« НазадПродовжити »
would find this prohibition super saltem menses quotannis Medicinæ fluous. But of this hereafter. studio impenderit, et sequentibus
quas Scientia Medica complectitur Il. Nemo Gradum Doctoratus disciplinis uni vel pluribus, singulis consequatur priusquam Triennium annis sub Medicinæ Professoribus in hac aut in alia Academia per sex operam dederit, scilicet : Anatomiæ et Chirurgiæ, Chemiæ, Materiæ Medicæ et Pharmaceuticæ, Per Curriculum Sex Mensium. Medicinæ Theoreticæ,
Practicæ, Botanicæ, . . .
Per Curriculum Trium Mensium. Medicinæ Clinicæ, &c.
Per Curriculum Sex Mensium. This regulation is applicable only ed by the Faculty, and support his to such as have been bound regular opinions argumentatively. apprentices to some of the members 5. The Inaugural Dissertation comes of the College of Surgeons. Those next in order, which being defendwho have not been so bound, are re- ed, closes the trials. quired to attend four years at the Now, in all this there seems to Classes.
be the most perfect provision made We may also remark here, that against the admission of unqualified the same number of years is requi- persons to the rank of Doctoratus; red from those who merely aspire to and yet it is a well-known fact, that a Surgical Diploma ; apprentices, though many of the Graduates are such as those above-described, not young men of the first-rate abilities, being required to attend the College there are others who slip through more than three years, nor to fee the this long process of filtration, or Materia Medica Class; though it winnowing, like foul grain, that generally is attended by all descrip escapes sometimes in spite of every tions of Students, and most deserve precaution. edly so, being one of the most im. And what is the reason of this? portant branches of Medical educa. The reasons are the following: tion, and being also most ably taught The above regulations are not ra. by the present Professor, Dr Dun- dically calculated to answer the end can, junior.
in view. I speak more particularly The remaining eight articles, re- respecting literary qualifications. No specting the subjects upon which the sufficient and proper test of this is candidate is examined, the time and required, or exacted ; and a young manner of doing so, may be briefly man may set out in the world to enumerated as follows:
pursue one of the most difficult, and 1. A question is proposed in pri- arduous, and honourable, of profes. vate to the candidate, either “ viva sions, with his mind a perfect tabuvoce," or on paper, regarding the la rasa, in respect to every thing else various topics of Medical Science. except mere professional knowledge, The object of this is to ascertain the or rather the skeleton of professional Student's literary as well as medical knowledge; for professional knowknowledge.
ledge there cannot be, in its full and 2. On the 24th of June, similar true import, in that inan who has questions are proposed by two Pro- learned but about as much of what fessors, in presence of the Medical it concerns the Medical man to know, Faculty.
as he that sets himself out for a Pro3. Thereafter, one of the Apho- fessor of Anatomy does of his profesrisms of Hippocrates is proposed for sion, when he has never extended explication, and a Medical question his study farther than Osteology, or to be answered, and supported by the Doctrine of the Bones. suitable arguments. Such commen- Why the preliminary discipline of tary and answer are to be given in a liberal education should not be on a future day.
