eyed youth went on :It wears the hurried glance of fear. ." It was a Knight, an English Knight, Pale lips, and cyes deep sunken, shew

Bound was he for Paynim fight; Passion hath wrought the work of time;

And with an hundred in his train, But is it pure and blameless woe,

With Norman ROBERT cross'd the main, Or sleepless, dire remorse for crime ?

His brother, young Lord Henry, too,

With him his maiden faulcheon drew, While thus he mused, casting a shade And many a feat of fame they shar'd, Of sorrow upon every face,

Many a deed of danger dar'd, It chanced a distant bugle bray'd

Till, at the length, this elder Knight A note that peal'd through all the place. Captive was made in unequal fight..

The Paynim felt his prisoner's worth, Even though that lot himself had known, For he knew his wealth, and he knew his And left through Henry's love alone ; birth,

His cold and avaricious heart And mightier ransom for him was set Durst not with the ransom part; Than e'er had been fix'd for Christian Yea, dearer than a brother's life, yet.

That brother who in mortal strife, The Knight to young Lord Henry sent ; His shield before him oft had thrown, Told him of all his dreariment,

And made the coming wound his own;And swore, by all a brother's love,

He who for him was even content And by the blessed Saints above,

From light and freedom to be pent, Prisoner if he would be in his stead, Held he, this cruel, man-sworn lord, Home he would hie as soon as freed, His fertile fields, his golden hoard.” Gather his gold, and quickly bring

« 'Tis false ! 'tis false !" Lord Walter For him the ransom'd offering. Large was the love young Henry bore

cried ; To him who thus so deeply swore,

“ My latest field I'd gladly sold So he enter'd him the Paynim's thrall,

Ere he by foemen's hands had died ! The fettering steel on his limbs let fall, I wrong'd him, true, but not for gold; And the elder brother was free as the His lovelier looks, his smoother tongue, light.

His graceful form and gentler heart, Tell me, Lord Walter, knew you the Wrought love in one to whom mine clung, Knight?"

With passion that might not depart.

I trembled lest he should return Answer none Lord Walter inade,

To rob ine of my other life, But his cheek grew flush'd-his visage Yet only meant that he should mourn fell;

Prison'd till she were sure my wife. And Chief to Chieftain whispering said, How have I sped ? she pined, she died ; That he had known the Knight too And when the fatal moment came, well.

Hell! the last sound that ere she sigh’d, “ For many a weary night and day

Her dying word was Henry's name.” Young Henry in his durance lay, Striving to cheer, as best he might,

“ Long Henry nothing fear'd, I said ; His self-devoted prison'd plight:

But faith at length began to fade, 'Twere false to say that hope him cheer'd, The trysted time was come and gone, He hop'd not-for he never fear'd;

Yet ransom, rescue there was none; As firm his faith on Walter's love

And in his keeper's scowling eye As was his trust in Heaven above,

Revenge and hate he 'gan to spy i As fearless as the infant press'd

Yet still like him who o'er a deep And fondled on its mother's breast.

Hanging, sees snakes that writhe and And when the sun had left his eye,

creep, While ruddy radiance fush'd the sky, Waiting his fall-and, struggling, clings, He thought of his western home, where Mad with the dread of their cursed stings; yet

So wildly still to hope he clung, The God of Day had hardly set.

When doubt the demon on him sprung; And nightly, when the evening star

But when again had roll'd away Shone through his grate, he thought how

Another year, and still he lay far

Forgotten in his dungeon lair, His brother's bark was on the sea,

Hope sunk and settled in despair ! That came to save and set him free! And when he eyed the setting sun He sung,-and sorrow dash'd aside, 'Twas with the bitter thoughts of one Partly from a warrior's pride,

Who, lingering, parts upon the shore But more, lest, when he should return,

With the friend whom he fears he shall His brother's heart too much should

meet no more! mourn,

Yet still he sung, though every tone If thraldom's woe should leave a trace

Of glee, that cheer'd him once, was gone ; Too deeply furrow'd on his face !

'Twas now a sad heart-breaking strain His faith was false, his cares were vain,

Of blasted hopes, of bosom pain, That brother never came again !

