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ported the elements of civilization into Italy. This conjecture is strength, ened by a well-known passage in the Æneid :
Silvano fama est veteres sacrasse Pelasgos,
Qui primi fines aliquando habuere Latinos. We are aware that the authority of Sallust may be adduced to invalidate this inference; but it is not improbable that he applied the term Abori. gines to the descendants of the Celtic tribes, who entered Italy by the passes of the Julian and Cottian Alps, and by the course of the Adige, and that he described them as a savage and lawless race, only in comparison with the institutions and refinement of an enlightened and polished age.
Cicero de Republicâ. There is perhaps no monument of ancient literature the disappearance of which had excited so much regret, as that of Cicero's treatise De Republica. Though the earliest *, perhaps, of all his philosophical works, it was that upon which he himself set the highest value, and which his contemporaries most admired; it was said to have been written in his happiest style, and to have been the great repository of the political wisdom of the ancients. The splendid fragment (Somnium Scipionis preserved by Macrobius, together with the quotations interspersed through the works of Lactantius, St. Augustine, and Nonius, served to exasperate the vexation of the learned at a loss which seemed as great as it was irretrievable. A complete copy was extant as late as the 11th century; since which period the literary world have been at different times flattered with the hopes of its recovery, and rumours have been circulated that manuscripts of the work existed in France, Poland, and other countries. It is needless to add, that these rumours turned out to be groundless, and that the hopes they had raised were uniformly disappointed.
Within the last few years, however, a considerable portion of this famous treatise has been recovered by the industry and ingenuity of the Librarian of the Vatican, who effected his object by having recourse to means which his predecessors had never dreamed of. It is well known, that whenever papyrus or parchment were scarce, it was customary to obliterate old, in order to admit fresh, writing; and that parchment or papyrus thus rescribed received, even in the time of Cicero, the name of palimpsest (a náhon rursum et éw abstergo.) In the middle ages, when the means of writing were of difficult attainment, and the classics had given place to monkish legends, or the wild fictions of romance, this practice became so frequent, that these rescribed MSS., or palimpsests, were more numerous than parchments from which the original writing had not been discharged. On many palimpsests, however, the process of obliteration had not been so complete, as to render the original writing altogether invisible ; on close and continued observation it might not only be discovered, but in many instances read, and the nature and purport of the writing ascertained ; this fact, however, was turned to no practical use till Signor Angelo Mai decyphered and published, from palimpsests in the Ambrosian Library, of which he was keeper, the fragments of six inedited orations of Cicero with ancient commentaries. This discovery having attracted very general notice, Signor Mai, promoted, in recompence of his learning and industry, to the superintendence of the Vatican Library, prosecuted, with indefatigable activity, at Rome, those interesting researches which he had so auspiciously commenced at Milan ; and it is to this enterprising and learned individual that the world is now indebted for the recovery of about a third part of the most celebrated and popular work of antiquity. The palimpsest from which
It was begun in the month of May in the year of Rome 699, when the author was in the 530 year of his age ; but it is not certain when it was finished.
so very considerable a portion of the first three books De Republicâ has been recovered, is arranged in quaternions, amounting, in all, to 302 pages, and is rescribed with part of a Commentary on the Psalms, by St. Augustine,-the obliteration and rescription being supposed to have taken place before the tenth century. The characters of the original writing are, of course, only in faint outline, and, from their large square form, are referred by Mai to the sixth century. This palimpsest was found in a most disordered and mutilated condition, and was in some parts easily, and in others with extreine difficulty, decyphered. Moreover, it was full of the most palpable and egregious blunders, which had crept into it from the ignorance of the transcribers, who were generally slaves, and, except the mechanical accomplishment of being able to write, for the most part grossly ignorant. It would hardly be possible to estimate the injury which the Latin authors sustained in consequence of the ignorance and inattention, or, at the best, the caprice of the copyists. Cicero himself, in a letter to his brother Quintus (111. 5.) complains bitterly of this evil : De Latinis libris quo me vertam nescio; ita mendose et scribuntur et veneunt: and if it had become so great as to vitiate the standard works in his time, what irretrievable injury must it not have occasioned in the many ages of darkness, confusion, and barbarism, which followed! Still, however, this palimpsest exhibits undoubted examples of the ancient orthography, well deserving the attention of the etymologist and of the scientific philologist.