made as imperative and necessary on 4. Next, he must illustrate the the part of the physician, and even history of certain diseases propos- surgeon, as upon the divine and
lawyer, is totally unaccountable. Is security against all kinds of quackery, it pretended, that, if he knows Latin vulgar pretensions, and low arts. enough to make out his prescription But of all preliminary studies that in technical terms, if he knows the seem to be essential to the physician, language of the botanist and che- I know none that deserves to be mist, and can explain the difference ranked higher than the study of between Anterior and Posterior, Physics in all its departments. CheDorsal, Crural, and all the other mistry, it is allowed, is enjoined by “ als” and “ oids” of the new Ana- the - Statuta Sollennia ;" but not a tomical nomenclature,-if he learns word is there about its twin-sister, by heart Dr Hooper's Glossary, and Natural Philosophy, which is equal. gets a few private lessons upon a page ly indispensable, and equally attainor two of “ Celsus de re Medica,” able. Where can the intelligent that he shall be qualified to support, physician turn himself, to which of not to say the dignity of the Medical Nature's works shall he direct his profession, but his own respectabi. attention, that he shall not have cause lity in the eyes of the world, or be to call into action all, and more than qualified to discharge the duties he all, of the information that a halfhas made bold to undertake, and year's attendance upon a Course of been entrusted with by others bolder Lectures in the Natural Philosophy still? Is it forgotten, that in me. Class has given him? The study of dicine, as in law and divinity, some Nature, in all her shapes, and forms, of the most learned and valuable and appearances, is the proper proworks are printed which the science vince of the physician. His very possesses, - that without a good clas- designation derives its origin from sical education, not speaking of the correct views which the Ancients Latin in particular, but of Greek entertained upon this subject. They also, from which the etymology of well knew the importance of every so many medical terms is derived, means of assistance in their profesit will be as preposterous to expect sional career capable of being derived that the physician will understand from such collateral study; and, his own tools, as it would be pro- accordingly, a physician and a phic nounced ridiculous in a man who losopher with them was one and the would pretend to teach the English same thing. And if a knowledge of language critically, without possess- Natural Philosophy be thus necesing himself a knowledge of the va. sary, how is it attainable without a rious fountain-heads from which it sufficient basis in mathematical edu. derives its origin?
cation ? Don't let be urged, that But putting even Greek and Latin every mathematician who practises out of the question, what shall we physic is to follow the footsteps of a say of the physician's being ignorant celebrated, but visionary, Medical of the philosophy of the mind, upon gentleman, once connected with this an intimate study and acquaintance same College. Few, we may fairly with which so much of his success, and fearlessly promise, will carry and dexterity, and reputation, and their disquisitions so far as to enfeeling, depends? There is no pro- tangle themselves in perplexities, fession in which it is more necessary which every fool can perceive, but to apply the canons of a sound logic, few wise heads unravel. Let Dr or to acquire the habits of accurate Barclay's Doctrines upon muscular induction,-none in which error is motion be the “ orthodox creed” of more pernicious, and none exposed such as cannot either prove or disto more sources of fallacy. Those prove, to their own satisfaction, the exercises, therefore, which refine the prodigious conclusions of Pitcairn's taste, which give freedom, range, Philosophy. That the muscular and activity to the mind, form a ne- force of the stomach, for example, cessary introduction to the study of should be equal, at least, to 117,088 medicine as a liberal science. It is lbs. weight, is a discovery which the rectitude of judgment, and sense will require rather more than a suof propriety, which this education perficial acquaintance with the rules has such a tendency to cultivate, for finding compound ratios, to subthat give the public the very best stantiate or invalidate.
Having said thus much in regard mento turbinis,” we have the best to the need there is for the course of motto possible for the new Graduate. study being amplified that should fit " The business of a great physi. a man for Medical degrees, it may eian at present," says an intelligent be enough to observe, in conclusion, and well-educated writer, “ is often, that nothing less than a full and re- not so much to cure diseases, as to gular course of literary and philoso prevent murders, by counteracting, to phical study should be required, and the utmost of his power, the teasing, rendered indispensable, as a prepara- torturing, experimenting rage of busy tory step to the obtaining of such ignorance and presumption. How degrees. That perhaps too much many liberal-bred men are now suftime would be lost in going through fering from the swarms of half-eduthese preliminary Classes before en- cated adventurers, that the present tering on the study of Medicine is imperfect and lame system of Gråtrue. But what hinders that the duation lets loose to prey upon the Student of Medicine should not, at public !” As a conclusive proof of the same time, be a Student of Polite how much the character of the Me. Literature, and thus be qualified to dical School of Edinburgh suffers, enter upon his professional duties, from no regard being had by the if not exactly at twenty-one, at least Examinators of young men applying at no distant period beyond that for Surgical and Medical diplomas, age ? Even were the conditions“ nec to the degree of collateral education priusquam ipse annum ætatis suæ they have received, may be mention. quintum et vigisimum," it does not ed ibe fact, that though the Univerappear the public would be the losers sities of Oxford and Cambridge bear thereby.
