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instruction of boys in the classics, &c., called the “ Academy." There is also in progress of erection an Academy in the parish of Dollar, in the county of Clackmannan, on the northern shore of the Firth of Forth, endowed by a Scotch gentleman, lately deceased, who, having been the sole architect of his own fortune, and dying without any surviving relatives, bequeathed his whole property, amounting to nearly £.80,000 Sterling, for this merito
These institutions the critic cannot mean, as they are perfectly lawful Academies.
The “ Parochial Schools” of Scotland can scarcely be meant to be designated by the calumnious term, as they may safely defy the ingenuity of all the lawyers of all the Inns of Court to prove them " illegitimate.” The only remaining literary institutions are the four Universities; and it may probably be seen in the following pages, how very ignorant of his subject the author of the review was in applying such an opprobrious designation to them. To shew the critic how very much he has misapplied the term “ illegitimate," I will give him as correct information as I am able, respecting those institutions which have so unmeritedly roused his indignation. The most ancient of the Scotch Universities is St. Andrew's, in the county of Fife. This city is said to owe its origin to St. Regulus, a Greek of Achaia, who was warned to leave his native country, to visit Albion, and take with him several relics of St. Andrew. After experiencing a stormy passage, he was shipwrecked on the coast of “ Otholania,” in the territories of Hergistus King of the Picts, in the year 370. The King being apprised of the arrival of the strangers, and of the gifts of which they were the bearers, received them most courteously, presenting the Saint with his own palace, and erecting in its immediate neighbourhood the church which still bears the name of St. Regulus, and which was supreme in the kingdom of the Picts. St. Andrew's was erected into what in Scotland is denominated a Royal Burgh," by King David the First, in 1140; it also possesses a charter, granted by Malcolm the Second. The Cathedral of this city was founded in 1160 by Bishop Arnold, and, though not entirely finished until 1318, was almost completely destroyed in one day, by the orders of that undaunted reformer the celebrated John Knox. Here was also a Priory for monks of the order of St. Augustine ; the Dominicans, Observantines, and Carmelites, had also each a religious establishment.
The University of this city was founded by Bishop Wardlaw, in 1411; and in the following year the bull of confirmation was granted by Pope Benedict the Third. It formerly consisted of three colleges, St. Salvator's, or Salvador's, St. Leonard's, and St. Mary's. The two former have for many years been united ; the latter is a Divinity College ; on its site is said formerly to have stood a renowned school, long before the establishment of this University, and which was celebrated for the cultivation of the sciences, (such as they then were,) and the languages. The University officers are, the Chancellor, who is generally a Scotch nobleman, (Viscount Melville has filled this office for several years ;) the Rector, who is entrusted with the privileges, statutes, and discipline of the University; and the Principals of the united colleges of St. Salvador and St. Leonard, and of the Divinity College of St. Mary. The college of St. Salvador and St. Leonard has a Principal, and Professors of Greek, Logic, Moral Philosophy, Natural Philosophy, Humanity, Civil History, Mathematics, Medicine. St. Mary's, or New College, has a Principal, and Professors of Divinity, Ecclesiastical History, and Hebrew. After this account of the University of St. Andrew's, and the reviewer cannot contradict it, will he call it an“ illegitiinate Aca
The next in point of antiquity is Glasgow, which was founded in the year 1450, by William Turnbull, Bishop of Glasgow, under the authority of a bull granted by Pope Nicholas the Fifth ; the Bishop also endowed it with a considerable revenue, and successfully solicited several privileges to be bestowed upon it by the Sovereign, James the Second of Scotland. The origi, nal foundation consisted of a Chancellor, Rector, Dean of Faculty, a Principal, who was also Divinity-professor, and three Professors of Philosophy.
