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sidered, but how such and such a with advantages, which it certainly portion of time daily, say six hours, would not, we must do Dr Reid is to be divided into a certain num. the justice to say, that his scheme, ber of equal parts. But surely the if only reduced to moderation, is author of this scheme has not for highly deserving of notice, and might gotten, that the Students who attend be partially acted upon with much any given Class will not be disposed success. Were the Professors of to forego the advantage of all the Medicine to allow just one hour other Classes at the University, mere more than they do, making two in ly for the sake of being examined in all, (and more than this would be one. He cannot have forgotten, that as useless as unreasonable,) to the in ninety-nine cases in the hundred, instruction of their pupils, were the Students who attend, for instance, they to devote this second hour to an Anatomical Class, are also in the examinations upon the subject of the babit of attending the Chemical; last lecture, and were they to conand that a double Course of Ana. duct these examinations in presence tomy is generally given in the same of all their class, not in “subdiviSession ; and consequently, even sup sions” of it, and, further, were posing that no other classes of any they to leave it optional to all to be description were attended, and that examined or not, as each felt inclinno private dissections were practised, ed, there is no doubt that the best and that there was no private busi. effects would accrue from the proness, in short, of any kind, to occupy posed alteration. a share of the Student's attention, But it is well known to those who I say, he cannot have forgotten, have attended this University, that that even after making all these in such Classes as are examined, there suppositions, were the lecturer to de are many of the young men who, vote but an hour at a time to the from modesty or ignorance, will not examination of the first subdivision, submit to be thus taken to task ; and, after an interval of an hour or and many others, again, who think two of relaxation to himself, com. themselves above it, and look upon mence with the second division, and such examinations as fitted properly so on to the fifth, with equal inter- for school-boys and children. Those, vals between each, he would be ob- however, from curiosity itself, if it liged to deny himself, and perhaps were from nothing else, would be more than one of his young friends, willing to hear their Class-mates exthe pleasure of such a thing as the amined, and from this they would article of dinner, during the months derive no small information themof half the year: but perhaps this, selves. Hence, it seems the most by the bye, may be, not an oversight prudent and effectual way, to invite of the Doctor's, but a wise provision, the WHOLE CLASS to attend at the to the end that, by stinting the ma. hour of examination, and to propose terial aliment, the Teacher may dis- the questions in such a manner as pense a more abundant supply of that those shall answer who are most that which is intellectual, and that anxious to distinguish themselves, the taught may practically learn and best prepared to do so; making “Quæ sibi summa boni est.” That it a rule to call no names, but to it is not " Unctâ venisse patellà leave to the free-will of all to speak, semper," as Persius expresses it; or to be silent. nor, in the words of Flaccus,“ benè Dr Reid does not seem to be more cænâsse;" but that the summum fortunate in another favourite idea bonum of earthly good things consists of his, respecting the multiplication in treasuring up, in the capacious of Professorships. That such has a receptacle of the brain, the dear. manifest and necessary tendency to bought discoveries of the healing art. “ impose an additional tax upon
But while we cannot have the education," is certain. But it is conscience to propose that the Medi. just such a tax as we should like to cal Professors should be required to see ;-such a tax as would most effecgive five or six hours a-day to the tually accomplish Dr Reid's wishes instruction of their respective Classes, towards bettering the education of even though this would be attended the Medical profession in general ;VOL. XVIII.