no comparison with that of Edin. At all events, there is an impera- burgh as a School of Medicine, tive call upon the powers that be to yet, in the former places, a Media rectify and improve the young Medi- cal Degree is infinitely more bighcal men's general education in some ly valued than one received at the shape or other. What can be more latter. disgusting, than to hear the reitera. Indeed, the more we reflect upon ted nonsense and arrogant pretensions the subject, the more shall we be of Dr This, and Dr That, in every convinced, that “ the study of those public paper, and to see it posted branches of education, which are upon every public place in town? broadly connected with human naWhence do these Luminaries derive ture, which improve the whole man, their consequence? From the title cultivate his reason, and refine his of M. D. To what shall we ascribe taste, form the only true foundation their matchless presumption and ef- of a profession that has any claims frontery? To their possessing no- to the character of liberal. A defect thing besides M. D. And is it are in the first institution is irreparable; gued, that such nuisances are few in and if the mind is not early opened number, compared to the shoals of to liberal attainments, when it is Medical Graduates issuing from the pliant and susceptible, the seed-time “ Academiæ Pomeria,” like the is gone for ever. Nothing after yearly influx into our seas of the planted is like to have a vigorous finny race? We answer, that for shoot, or to grow with our growth, this we have to thank, not the “ Sta- and strengthen with our strength.' tuta Solennia," but the common It is not only the real and substansense and natural feeling of decencytial advantages which education conin these same ephemeral and un- fers that is to be taken into account. fledged Doctors, who remind me of Liberal-bred men in other profesDamo in the play,
sions soon perceive the want of it, Verterit hunc dominus, momento tur.
and assign to Medical practitioners binis exit Marcus, Damo.
their status in society accordingly.
The bad effects of this operate the Erase " verterit," and insert "Co more widely, as in medicine none ronat" in its place, (if no offence be can judge of professional attainments taken by the Prosodist,) and for but professional men. Even natural Marcus give us Doctor, and "mo- good sense, which,
“ Though no science, is fairly worth the any mental discipline. This arises seven,'
from the established usage of teachis very apt to be sadly upset in half- ing by lecture, instead of calling on bred men ; so that in this cardinal the Student to exercise his own mind, point they are decidedly inferior to or labour with his own hands. I do people who have had no education at not state it, therefore, as a charge all." These are safe within the pale against the Professors, but I state it of their original instincts and com- as a radical defect in the training of mon sense. Burke has well remark- youth, which imperiously calls for a ed, “ that without an alliance with remedy.' literature there is often something “I am far from wishing lectures to illiberal that clings to the Sciences. be given up; on the contrary, lecIn Medicine, the want of this alliance tures delivered by men of eminence, is every way disastrous; it not only selected for their superior talents, to injures the best interests of the discharge one of the most sacred of science, and encourages illiberal all duties, that of teaching youth, practices, but is often attended with giving the first impulse to their a disgusting coarseness and brutal minds, and inspiring them with the ferocity of character.
same zeal they feel themselves, are “So much for the education of the certainly of high value. There is Medical Students being bettered. something cordial and animating in But there is another ground of ob being under the same roof with men jection against the system of teach- of this description; they stand forth ing hitherto pursued, in regard to as living models for imitation, and the want of sufficient checks upon excite a kindred spirit in their hearthe attendance of the Stadents, so as ers. Every young man feels the reto ensure their profiting by the means spect he has for his Teacher reflected of instruction afforded them, what on the science he professes, just as a ever these may be. It is notorious, contempt of him would inevitably that, till of late, so very lax were the damp every generous feeling, wither regulations respecting attendance, his faculties, and go far to ruin his that a Student might come from Ire- zeal for honourable distinction in his land, and more than one have come profession. from Ireland at the first of the Ses. « But while thus much in favour of sion,- entered their names and re- lectures is conceded, it must be perturned straight home again with ceived how defective every system of their tickets in their pockets ; thus education must be where young men saving themselves the expense of are not called upon for any thing living in Edinburgh during the Ses- more than to be mere hearers. Ina sion, to hear lectures, which, per deed in the Universities of Oxford, haps, they thought they could easily Cambridge, and Dublin, they are so dispense with, by reading books fully convinced of this, that lectures upon the same subjects at their fa. are considered as merely formal, and ther's fire-side. In this way many altogether secondary to the effective young men actually passed the re education of the place, which is mainquisite period of study, and then ly entrusted to private examinations. came to Edinburgh for the last time Every person at all acquainted with to be taken on trials.