Like the greater part of Cicero's philosophical works, the treatise De Republicâ is in the form of a dialogue, and the interlocutors are Scipio Aemilianus, Laelius, Philus, Manilius, Mummius, Tubero, Rutilius, Scaevola, and Fannius. The object of Cicero, in composing this great and laborious work, as he himself describes it, like that of Polybius in writing his history, appears to have been, to exhibit a view of the different political and moral causes which had secured to the Roman people the empire of the world ; and for this purpose, as well as to avoid giving offence, and, if possible, to recommend the stern but lofty severity of ancient manners,-on which wealth, luxury, and political profligacy, were daily making sad inroads, he introduced the most distinguished of the Old Republicans, who detail, in a manner highly characteristic and striking, their different sentiments as to the best forms of polity, and particularly whether, in the government of states, justice ought to yield to, and be determined by, expediency. Scipio,
powtoy news, after examining in succession the three simple forms of government, pronounces in favour of monarchy, as per se preferable to either of the two other forms separately ; but declares, that the best conceivable form of civil polity is that in which the three are so blended and attempered as to act and re-act on one another, and to produce, as it were, a state of equilibrium. And this, he maintains, was the form of the Roman Govern, ment after the expulsion of the kings. The arguments in favour of republicanism appear, however, to preponderate, as it was probably the author's intention that they should. In what remains of the third book, Philus undertakes the defence of expediency in government in opposition to justice, and, if we may form an opinion from what remains, appears to content himself with merely repeating the sophisms of Carneades. It is a subject of infinite, and, we fear, now unavailing regret, that the reply of Laelius, pregnant with the mitis sapientia peculiar to his amiable and endearing character, and containing, if we may believe antiquity, the most glorious and triumphant refutation of the machiavelism put in the mouth of Philus, has not been recovered. This was undoubtedly the most eloquent and interesting portion of the work. Cicero never personates the character of that virtuous and enlightened Roman, without rising, as it were, above himself, both in argument and in eloquence.
Scipio, as we have already said, argues in favour of kingly power, as compared with either of the other two simple forms of government. The following argument from analogy, in support of his preference, is interesting in a threefold point of view ; first, for the ingenuity, far-fetched though it
may appear, with which it is conceived ; next, for the anecdote which it records; and, lastly, for the felicity with which it is expressed : “ Tum Scipio, utere igitur argumento, Laeli, tute ipse sensus tui. Cujus, inquit ille, sensus? S. Siquando si forte tibi visus es irasci alicui. L. Ego vero saepius quam vellem. S. Quid ? cum tu es iratus, permittis illi iracundiae dominatum animi tui? L. Non me hercule, inquit: sed imitor Archytam illum Tarentinum, qui cum ad villam venisset, et omnia aliter offendisset ac jusserat, te te infelicem, inquit villico, quem necassem jam verberibus, nisi iratus essem. Optime, inquit, Scipio. Ergo Archytas iracundiam, videlicet dissidentem a ratione, seditionem quandam animi movere ducebat, eam consilio sedari volebat. Adde avaritiam, adde imperii, adde gloriae cupiditatem, adde libidines; et illud videre est, in aniinis hominum regale si imperium sit unius fore dominatum, consilii scilicet : ea est enim animi pars optima : consilio autem dominante, nullum esse libidinibus, nullum irae, nullum temeritati locum .... Cur igitur dubitas quid de re publica sentias? in qua, si in plures translata res sit, intellegi jam licet, nullum fore quod praesit imperium ; quod, quidem, nisi unum sit, esse nullum potest.” Lib. I. c. 38. Scipio, in fact, is represented as cherishing a perfect horror of that immanis bellua, “the swinish multitude,” which he thinks ought to be fettered and restrained by every possible expedient; and he lays it down as a maxim, never to be deviated from, that, in the constitution of states, the first and most important object is to provide, ne pluri. mum valeant plurimi. This would be quite orthodox doctrine even in our day.
Immediately before Philus undertakes the defence of what we now denominate machiavelism, Cicero makes Laelius pronounce the following splendid sentiment: “ Ut enim in fidibus aut tibiis, atque ut in cantu ipso ac vocibus concentus est quidam tenendus ex distinctis sonis, quem immutatum aut discrepantem aures eruditae ferre non possunt; isque concentus ex dissimillimarum vocum moderatione concors tamen efficitur et congruens; sic ex summis et infimis et inediis et interjectis ordinibus, ut sonis, moderata ratione civitas consensu dissimillimorum concinit: et quae harmonia a mu. sicis dieitur in cantu, ea est in civitate concordia, artissumum atque optimum in omni re publica vinculum incolumitatis; eaque sine justitia nullo pacto esse potest." Lib. II. c. 42.