Notices of the System of Education such a tax as would rid the public could not but be interesting and imof that most fulsome part of its mem- portant in whatever hands it were bers, the “ swarms (to use the Doc- entrusted, but particularly so when tor's own words) of half-educated ad. the peculiar province of one of the venturers, whom the present super. first physicians of the day in any ficial system of teaching lets loose to country--the venerable and learned prey on the public.” That “ the Father of the Medical School of teasing, torturing, experimenting Edinburgh at present. That chair, rage of busy ignorance and pre- which has been dignified by the cesumption,” is confined, in our day, to lebrated names of Doctors Pottera comparatively small circle to what field and St. Clair,-by the illusit was forty years ago, when a six trious and immortal names of Cullen month's residence in the metropolis, and the two Gregories, has been renand a few lectures upon some com- dered still more famous by that of mon-place topics, qualified, or, at its present Professor, who has, much least were held sufficient to qua- to his own credit, and the advantage lify, the Medical Student to com- of his numerous pupils, taught Memence his experimenting career in dicine, in all its branches, for a some country village and its neigh- period almost as long as the ordinary bouring district, we have to thank life of man. those regulations which have made It requires no common skill to it imperative on the candidate for a pilot the young aspirant after Medi. surgeon's diploma to avail himself cal honours through the absurd, of this “multiplication of Professors though long-received hypotheses of ships.” We cannot, therefore, sub Bellini and his mathematical sect, scribe to the Doctor's asseveration, -through the visionary theory of that the “splitting of the Sciences, Stahl, and the erroneous doctrines of connected with Medicine, into many Boerhaave. It requires no ordinary separate Professorships, is attended talent to grapple with those branches with most serious evils.” We do of science which have the most imnot see that, by any of the Professor- mediate tendency to elucidate the ships as yet instituted, “ the Stu- animal economy ;-it requires no dent is rather confounded than in- ordinary measure of knowledge deformed, or that he is fixed down to rived from experience, and no ordipetty details, at the expense of those nary degree of acquaintance with elementary principles which form the the writings and experience of others, proper ground-work of education.” to be able to illustrate, by facts and
If there be any one of the Medi. observations, a subject which stands cal Professorships more than another so particularly in need of such illus. to which, from the scope of Dr tration as that of Pathological PhyReid's arguments, we should suppose siology, and the doctrines regarding him particularly to allude, it seems the principal functions of the most to be that one which has for its ob- important organs of the human body; ject the Illustration of the Theory of and it requires no ordinary powers Physic. This subject, which does of reasoning to draw the right connot admit, so well as the others, of clusions from these facts and obseractual experiments, and which the vations,-to apply them respectively “ matter-of-fact-man" may there to the subject which they are each fore be pleased to designate as super. best calculated to explain,-to arerogatory, is, in reality, the most range them under distinct heads, and important of all the Medical Profes- prevent them from bewildering the sorships in the eyes of him who mind of the Student, rather than means to learn his profession " rad enlightening it. dicitus,” and to go at once to the. We have thought it but just and fountain-head for the solution of the fair to say thus much in vindication doubts and difficulties which must of that quarter which seems to be most constantly be presenting themselves assailable by the insinuations containin the course of his practice. It is ed in the above “ plan of reform;" a Professorship which involves a not that the “butchering of cats and large field of most interesting and dogs, and other such nick-nack eximportant matter,-matter which periments," (so much complained of by the author,) might not be referred avocations, or other circumstances, to an Anatomical or Surgical, as well rendering it impossible for him to as a Physiological Class; but be give regular attendance, that he atcause the “ details” in the two for- tend the Divinity-Hall six partial mer are less liable to appear to the Sessions instead. superficial observer unimportant, A full Session at the Divinitythan they are in the latter. And Hall is a period of time differing in though Dr Reid's good sense, and length in different Universities. Here general, as well as professional know- it is commonly about four months. ledge, are a sufficient guard to his In Aberdeen, it is no more than mind against a disposition to under- three ; and at Glasgow it is, I bevalue physiological details, yet many lieve, extended to about five. The of those to whom his paper was ad partial Sessions again are, in fact, no dressed were not equally prepared time at all, as the Student may reto construe his words in the sense turn to the country immediately which he perbaps intended them to after enrolling his name in the Al. convey.
bum, which may be done the same day that he comes to town. This is
a necessary and excellent regulation, I intended to take some notice of inasmuch as, from the circumstance the other two Faculties in our Univer- of Divinity-Students being almost sity-those of Law and Divinity--in all engaged either as public or prithis hasty and imperfect sketch ; but vate Teachers, their time is not in having extended the paper farther their own hands, nor their means than I contemplated, I shall confine always sufficient to enable them to myself chiefly to a few observations take advantage of full Sessions. upon the latter.