the economy of the human mind “A young man may still finish must be aware, that without that his course of Medical studies, with mental training which frequent exout ever having been once brought aminations and exercises can alone into personal contact with his Teach- ensure, education must be in a great ers, except when he calls upon them measure a dead letter. The best with his fee. There are no steps Teachers and best Professors have taken to command his attention or given their uniform testimony to enforce his application ; he is not this. Beattie affirms that his pupils called upon to report progress, exer- were much more
were much more benefitted by his cise his mind, or to acquire any in- examinations than by his lectures. tellectual habits connected with his Lowth, in an oration before the Uni. profession; he is, in fact, a mere versity of Oxford, expressly apolopassive hearer of lectures, without gises for the Professors not lectus ring, from the superior advantages of cannot but suspect, for the sober private tuition. Johnson remarks, sense of the Doctor himself. To say that people have now-a-days got that “ the Professors will surely a strange opinion, that every thing never grudge the additional labour should be taught by lectures ; and í of five to one, is to expose himself cannot see that lectures can do so not only to ridicule, but to the much good as reading the books charge of hypocrisy. For who that from which they are taken. I know possess the talents, and so large a nothing that can be best taught by share of public confidence in regard lectures, except where experiments to their professional skill, would are to be shewn.' And Goldsmith, think for one moment to forego the who is said to be always wise with the emoluments of practice by tying pen in his hand, observes, 'that teach themselves five or six hours a-day to ing by lecture, as in Edinburgh, MAY a Class? No; if Dr Reid expects to inake men learned, but that instruct- see the Medical chairs occupied for ing by examinations, as in Oxford, so large a portion of time daily, he WILL make them so, even against may begin as soon as he pleases to their inclination. The method of reconcile to his satisfaction the reteaching adopted by an eminent Pro- form he aims at, brought about to fessor of the University of Glasgow, a certain extent; but the ProfessorProfessor Jardine, and followed up, ships are enjoyed by Gentlemen whose with admirable effect, by his succes- other avocations do not seem likely sor, has great merit in this respect.” to interfere with their collegiate du
I have made this quotation from a ties. In other words, he must be Letter directed to the Honourable contented with Professors who will the Patrons of the University of Edin- be good for neither one thing nor burgh, on the reform of Medical another, but who will perform the education, by Dr Reid ; and I have tasks they respectively undertake ; done so for two reasons; the first of like a certain clown, who, conscious · which is, that the sentiments of the of his awkwardness in the art of author appear to me perfectly just, bowing, was always in the habit of and well expressed ; and the second observing to his superiors, by way is, that, disposed as I am to go along of apology, “ I canna do it well, but with him in all he has said, I cannot ye'll get the mair o't," and accordgo the length of supposing such an ingly made up in quantity what was unconscionable reform as the Doctor deficient in quality. unblushingly prescribes. His words Were it necessary, we might shew are:-" I propose, with the view of that even could qualified men be got -rendering this an efficient school, who should agree to Dr Reid's plan that each Professor, instead of being of reform, in regard to the article of called upon to teach one hour a-day time, yet the idea about " private for about five months, shall be call. intercourse" seems to be vague and ed upon to teach five or six hours utopian, and incapable of being reaeach day, one for lecture and four lized to the extent he seems to ima. for private intercourse with bis Pu- gine ; for the Professor would repils; taking them in such subdivi. quire to have more than the patience sions as may enable him to ascertain of Job, who could remain five, or the progress of each. This would even four hours at once, exercising be attended with incalculable advan- upon the business of the day, a Class - tages; it would awaken Students of some three, four, or five hundred from their slumbers, and give a new students, in what manner soever Dr spring and energy to the School. The Reid might “ subdivide" them to Professors will surely never grudge his hand. But perhaps it will be the additional labour ; for what is answered, that the Professor deed not, four or five hours a-day for five days unless he thinks fit, make for himin the week, and this only for five self so long a sederunt;-that he months, compared with the labours may take in his Students at differand anxious mental exertions of our ent parts of the day, and thus leave judges, lawyers, and divines ?” himself some time of interval for re
Now this is really too much ; it is creation : very true; he may do so, too much per se, and too much, we if there is nothing farther to be con