The University was nearly ruined at the Reformation, as the Professors and the students (who were chiefly being educated for the church,) took flight, to avoid the hostility of the reformers, and it was not until the following reign that it revived. James the Sixth granted the University a new charter, and bestowed upon it the tiends or tithes of the parish of Govan. Since that time, it has been endowed with considerable sums, by the subsequent Sovereigns, and also by several private persons, and the number of Professors has been greatly increased. The present society consists of a Chancellor, (the Duke of Montrose) Rector, (Sir James Mackintosh,) Dean of Faculty, Principal and Professors of Divinity, Greek, Humanity, Civil Law, Moral Philosophy, Mathematics, Logic, Oriental Languages, Natural Philosophy, Natural History, Medicine, Anatomy, Botany, Chemistry, Materia Medica, Astronomy, Church History, Midwifery, Surgery, librarians, bursars, and students. The Archbishop of Glasgow was formerly ex officio Chancellor ; but since Presbyterianism became the established religion of Scotland, it has been generally filled by some nobleman or other layman of consequence in the country. The Chancellor is elected by the Rector, Dean of Faculty, Principal, and Professors, as heads of the University. The Chancellor presides at all councils, and in his name are all degrees conferred. The Lord Rector is chosen annually in the Comitia, in which all the members (students as well as Professors, Dean of Faculty, &c.) of the University have a yote. He exercises a jurisdiction in all disputes occurring between the students themselves, as also between them and the towns-people; he presides at all meetings of the University convened for the purpose of addressing the King, of electing a representative to the “ General Assembly of the Church of Scotland,” which is the supreme ecclesiastical court of that part of the British Empire. The Dean of Faculty is the next officer in rank; he regulates the course of studies pursued by the students, and judges, along with the Rector, Principal, and Professors, of the qualifications of those who are candidates for any academical degree *.
This University possesses the highly valuable and splendid Museum of the late celebrated Dr William Hunter, who bequeathed it, along with eight thousand pounds Sterling, for the purpose of erecting a building for its reception, and the purchase of the necessary ground. It consists chiefly of a most valuable, extensive, and curious library of books and manuscripts; his own large and valuable collection of anatomical preparations ; a most extensive assemblage of natural curiosities, containing the large collection of insects, corals, shells, and fossils of the late Dr Fothergill; and a cabinet of coins and medals, ancient and modern, generally allowed to be the most complete and best connected series of any in Europe, and which are said to have cost Dr Hunter twenty-five thousand pounds Sterling +. The University also possesses an Observatory, founded by a Gentleman resident in Jamaica, Alexander MacFarlane, Esq. and which the “ Senatus Academicus,” on laying the foundation stone, denominated the “Macfarlane Observatory."
That the “ Hunterian Museum” is of no little value and consequence, perhaps even the reviewer of the “ Cambridge Tart” may be inclined to admit, when he is informed that the Trustees are, ex officio, the Lord Chancellor, the First Lord of the Treasury, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the First Lord of the Admiralty, the Speaker of the House of Commons, the Secretary at War, the President of the Royal Society, the President and Censors of the College of Physicians, the Professor of Physic and Reader in Anatomy at Oxford, the Regius Professor of Physic, and Professor of Anatomy at Cambridge ; besides several Noblemen and Gentlemen who are Trustees by election. The University also possesses a Botanical Garden,
• Vide Denholm's History of Glasgow.
+ The superb cabinet of medals comprised in this Museum, which is allowed by Medalists to be the most extensive and valuable in Europe, not even excepting that celebrated one belonging to the kings of France before the Revolution, contains, amongst an immense number of other rare coins, a most capital one of Otho, in large brass, struck at Antioch.
and there is a large, commodious, and elegant Infirmary, frequented by the students of medicine. Can the worthy reviewer point out any modern Academy possessing such a splendid appendage as this Museum *?
* As a literary morceau connected with the University of Glasgow, (in accordance with the philosophy of the period.) the following “ Theses Philosophiæ t,” issued by that University in 1659, may not be unacceptable, especially as they will shew the caution exercised by the “ Senatus Academicus” of Glasgow, in conferring the degree of “ Master of Arts,” at the distance of more than a century and a half.
THESES PHILOSOPHIÆ. Quas A, P, N, Postridie Nonas Quintileis, Adolescentes Magisterii candidati, Aca. demiæ Glasguanæ Alumni, (Præside Roberto Areskino,) in Æde
Sacrâ Franciscanorum propugnabunt. 1. Ens, etiam ab actuali et possibili præcisum, non adeo transcendens est, quin realia multa, ab eo qui interea nec distinctè et exparte actus ; nec confusè, et exparte objecti de ente cogitat, verè cognosci possint : Neque cum non-ente adeo immediata est ipsius oppositio, quin sine errore et fictione omni, ab eo qui interim neque ens neque non ens ullo modo attingat, multa cognoscantur.
