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pires in the matter, and who are larly in the bottomless depths of known, in most instances, to act upon school logic, there was not displayed the advice of well-informed men, a degree of information, by candidates notwithstanding a few cases of evi- for graduation, infinitely superior to dent jobbing in Professorships. what the generality of our modern
The Literary Faculty compre- A. M.'s can exhibit. Nor do I say hends the Professorships of Greek, that, even in the Mathematical deLatin, Mathematics, Logic, Moral partment itself, there was not maniPhilosophy, Rhetoric, and Belles fested at least as much acquaintance Lettres, Natural Philsophy, Natural with that subject, considering the History, Agriculture, and Universal imperfections under which it labour. History.
ed then, as the others, with all their Attendance at each of these advantages, are able to show, in eight Classes, with the exception of the cases out of twelve. What I mean Natural History, Agriculture, and to say is, merely that the test of Universal History Classes, is requin merit was confined ; not that that red in the regulations respecting the merit was not in proportion to the qualifications which are necessary test. But the amazing improvebefore admitting a candidate for the ments which have of late years been degree of Master of Arts to proba- made in the Physical Sciences, by tionary trials. It is also expected which I mean all that is commonly that he has devoted at least four included under the head of Natural Sessions at this or some other Uni Philosophy, as well as the intereste versity to these studies; and in the ing science of Chemistry, and the case of such Students as apply for wide and beautiful field for intelgraduation at the University of Edin lectual amusement and cultivation, burgh, but have studied at any other which has been opened in the deUniversity, it is necessary that, fail partment of Natural History, have ing their having attended the requi extended the circle of the sciences in site number of Classes at their re- our day much farther than was conspective Almæ Matres, (which must templated by those who formerly often happen, since these last do not determined the qualifications of a agree respecting the curriculum of candidate for the degree of A. M. study to be passed by aspirants to The Faculty of Arts, therefore, graduation,) they must, in the first should unquestionably comprise the place, accommodate themselves to Classes of Chemistry and Natural the regulations of this University, by History, particularly the former, attending the requisite Classes. which has become indispensable of
It must appear, at first sight, to late years to every one who pretends every person that knows any thing to the benefits of a liberal education, of a College course of education, and indispensable also to all such as that even this curriculum of study undertake the duty of Rector in any required in Edinburgh, much as it* public seminary. It is also probable is superior to that of some of our that ere long a knowledge of the other Scottish Universities, is still Elements of Mineralogy, Geology, extremely defective as an index of and Zoology, will be equally called what it professes to be,-the general for in such seminaries, and conseknowledge of the graduate.
quently, that the heads of them must The system of graduation, in its be qualified to meet such demands. various stages, has for its object to And if the curriculum, which is hold out an honourable incentive to required at the University of Edingenerous emulation, and to set apart burgh, be so imperfect as a test of those, by some definite mark of merit, general knowledge, and so inadequate who excel their compeers in their to maintain the respectability of the knowledge of the sciences. At a degree of Master of Arts, how truly time when the circle of the sciences contemptible are the regulations of was infinitely more confined than it such Universities as are contented is in these days, the test of such still to adhere to the antiquated merit was proportionably confined. usages of their forefathers, and to I do not mean to say, that in regard limit the qualifications of a Master to the dead languages, and particu- of Arts to a mere smattering of Greek and Latin, Physics, and Moral tended Greek and Latin ; 'some, it is Philosophy! But hence it is that said, even before that time. this degree, once so enviable and so In defining Logic to be the art of honourable an object, has becoine reasoning, nothing is said more than a matter of derision, and the shame what is true. But this definition of that place which issues it. I fear tends rather to mislead than inform Dr Johnson's pun will not even be the judgment of those who know realized by-and-by. A certain Uni- nothing farther of the subject. For versity will not even “ get rich by a course of lectures upon Logic, to be degrees," which every fool has learn- fully understood, requires the mataed to despise ; more especially since rest and most perfect state of the the scornful, but merited attack, made mental faculties. It should contain upon them by Mr Brougham in the a distinct account of the powers of last session of Parliament.