Those, however, who, from proxiThe Theological Faculty of Edin- mity to the seat of learning, or other burgh consists of three Professor causes, are able to give regular atships with the Students of Divinity. tendance at the Hall, have many adThe Professorships are those of vantages in the pursuit of their stu1st, Divinity, strictly so called ; 2d, dies which the others want; and as Church History; and 3d, Oriental no fee is exacted for the ChurchLanguages.
History Class, the Students have no The Synod of Lothian and Tweede grounds of excuse who deny themdale require, that all Theological Stu- selves the profit of attending it, at dents, who come before any of the the same time that they attend the Presbyteries within their bounds, shall other two. have attended the Church History The business of the Divinity Class as regularly as that of Divinity, Class consists in the Students delia together with at least one Session at vering discourses before the ProHebrew. This regulation is not ex- fessor upon subjects prescribed by tended beyond the bounds of this Sy- him, and in the Professor reading nod. The attendance upon a Church- lectures two days in the week upon History Class is not, at other Univer. Theological topics. Each Student sities, held equally indispensable to is required, during his attendance at the obtaining the privilege of license; the Hall, to deliver five discourses, and many Presbyteries are satisfied which have for their object to satisfy with the simple requirements of the the Professor respecting the attainlaws of the General Assembly upon ments of his Class in Classical learnthe subject, which apply solely to ing, as well as in Theology ; for the Divinity Class, and are appli- this purpose, the discourses are as cable to all the Scottish Universities follow :alike, viz. That the Student of Die 1. A homily, or philosophical vinity, after having spent the requie dissertation, upon some abstract site period of at least four years Theological doctrine. at the Literary and Philosophical 2. A popular sermon, or such a Classes, shall thereafter attend a discourse as is suited to a mixed asDivinity Class for not less than sembly. three full Sessions, and a partial Ses 3. A lecture. sion ; or, in case of the Student's 4. An exercise and addition, or a critical analysis of a passage in the bour to himself, has the best effects Greek New Testament, together with in promoting his scholars' improvea paraphrase of it, and a statement ment,-namely, that of reading the of the doctrines it contains. And, discourseorexercise carefully at home,
5. An exegesis, or a Latin dis- and committing to paper the recourse.
.marks which have then suggested This last is always expected to be themselves to his mind. These reaccompanied with a prayer in the marks and corrections he reads besame language.
fore the Class, after the discourse has These exercises being performed been delivered. to the satisfaction of the Professor, The Oriental Languages are taught the Student receives a certificate to by the Rev. Dr Brunton in a manner that effect, which also mentions the particularly pleasing and effectual. length of time he attended the Hall, To the most un varied amenity of for the purpose of being presented manners, and polite attention to his to whichever Presbytery he belongs, Students, he adds a perfect example of as a warrant to them for taking him that peculiar and indescribable faciupon probationary trials.
lity with which some, though very The Course of Lectures delivered few, public Teachers are gifted, of in the Church-History Class is very smoothing down the asperities of a extensive, and contains a most com- not-always-pleasant occupation. In plete history of the Church. It oc- other words, he conducts the busicupies three full Sessions, and is ren- ness of the Class in such a manner dered both agreeable and instruc- as tells pretty clearly, that if he is tive, by embracing much doctrinal well qualified for his situation as a matter, and by exhibiting, in a clear Scholar, he is no less so by his skill and full light, the critical opinions in the knowledge of the human of the most eminent authors upon mind. By conducting the studies of subjects connected with the more the second Class at the same sitting immediate province of the Chair, as with those of the first, there is a well as by containing the valuable double and most important advantage result of the Professor's own studies. gained, that of keeping the more adThe care and anxiety which Dr Mei- vanced side in mind of what they klejohn uniformly manifests for the had done, and presenting a good improvement of his pupils, is truly stimulus to the junior department to praise-worthy and exemplary; and arrive at the attainments of their if there be any thing calculated to elders. By the same means, the latenhance their respect for him as a ter, to whom the Doctor entrusts the Teacher, and their affection to him charge of determining the prize for as a Friend, it is the readiness and general merit in the younger Stualacrity which he always shews to dents, become, not only respected as promote their views and prospects in fellow-Students, but their acquainafter life.