II. Datur necessitas omnis contingentiae expers ; sed nulla est contingentia sine summâ necessitate. Agens et movens quâ tale est ens, et necessarium; patiens et mobile non ens, contingens. Potentia quaelibet activa aut passiva, quantùmvis contingens et indifferens sine ullius novi inceptione, et pristini desitione determinari, et in actum reduci poterit. Connotata igitur, modi, negationes vel privationes, et si quae alia sint ejusmodi, agenti et termino in actione, extremis in unione, loco et rei quae est in loco, tempori et rei quae est in tempore, in ubicatione, et duratione superaddita, prorsus superflua sunt: Nihilque aliud est actio, modale vel absolutum et reale, posi. tivum vel privativum, intrinsecè et constitutivè, vel extrinsecè et connotativè ; praeter id quod agens est, et id quod producitur : Motus nihil praeter id quod movetur, terminum a quo, medium si ullum sit, et terminum ad quem : Unio praeter nuda extrema, divisio praeter extrema et interjectum nihil. Omne accidens està suo subjecto realiter distinctum ; et tamen omne accidens adaequatè est verum subjectum Physi. cum, et substantia.
III. Unum, verum, bonum quâ tale, est ens; multa, falsum, malum non ens. Etsi simul esse et non esse repugnet ; id quod unum simplicissimum, verum realissimum, bonum perfectissimum est ; simul secundum idem sui in eâdem ratione esse multa, numerosissimum, complexissimum,falsum, et omnium minimè reale,-malum, imperfectissimum, nihil vetat. Infinitum est unum, verum, bonum : finitum multa, falsum, malum. Infinitum finitis constare nequit; at finitum infinitis. Infinitum quolibet ejus generis finito simplicius est, et quolibet complexius quolibet minus, quolibet majus. Datur, saltem dari potest, numerus actu infinitus, multitudo maxima ac simpliciter innumera. Est et numerus, quem multiplicando, aliquandò eundem et aequalem, saepe minorem, nunquàm majorem producturus es ; cui addendo, sem. per minorem ; et subducendo, semper majorem.
IV. Materia prima ex se non est quanta. Quae in subsccelestibus non tantùm specie, sed et numero una ac eadem adaequatè in cælestibus esse potest. Datâ materiae quantitate nullâ formarum materialium multitudine opus est : alioqui opus est. Ma. teria omni formâ nudata, et quotcunque formis non subordinatis simul vestita extare potest. Formae materiales non adeo caducae, quin à materiâ separatae subsistant nonnunquam.
V. Corporis locus est superficies ambientis proxima et immobilis: Spiritûs nullus, nisi id quod intuitivè cognoscitur. Quo simplicius fuerit quidvis sive materiale, sive immateriale, eo plus loci occupare aptum natum est ; quo complexius eo minus. Quote cunque immaterialia eundem locum, quem et totum occupet materiale aliquod, singula simul adaequatè occupare possunt : nulla autem duo materialia, ne materia
+ This Universitỳ was founded upon the model of the celebrated one of Bologna, (the ancient Bononia, called Colonia Bononiensis, by Tacitus,) which is one of the oldest, and was certainly, at the time that of Glasgow was established, by far the most celebrated in Europe. Bologna enjoys the honour of having produced two of the most eminent philosophers of the present day, Galvani and Volta. The celebrated astronomer Cassini was also, I believe, of this University ; and it was in the church of St. Petronius, in this city, that he drew his meridian line.
In addition to the foregoing statement it is only necessary to remark, that Glasgow holds a high rank amongst the European seats of learning, having produced, in all the departments of literature and science, men who have not only done honour to their Alma Mater and their native country, but have raised for themselves a fame as durable as the universe.
quidem et forma. Maximum corpus finitum sine ullâ sui coarctatione minimo loco simul capi potest, idque facilius multò quàm majori; minimum corpus locum maxi. mum totum simul occupare, et exactissimè replere potest. Nec datur, nec dari potest vacuum.