the mind, the manner in which While we admire the liberal and truth is apprehended and retaine! enlightened views of the Faculty of by the mind,--and an accurate deArts in some respects, we are willing scription of the various degrees of to impute our difference of opinion, evidence by which it is supported. in regard to some other matters con. Now, abstract reasoning of so pronected with their province, not to an found a nature does not appear to us error of judgment in them, but in suited to the capacities of boys. At ourselves. Such as, for example, thirteen, fourteen, or fifteen years of the advantage or disadvantage to the age, the reasoning faculties are not scholar of being left to the freedom sufficiently developed to be capable of his own will, or of that of his of grappling with so strong an antafriends, to attend whichever Class gonist. The mind has not yet be he or they may see proper to place come capable of being, as it were, him in from year to year. In other inverted upon itself. It may, in. words, the advantage or disadvantage deed, look and reason upon subjects of having no stated and uniforin cur- of a physical material kind : the phericulum of study for all the “cives.” nomena of Nature may be capable of We grant that, in the case of many presenting attractions, and be usof the Students, such a regulation is derstood by dint of application ; Dot superseded by the intelligence of so the phenomena of the mind. These their friends and advisers, who hap- neither have attractions for this early pen to be qualified to direct their period, nor are they scrutable, Dor studies in the most profitable and even intelligible, for several years casy course. But how many are later.. there who are left to their own judg. It is true, the Reverend and ments, or to the ignorance of such as Learned Professor of Logic, in his have the arrogance to think them, lectures, accommodates his subject, selves qualified, but possess not the as far as any man can do, to the ability to direct their course of study comprehensions of his junior hearers in the most beneficial manner ! But this cannot obviate the objer.
The truth of this remark is parti- tion in that sort of way which might cularly seen in regard to the time when be done, were it provided, that those different people think that the Stu- only who are in the fourth year of dent should enter into the Logic and their studies at College should be Mathematical Classes. There are some admitted into the Logic Class. This who, going upon the assumption that Class, and that of Moral Philosophy, Logic is essential to enable the Stu- would do well to be made the subdent to understand all other depart. ject of the fourth Session at College, ments of science, pronounce at once, making Natural History, as well and with dogmatical confidence, that as Natural Philosophy, the subthe Student should make it among jeet of the third year; Chemistry, as the very first of his studies. Hence well as Mathematics, that of the the great majority, perhaps, with a second ; and the dead languages very few exceptions, the whole of the exclusively that of the first. In this young men attending the Literary way, a more comprehensive, and more Classes are enrolled as Students of rational course of study, would be Logic immediately after having at. pursued than that which is at present in vogue ; and if the Student found that were these Professors to devote time enough to attend a second Class three hours a-day each to his first in the Greek and Latin, or Mathema. Class, they would have little time tical department, during his College left to themselves, if they devoted a curriculum, he might do so with proportional part of time to a semuch advantage and profit.
cond Class ; and as for the third A very strong and serious objec- Greek and Mathematical Classes, tion, against more than one of the they would be necessarily given Literary Professors, is the very little up altogether. We grant all this; time they devote to the instruction but the proper remedy would be, as of their Classes. What are a couple on the Continent, to appoint addiof hours a-day in the Greek, and as tional Professors for the more admany in the Latin, to boys, who, but vanced Classes, and not to sacrifice when actually in presence of their the interests of education to the inTeacher, cannot be brought, or at terests of a few individuals. least are with difficulty brought to look upon a book? I speak of boys -boys such as are the greater part Much as the reputation of the by far of those who now-a-days University of Edinburgh is owing to swarm in a College Class-room, and the learning and ability of her Liwho, were their years, and their at terary and Philosophical Professors, tainments also, looked upon by their it is still more indebted to the celes relations as worthy to be taken into brity of the Medical Faculty. It is account, when determining upon the as a School of Medicine that this subject of their fitness for College, University has become particularly would be left for two more years as famous throughout the world ; and least under the ferula of their gram- it is on account of their medical edumar-school-master. Persons of that cation that so great a proportion of age, which of all others is the period the Students who are educated here most disposed to be contaminated are sent to this University in preferby evil advice and example, should ence to any other. As a School of not be left at the mercy of all, except Medicine, Edinburgh stands unrivalduring four hours a day. Coming led by any institution whatever, and from the country, as many of them has arisen to eminence with a degree do, and belonging to parents little of rapidity truly astonishing. The able to judge of what length of time time is not very long past when the should be devoted by their children art of Surgery was engrossed and to private study-to parents who publicly professed by the corporation perhaps imagine that all that is of barbers of Edinburgh ; and when, necessary to be learned