It is well known that Cicero's original intention was to extend his treatise to nine books, each of which was to contain the substance of one day's conversation on the subject of Government; but that he afterwards altered his plan, and confined it to six books, exhibiting the substance of only three day's discussion. When he had finished the two first books he read them to a select party of his friends who had met at his Tusculan villa. On this occasion, Sallust, who was one of the company, strongly advised him to throw aside the form of dialogue, and treat the subject in his own person ; alleging, “ that the introduction of those ancients, instead of adding dignity, gave an air of romance to the argument, which would have greater weight when delivered by himself, as being the work, not of a petty sophist, or spe. culative theorist, but of a consular senator and statesman, conversant with affairs of the greatest importance, and writing what his own practice and the experience of many years had taught him to be true.” (Ad. Q. Fr. III. 5.) As far as the substance of the work was concerned, this was undoubtedly sound advice ; and so Cicero himself appears to have thought; especially as, by throwing the scene so far back, he had precluded himself from touching on some important changes in the republic, and particularly from introducing Varro, conformably to the earnest request of Atticus, which, in a work of this description, must have been peculiarly appropriate, as well as gratifying, to that distinguished scholar and philosopher. But after some deliberation, and probably from a reluctance to throw away the two books already finished, he adhered to his original plan, which enabled him to exhibit with greater facility both sides of the argument, and, at the same time, to intersperse the discussion with those inimitably characteristic traits and strokes of eloquence which afforded so much delight to his countrymen, and still rivet the attention cven in perusing the mutilated fragments now for the first time, since the disappearance of thē work, collected and embodied in something like a regular form.
The industry and research displayed by the learned keeper of the Vatican Library, in decyphering, arranging, editing, and illustrating these interesting remains, are only equalled by the judgment and skill he has brought to the execution of a task of no ordinary difficulty, and requiring a combination of talents and acquirements seldom found united in one and the same individual. Having merited so well of the literary world, it is gratifying to observe, that our Royal Society of Literature las had the grace to elect him one of its Associates; an act of liberal justice, which does honour to that infant institution, and gives promise of better things than some persons were disposed to anticipate. Macte virtute esto!
THE SCENEKY OF THE CLYDE. Most people, I suppose, have are the Don and the Dee-the noheard of the Clyde. It is the finest blest of our Highland streams, whose river in Scotland, and Scotland is course lies among rocks, and moors, rich in fine rivers. There is the and glens, and heathy hills, softenForth, which takes its rise from a ing the stern aspect of the mountains small clear pool at the bottom of of Mar Forest, and giving a softer Benlomond, and after winding away beauty to the vale of Braemar. And for miles, like a silver thread, through there are the Nith and the Annan, the wild and beautiful scenery of rolling on in placid quiet, to the boisStirlingshire, expands below Alloa,, terous Solway. He who does not into a broad and majestic sheet of know their charms must learn them water, rolling on slowly and silently from Cunningham, not from me. to the German Ocean. There is the Though last, not least, there is the Tay, drawing its source from the dis. Devron, a narrow, but romantic tant mountains of Breadalbane, and stream,' and the chief ornament of flowing through the enchanting lake Banffshire, giving luxuriance to the which bears its name, whose wooded sweet valley of Forglen,- sweeping banks and little tufted island (ro- round the foot of the green hill, on mantic with the ruins of its ancient whose brow stands the cottage of priory) no admirer of the picturesque Eden,winding among the woods of should live another month with Mount Coffre, -sleeping like liquid out seeing; and let him follow the crystal under the bridge of Alva, and gentle stream, as it sweeps past the then meandering on through the noroyal borough of Perth, and, gliding ble parks of Duff House, as if loth to under the nine-arched bridge, eno leave those favourite scenes for the ters the “ Carse of Gowrie"—the rude billows of the Murray Frith. Caledonian Arcadia-and at length, Yet still the Clyde keeps its own swelling into a frith, ceases to exist ground, and remains unrivalled. Let " betwixt St. Johnston and bonnie me carry you along with me, whilst Dandee.” Then there is the Tweed, we visit its leading beauties. -the very Avon of the north-with We shall set out from Lanark. its classic tributaries, the "Galla Here is a path along the