VI. Omnis corporis mathematici constitutivum adaequatum est punctum, etiam mathematicè, impartibile : unicumne solum ? an multiplex ? nescio : scio nullum corpus adeo magnuin, adeo divisibile quod punctum unicum solitarium adaequatè constituere nequeat ; nullum adeo parvum, modo partibile, quod non isto eodem, et simul aliis quoque pluribus constare possit. Rectam lineam quamvis aut angulum quemvis rectilineum bifariam dividi posse, nequaquàm demonstravit Euch Lineam rectam aut circularem longitudinis actu immensae, superficiem planam vel sphaericam latitudinis immensae, sphaeram secundùm omnem dimensionem actu immensam dari posse est probabile : uti et in hisce omnibus dari maximum finitum.
VII. Quies localis est unicus locus; motus locorum multitudo. Quod est immensum illud quietis capax est ; sed non motûs localis. Dari potest motus rapidissimus ; dari etiam potest tardissimus. Id quod non celerrimè movetur, simul quiescere est im. possibile ; quod autem celerrimè, id toto tempore motûs in summâ quiete esse est necesse. Quod tarde, et non nimis tardè incedit, illud simul velociter moveri impossibile est; quod autem tardissimè, illud simul rapidissimè ferri est summè necessa. riam.
VIII. Æternitas est quies ; tempus motus. Temporis adaequatum constitutivum est instans. Tempus necessario utrinque finitum est. Quicquid est mobile, quicquid est patiens, est ex alterâ saltem parte finitae duraticnis. Tempus elapsum revocari, face tum infectum fieri potest. Non omne quod desinit esse praesens, erit, esséve potest praeteritum.
IX. Omnis generatio substantialis est partium mera unio localis ; corruptio separatio mera.
X. In rarefactione, et condensatione explicandis, nec corpusculis nec vacuitatibus opus est.
XI. Duo sunt Elementa, eaque compositionis ex materia et forma substantiali expertia: alterum mathematicè etiam indivisibile est, et quantitatis expers ; alterum diisibile et quantum.
XII. Calor est merus motus localis quo disgregantur, heterogenea, et homogenea congregantur. Frigus est quies, vel motus quo tam heterogenea, quàm homogenea congregantur. Infinitè calidum, necnon infinitè frigidum dari potest. Calor et frigus in gradibus paulò remissioribus, non adeò benè se in eodem subjecto compatiuntur : ve. rùm summuin frigus in nullo subjecto esse potest, in quo secundum idem simul non sit calor intentissimus ; et contra.
XIII. Lux est ignis. Color est lux in perspicui et opaci confinio; sed praetereà nihil. Sonus est motus localis. Odores et sapores sunt corpuscula ex sapido et odorifero efflua.
XIV. Brutorum animae materiales sunt, et caducae: hominum immateriales, immor. tales, Actùs, babitùs, potentiae vitales, non nisi Organorum objectorum et mediorum ratione, à se invicein, et ab animâ distinguuntur.
XV. Cognitio est cognoscentis cum cognoscibili, inadaequato saltem, unio. Nihil est naturaliter cognoscibile, quod non sit in ipso cognoscente formaliter vel eminenter: non quidem per speciem aliquam expressam aut impressam, (superfluae enim sunt hae omnes,) sed ad modum substantiae, et essentiae cognoscentis. Datur intellectus qui tantùm est agens; datur et intellectus qui tantum est patiens ; sunt alii et agentes et patientes. Intellectus patiens nisi illuminatus ab agente nunquam intelligit. Omne verum in cognitione, et oratione est verum metaphysicè, et idem quod reale ; consistitque semper in habitu. Omne falsum est falsum metaphysicè, et idem quod fice litium, apparens tantùm ; et in privatione consistit.
XVI. Appetitus est motus vel quies appetentis ipsius, vel objecti. Omnis motůs localis, et aliùs cujuscunque primum principium activum est appetitus aliquis. Datur appetitus movens, ipse immotus manens; datur qui movetur, ipse nullum movens ; estque appetitus qui movet, et movetur. Nullus appetitus mobilis physicè vel mora
The next in order of foundation is the University of Aberdeen, consisting of King's College and Marischal College, which are quite distinct foundations, each enjoying its own privileges, powers, and immunities, independently of the other. The former was founded in 1494, by William Elphinston, Bishop of this See, who was Lord Chancellor of Scotland in the reign of James the Third, and Lord Privy Seal in that of James the Fourth ; but the latter monarch claimed the patronage of it, and it has since been denominated “ King's College.” The celebrated Hector Boethius was the first Principal. The present establishment consists of a Chancellor, (the Duke of Gordon,) Lord Rector, (the Earl of Aberdeen,) Dean of Faculty, Principal, Sub-Principal, Professors of Divinity, Civil Law, Medicine, Humanity, Greek, Moral Philosophy, Natural Philosophy, Mathematics, and Oriental Languages.