tance is cultivated, and their good He gives a greater number of lec- opinion made a matter of no small tures than were ever given by any of ambition. his predecessors, and exacts nothing Dr Brunton and his immediate from the Students for his trouble. predecessor, Dr Moodie, have both With a view to improve them in the differed in the system of teaching art of composition, as well as to call Hebrew from that plan which Protheir attention more closely to the fessor Robertson used. The latter business of the Course, he is in the was partial to the Masoretic punchabit of prescribing subjects for dis- tuation, and endeavoured, but withcourses to his Students, and is most out much success, to encourage a pains-taking in the means he em- taste for this most tasteless of all ploys, for neither, on the one hand, insipid articles in the University of hurting the feelings of the Students Edinburgh. Dr Moodie, it is said, by a hasty and unfair criticism, nor, succeeded in reviving the knowon the other, suffering real merit to ledge of this sacred language, and be slurred over by a superficial and his successor has zealously prosecugeneral review. He has projected a ted the accomplishment of the same plan which, though of no small lae object. The good effects of his skill
and exertions are sensibly felt in like a tolerable salary attached to this part of the country.
it ; the Professor being entitled to The Theological Faculty possess draw from the tithes of the parish a library distinct from that entitled of St. Cuthbert's (one of the most the “ College Library," to which opulent in Scotland) on an average, all Students of Divinity have access, about £.300 a-year ; while scarcely without lodging any deposit, as is any other of the Professors draws done in the other. They are also more than £.50 or £.100 a-year of entitled to two or three volumes at fixed salary from the revenues of the once; and for this privilege there is city. For the remainder of their inpaid by each Student that matricu- come they must depend on the fees lates at the Hall, a fee of ten shil, of the Students, which, in all the Melings, which is said to be laid out in dical, Law, and most of the Literary encreasing the stock of books. This and Philosophical Classes, are four ten shillings of annual contribution guineas each Class per Session. I from all Students, whether regular am aware that several foreigners of or irregular, together with two distinction have resorted to our Uniguineas of fee for admittance to the versity, chiefly for the purpose of Hebrew Class, and Janitor's fees, studying Public or International Law is all that the Students of Divinity and Political Economy. Their surare called upon to pay at College, prise and mortification may well be I mean during their Theological conceived, when they found that the Course.
Chair of the former branch of study,
though occupied, was held by one In the department of Law there whose only concern with the busi.. are four Professorships: 1st, Public ness of the Chair was to draw the or International Law : 2d, Civil or liberal and unearned salary attached Roman Law: 3d, Scots Municipal to it, and that there existed no ProLaw; and, 4th, Conveyancing. The fessorship of the latter at all, in that chairs of the three latter Professor- very city where the father of modern ships are filled by gentlemen of great Political Economy lived so long, and talents and high respectability, and where, at this very day, some of its the Classes, especially that of Scots most successful cultivators dwell. Law, are attended by a numerous These things should not be ; and I concourse of Students. No course trust that ere long, the reforming and of lectures has been delivered by liberal spirit of the times will make the Professor of Public Law for many its way so far among the patrons of years, and this may be said to be this University, as to lead them to a the only Professorship in the Uni thorough probing and rectification versity. which is utterly dormant. of abuses, whether these be attribuAnother peculiarity attends this chair, table to the silent changes of time, which is, that it is the only one in or the intentional neglect and faults the University which has any thing of men.
Moveless behind her curtain of brigbt clouds,
A soft moist veil of sleepy splendour shrouds.
And loud o'er all the chorus of sweet voices,
Stream, wood, glade, each alike, over Day's birth rejoices.