northern Water," and the Tiviot, whose bank. It is shaded by trees, and its "wild and willowed shore" lives in aspect is rural, but you may perceive immortal song. Then there is the by its breadth that it is one over Esk, too, or rather the Esks—the which many have trod. The stream North and the South-tracing their flows on beside us, somewhat rapidly, origin up to the Grampian Hills, and confined within a narrow bed by after finding their way, by different those high perpendicular walls of channels, through their native shire equilateral rocks. Now you may of Angus, meeting, for the first and hear a noise in the distance, like a last time, just as they are passing November wind sounding among the into their common grave in the neigh. dry crashing branches of the forest. bourhood of Montrose. And there it' increases, and the surrounding
trees and rocks throw a deeper gloom are so ill fitted with cngines, that over the path. Is it the roar of ape you run some danger of being shaken proaching thunder? No; the sky is in pieces. blue and serene, and the sunbeams, For about ten miles, the river though they cannot penetrate here, turns and winds like a cork-screw. have all the brightness of April. We It presents a perpetual succession of must ascend out of this darkness. sinuosities; and in its course a painThis little by-road will conduct us ter may discover Hogarth's lines of to yonder old tower that stands upon beauty multiplied ad infinitum. But the height before us. The situation in some of its bolder sweeps, as well here is more airy, but the noise is as in many of its more abrupt and louder than ever. Nay, do not fear it. geometrical meanderings, how beauFollow me to the tower. Now, look tiful are the little pictures of Nature there! This is Cora-linn! There is which are continually presenting the cataract before us, tumbling down themselves! Here, for example, on from rock to rock, dashing from chasm the bank to the right, is a hamlet, or to chasm, foaming, boiling, roaring, rather a few detached houses, to till the brain becomes dizzy, and the which they have given the name of sense of hearing suffers a temporary Dunglass. It stands almost emboannihilation. See how its waters somed in trees; and immediately beseem to burst fresh from the caves of hind, a richly-wooded hill rises in a the surrounding rocks! See how the gentle acclivity. I know not well boughs of the impending trees are how to account for the many dea whitened by its spray ! Look how lightful sensations which this secluthe river slides along with the silent ded spot,"unsung in tale or history," velocity of light, till it reaches the awakens in the bosom. I have seen edge of the precipice, and then mark such scenes before, in England, and how it leaps into the gulf below, I have read of others which my imaand frightens the mountain-echoes gination clothed perhaps in ideal with its earthquake voice! Look charms, but here those charms are yonder, where for a moment it catches realised. They remind me of the the sun-light in its fall; see how vicinity of Litchfield, the residence every drop glitters with a different of Miss Seward, a lady whose worth hue, laughing to scorn the bright and genius will be better appreciated ness of the rainbow. When did wa- hereafter, but whose sweet cottage, ter ever suggest so many varied emo- with all its pleasant associations, will tions,-wonder, fear, delight, and ever hold a prominent place " in my awe! Every faculty is absorbed; mind's eye." They place before me the mind is put upon its utmost Weston-the “ beloved Weston" of stretch; the very excess of pleasure the gentle poet Cowper ; and, for the · becomes pain. We shall gaze no moment, I can almost fancy myself more. Yet it was in this savage re- surrounded by the spirits of Mrs treat, among those rugged, inaccessi. Unwin, and Lady Hesketh, and ble cliffs, that the patriot Wallace is Joseph Hill, and Samuel Rose, and said to have concealed himself for a Cowper himself, the centre of the time, meditating the deliverance of system, round whom all the other his injured country.
planets revolved. They recal to my Let us pass on—still nobler pro- memory that most enchanting respects await us. Those orchards and treat in all Sommersetshire, where luxuriant fields through which the one who has outlived nearly all the stream now winds will not detain us. associates of her youth, and who has We are bent upon exploring more stepped down, almost alone, from the distant beauties. Here is the smoky last century to this, still resides in city of Glasgow. Let us get through the midst of her fruits, and flowers, it, I beseech you, as expeditiously as and gardens ;-fruits of her own possible. What a multitude of steam rearing, flowers of her own sowing, boats are at the quay! We shall go and gardens of her own laying out. on board “the Inverary Castle.” When I mention Barley Wood and It is large and commodious, and, what Miss Hannah More, there are readis more, sails fast and smoothly. ers who will not wonder at my enSome of them (though not many) thusiasm. Where does Mrs Hemans