The « Marischal College,” in the new town of Aberdeen, was founded by George Keith, Earl of Marischal, in 1593, but has been since greatly enlarged. The present Society consists of a Chancellor, (the Marquis of Huntley,) Rector, (Earl of Fife,) Dean of Faculty, Principal, Professors of Divinity, Medicine, Greek, Moral Philosophy, Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, Natural History, Oriental Languages, Mathematics, and Lecturers on Materia Medica, Anatomy, Surgery, and Midwifery. The distinction
liter movet; nisi ipse praemotus efficaciter a inovente, quem etiam in toto motu immediatissimè commovere simpliciter necessarium est. Omnis appetitus qui ab alio mo. vetur, ad actus tum elicitos tum imperatos cogi potest ; et in iis violentiam pati. Non semper tamen cogitur, qui, ab extrinseco physicè indeclinabiliter praedeterminante, ad actum necessitatur.
XVII. Jucundum est simile, perfectum, et nihil aliud quàm metaphysicè bonum ; injucundum dissimile, imperfectum, et malum metaphysicè. Honestum omne est formaliter jucundum ; inhonestum formaliter injucundum. Quicquid est capax bonitatis vel malitiae moralis est bonum vel malum moraliter ; nihil indifferens. Omnis bonitas moralis in habitu, eóque indivisibili, consistit : omnis malitia, etiam excessus, in privatione ; sed divisibili. His non obstantibus, unus et idem actus simul bonus, et malus est.
XVIII. Antecedenter ad praeceptum nihil est bonum ; nihil malum moraliter. Non est quòd praeceptum, in actu quem praecipit, convenientiam aliquam cum naturâ rationali, et in eo quem vetat, disconvenientiam praesupponat: praeceptum enim non 'tantùm divinum ; sed humanum obligat nonnunquam ad id, quod omnibus qui obligan. tur valdè perniciosum sit. Imo et tam humanum quàm divinum, ad id quod est sim. *pliciter impossibile obligat : eundem hominem ad contradictioria et contraria simul; ad hoc agendum, et simul non agendum; ad hoc agendum, et huic contrarium simul agendum.
XIX. Duo non subordinati, per tempus quantumvis diuturnum, simul in idem jus in solidum habere possunt. Innocentem punire injustum ; sed innocenti damnum gra. vissimum inferre, eumque miserrimum reddere, sine ullâ injustitiâ non modò Deus, sed etiam homo potest. Bellum utrinque offensivum, saepé utrinque justum est. Foelicitas creaturarum rationalium formalis est amor, et cognitio Dei. Qui solo Deo fruitur multo beatior est eo qui Deo et creaturis fruitur.
XX. Deus est unus simplicissimus, et tamen trinus, omnibus aliis simul sumptis in. finitè perfectior: aggregato ex Deo ct creaturis extensive intensivè omnique modo perfectior tanto, quantum habent creaturae perfectionis : aeternus sine ullâ sui mutatione ; immensus sine extensione, et divisibilitate. Praeterita, praesentia, futura ; possibilia, necessaria, contingentia ; absoluta, conditionata certissime absolutissimè scieus. Om. nia absolutè, inevitabiliter, immutabiliter decernens. In omnium ex nihilo creatione agens solitarié ; in omnibus reliquis actionibus necessariis, liberis, bonis, malis, immediatissime immediatione suppositi, physicé efficaciter praedeterminans, et coagenst.
+ Glasguae, Excudebat Andreas Andersonus, Urbis et Academiae Typographus, Anno Dom. 1659.- To this University, as well as to those of Edinburgh and Aber. deen, the Protector Cromwell was a great benefactor: to Edinburgh he was one of the greatest it ever had ; but the indiscriminate repeal of all that had been done, good, bad, and indifferent, during the Commonwealth and Protectorate, rendered completely nugatory the liberality of the Protector.