And deepest still of all a moan Yet safe and soon his home he won,

For the land he ne'er should see again." For pitying Hea ven impell'd him on, Fair breeze gave to his bark, and speed

Lord Walter shuddering, hid his eyes, More then seem'd mortal to his steed.

While lovely damsels round him wept;

But frowns on the Chieftains' brows arisc, "In vain, in vain; he hecded not

And their hands to their weapons His plighted troth, his brother's lot,


“Ah ! think not Heav'n would leave to His wrath to wreak on the ingrate one, perish

Alas! upon his father's son! The young, the brave, the gallant But she, by whose preserving hand hearted;

Alone he gain'd his native land, Permitting still the slave to flourish When as they reach'd that father's door,

Who him so foully had deserted : And while his heart was melting o'er
No ! even when Hope herself had fled, Fond recollections lovg forgot,
Still hover'd Mercy o'er his head ; Call'd up by each remember'd spot,
When, 'neath despair, crush'd down he Imploringly she him besought,

By the deliverance she had wrought,
With broken-heart and wasted frame, For him her father's hopeless thrall,
A gleam, a ray of joy was sent,

By all she left for him—by all And ah ! from woman's eye it came! The love he had so deeply sworn, The Paynim's daughter oft had heard, His dark revenge might be forborne ; At eve, when not a leaflet stirr'd,

From rancorous hate that he would cease, The exile's strain of sorrow swell

And seek his father's hall in peace. Melodious' from his dungeon cell.

O'ercome, he yielded, and Sir Knight She marvell'd much, and learn'd his fate, Now kindly comes to meet thy sight.

And there her young heart pity mov'd; What, ho! Lord Henry, haste, appear, Nearer to watch his prison'd state,

Love, friendship, honour, wait thee here!" She saw him-lov'd-and was belov'd! Bat could she love, nor wish to save

Quick at the word the warrior came, Her chosen from his living grave ?

This foully-wronged, deserted brother, She saw his young cheek pale beneath

While Walter's cheek grew flush'd with His dungcon's lank and noxious breath :

shame, • She saw his dark eye westward turn'd,

With littleness he might not smother. Long as one tint of light there burn'd; With downcast eyes, and stealthy pace, And when pale twilight had gone by, ) He to Lord Henry slowly crept; She heard his deep and yearning sigh; Then glanced at his forgiving face, He sorrow'd even when she was by ! ) And rush'd into his arms and wept ! Danger her heart was steel'd to brave, For Love is ever strong to save ;

Him closely many a Chief caress'd, The bolts were stout-the cell was deep,

Breathless with wonder and with joy ; But love will wake when warders sleep. But closer to his heart was press d They oped the door, they scal'd the wall,

By far the dark-eyed, blushing boy ! For love, true love, will conquer all! 'Twas she !-- who saved him from the They stood beside the flowing sen

death, The bark was true, and he was free !"

Who came with love his life to bless, « Free !" Walter cried ; “ then died he not

And who, with sweet, persuasive breath, Beneath his Paynim keeper's hand ?

Had woo'd him to forgiveness. Oh, prove the tidings thou hast brought,

And she was hail'd with shouts and smiles, r'give thee gladly half my land ?"

And many a youthful warrior said, « Free on that vessel's deck he stood,

Lord Henry, for his wrongs and toils, Free as the breeze his sail that wood,

Was amply, by her love, repaid. Free through creation wide to range, Yes, he was blest, completely blest ; Bound but to love and deep reyenge.

To him was granted from above, On to his father's house he came,

Of all Heaven's boons the first and best With thoughts of hate, with heart on Dear woman's pure and perfect love! flame;

G. B.

To the Editor. STR,

The emotions of vanity and pride kind, and even sometimes so contraare frequently confounded, in the dictory, as to justify the expression language and ideas of ordinary life, of Dr Swift, when he affirmed that though they produce very opposite his pride prevented him from being effects on character and conduct. vain. These terms convey ideas of They have undoubtedly a common a complex nature, and are therefore origin in the natural desire of esti- incapable of definition. Even in a mation, operating in a wrong direc- description of them, we are less liketion ; but the errors to which they ly to be successful in the abstract lead are of a distinct and separate than in the concrete, where they are

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