is acquired among the regulations and laws of within the College walls or to pa- that learned fraternity, it was “starents wbo entrust their children to tute and ordainit,” that in conseyoung men not unfrequently little quence of the greatly-increased reolder than themselves; they should spectability and importance of the be entertained, between the Greek chirurgical duties, no one should be and Latin classes, for at least six permitted to leave his hair-cutting hours a-day, and if it were conve- officina, to visit a single patient, or nient to make it more, so much the to exchange his shaving utensils for better; and let it be remembered, the scapula and lancet, who was not that in proposing this, we would not found, upon examination, qualified be understood to impose upon the “baith to read and write." Professors any very great bardship, or Though several attempts had been a more laborious duty than the least made before the period of the first laborious of their brethren discharge. Dr Monro, to rescue the profession Granting that the Professors of Greek from its degradation and obscurity, and Latin should devote three hours and though one or two Professorships a-day each to his Class, this would had been actually instituted, connot be from them by any means so nected with the healing art, yet to great a sacrifice as one hour from the enlightened and liberal mind of a Medical gentleman.
this gentleman-to his extensive Perbaps it may be urged in reply, learning, his unwearied zeal, and VOL. XVII.
enthusiastic attachment to the Medi- observed in general, that no private cal profession, and to every thing ticket is admissible by the College that could tend to promote its in- of Physicians ; nor any surgical terests, may be justly ascribed the ticket but that of their Professor, Mr origin of the Edinburgh School of Turner, accepted by the College of Medicine. A series of able physicians Surgeons. and polite scholars followed in rapid Dr Monro's Course of Lectures succession, who have raised the pro- embodies a great range of interesting fession of Medicine in the country to matter. He commences by describe a rank not surpassed by either of the ing the imperfections of the early sister professions.
systems of Anatomy, when huinan The first Class the Student of Me- dissections were forbidden by the dicine is always advised to attend force of superstition, and when, conis that of Anatomy. This is the sequently, brute animals afforded foundation of all Medical knowledge, Medical men the only subjects for and though indispensable to the phy- dissection. The errors in theory and sician, is particularly necessary in its practice to which this led are pointminutest details to him whose pro- ed out with great clearness and acfession it more properly is to perform curacy, and by this means the value manual operations upon the living and necessity, to the healing art, of a subject. The Professor of Anatomy thorough knowledge of human Anais a descendant of the great Dr tomy, is made to appear. These conMonro; and possessing the rich and stitute what are termed “ the latrovaluable preparations of his prede- ductory Lectures" of the Course; and, cessors, together with others collect- like the usual practice of all lecturers, ed more recently, he is enabled to the Doctor rather hints at these sube make the business of the Class agree jeets than fairly enters upon the ile able and interesting, as well as use- lustration of them; because it is ful. It is, however, by private lec- presumed that as yet all the Scu turers that the department of Anato- dents have not assembled, and that my is taught with greatest success, those who have, are novices to the by gentlemen who, having to depend subject. upon their own merit and exertions. In the subsequent part of the are thus led to a hazardous but an Course, the Professor follows the honourable road to celebrity, by text-book of Dr Monro, his grandwhich, if they are fortunate enough father,-a work which, for clearness to succeed in becoming popular, they of expression and elegance of style, have a sure way opened for extensive coupled with wonderful minuteness and genteel practice. Indeed it may and accuracy of description, can be be said to be by the well-known searcely surpassed. This System of talent, and great professional know- Anatoiny was accordingly the textledge, of some of the private lecturers book also of the distinguished ana. of this place, that the Medical School tomist, Dr Barclay, while he conof Edinburgh supports in no small tinued to teach. But it admits of degree her great and deserved repu. some doubt, whether more recent tation. While such a man as the publications might not now be sublate Regius-Professor of Military stituted, even by the Professor him. Surgery condescends to deliver pri- self, with safety and advantage. vate lectures upon the most import- Dr Monro inherits a very consi ant branch of medical study the derable degree of the talent of his Practice of Physic, it must be, that family, and acquits himself in the whatever defects may exist in some anatomical chair with some eclat. other quarters, the reputation of the But it appears to be rather a disadMedical School will not be easily vantage than otherwise to his pupils, overthrown. The number of private that he yields with so much facility lecturers on Anatomy is commonly to the thought of the moment, and from four to six. Their tickets qua- diverges from his subject upon somelify for Surgeons' Hall ; but if the what slight occasions. His manner Student contemplates Graduation, he is interesting for a little, froin the must attend the lectures of the Pro- interspersion of extraneous matter ; fessor of Anatomy. And it may be but, by-and-by it becomes tiresome, when he seems ever ready to fly off will next be offered for the same deat a tangent; and his Course of Lec- fects, in those who aspire to higher tures, unfortunately, bas thus some things, even the degree of Doctor of what the appearance of defective ar- Medicine. rangement.
A Doctor of Medicine is a word The next Class in order is that of that indicates no small importance. Chemistry, which is taught by Dr A Doctor of Medicine fills the mind Hope. This Class the Student of with something like reverential reMedieine generally attends the first spect for him who possesses this outyear of his Course, along with Ana. of-the-way dignity. A Doctor of womy; and, by purchasing a perpe- Medicine, from me, poor simple soul, tual ticket in both, he continues his would once on a time have exacted attendance during each of the fol- the see-saw homage of the Dorsal lowing Sessions.
and Cervical Vertebræ for a half It strikes us to be somewhat a hour on end. But in those days I proof of the humble origin of the did not happen to know all that I Surgical profession, and of a sort of know now. I did not dream that a sympathetic attachment, on the part Doctor of Medicine could be any of its leading members, to the igno- other than a man of gray hairs and Tance of days gone by, when reading venerable aspect, of tried and seand writing were the sum and sub- vere virtue,-of profound erudition stance of Medical accomplishments, and extensive professional knowthạt, with all “ their getting," the ledge. I did not anticipate that I candidates for Surgical diplomas are would meet with Doctors of Medineither expected nor required to have cine scarcely past their boyhood, got any thing more than the rudi. Alippant and frivolous in exterior ments of school education.
and interior, and to whom apperTill of late, indeed, a knowledge tained the title of Doctorship, " sicut of Latin seemed to be looked upon vox, et præterea nihil.” as a work of supererogation. And Is it asked in what way this once even still, a scrap of Celsus, or Gre honourable, and not-easily attained gory's Conspectus, translated in the dignity, has come to so low an estate, course of examination by the candi. as to promise to be ere long on termps date into English, stamps him with of hand-shaking with the degree of the requisite literary qualifications A. M.! The answer is obvious. The for an office which affects to belong reasons are precisely ahke in both to the learned professions.
cases. In increased facility to attain Hence it happens, that, in respect all the requirements for Doctorial to the great majority of our country Graduation, and not a proportional practitioners, we might mistake the advancement of the conditions from surgeon for the barber, even in these time to time. enlightened days, were we to guess The last « Statuta Solennia de from his stock of literary knowledge. Doctoris in Medecina Gradu in Ac. But it will be urged in reply, that Ed. Capessendo,” are dated 1822. such apologies for Medical men are And that we may better explain our merely intended to fill a vacuum, opinions regarding them, we shall and to supply a place which their quote some of the more important betters would not stoop to occupy. articles verbatim., That though their learning is con. The first article is to the following fined to a few commonplace notions effect:upon the subject of their profession, Nemo ad Doctoratus in Medicina yet, in acting upon such common. Gradum promoveatur, nisi die soplace principles, they may make lenni, nempe primo mensis Augusti, themselves useful in their own vel die proximè sequente ; nec prisphere; as the scullion does, when usquam, ipse annum ætatis suæ preparing the cook-maid's parapher. unum et vegesimum compleverit. nalia, for her to employ in the busi. We are disposed to think, that ness of her sphere. Well, we shall were a sufficient portion of time denot dispute this point, though it is voted to liberal studies, prior to the not by any means impregnable, but period when the Student begins proceed to consider what vindication & Medicinæ Studio impendere," he