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alted rank, who had filled with he arrived on the evening of dignity the highest stations a British the 7th. On the 8th he was insubject can hold, and who added troduced to monsieur Talleyrand, to his other qualifications, that the minister for foreign affairs, frankness and sincerity which are and partook of a splendid dinner, the true and becoming characteristics at which were all the most distinof an Englishman and a soldier. guished personages in Paris. The No choice could be more pleasing next morning he was privately inor more flattering to the French troduced to Bonaparté, who congovernment.
versed with him for a considerable On the 1st of November 1901, time. This was the day fixed for the marquis of Cornwallis left Lon- the public rejoicings in Paris, on don, attended by a train suitable to account of the peace. The prehis own dignity, and to that of the sence of the British minister added nation he represented. He was ac- considerably to the general joy on companied by his son, lord Brome; the occasion. By a private order his son-in-law, Mr. Singleton ; and of the police, his carriage was the was attended by colonels Nightingale only one which was permitted on and Littlehales; Mr. Moore, who that day to pass through the acted as his secretary ; three of his crowded streets. This privilege majesty's messengers, and a large was most cheerfully acquiesced in train of servants. He had previ- by the Parisian mob, who felt, at ously sent over to Calais his horses least, as much disposition as the and his equipage, which were far government, to pay every possible superior in splendour and appoint- compliment to his lordship as amments to any thing which had been bassador of Great Britain, and the seen in France since the revolution. bearer of the welcome tidings of So anxious was his lordship to exe- peace. In the evening, lord Corncute this important mission, that wallis was invited to the palace of although the weather was ex- the Thuilleries, to see the illumitremely tempestuous, he resolved nation and fireworks. After this to embark, on the morning of the day his lordship gave and received 3d of November, for Calais. One some grand dinners, at which geof the vessels which carried the nerals Moreau, Massena, Berthier, baggage was stranded and lost near and several of the first characters Boulogne, and the inhabitants of the in France, were pr sent, but he town of Calais watched, with the never dined with the first consul. most anxious solicitude, the vessel It appeared, from this circumstance, in which his lordship was em- that although Bonaparte was in the barked. Much was apprehended habit of asking distinguished chafor its safety ; but towards night the racters, of every country, to his storm somewhat abated, and he table, as a private individual, yet landed under a general salute of to ambassadors he stood upon all the artillery from all the forts. The strictuess of the etiquette of crownnext morning he was visited by the ed heads, and preserved the greatwhole of the constituted authorities est degree of state and ceremony. of that district, and in the course His lordship's reception, how. of the day set out for Paris, where ever, at the French court, was
marked marked with more distinction than period suspended. The Dutch mihad ever before been paid in France to nister, Schimmelpenninck, did not any ambassador. Besides the guard arrive till the 7th, and the court of honour, which was appointed to of Spain seemed very slow in apwait at his hotel, orders were given pointing their minister; at length to the soldiers at every corps de the choice fell upon the chevalier garde, that when his carriage passed, D'Azarra, but he remained a conthe guard should turn out and siderable time at Genoa, assigning carry arms. This, as a mark of as an excuse, what was the reality distinction, was one of the highest or the pretence of illuess. SPAIN compliments that could be shown was, of all the powers coalesced him, and such as never before against England, the least satisfied was paid to any foreign minister in with the preliminary articles of France. Notwithstanding all this peace. France was to receive back compliment and ceremony, his all the colonies which had been lordship was soon tired of Paris, taken from her, in a highly imand at the latter end of November proved state, and was to cede noset out for Amiens, where he ar- thing as an equivalent, save those rired on the 1st of the next month. countries which she would have Neitber Spanish nor Dutch minis- been obliged equally to have abanter were then arrived, and Jo- doned, even if no equivalent had seph Bonaparté, the consul's bro- been spoken of. Holland, who had ther, who was the French ini- lost all her colonies, except Batavia, nister, came down solely in personal was to receive much the greater compliment to lord Cornwallis. part of them back again, and in a Almost as soon as his lordship had state infinitely superior to what arrived, the administrators of the they were in when taken; but theatre of Amiens waited on him Spain, who had lost nothing but to know at what hour he would the islands of Trinadada and Miwish the play to begin. His lord- norca, was called upon to cede ship replied, that he very seldom the former, Spain, therefore, find. went to plays, and requested they ing herself almost the only loser in would fix it at whatever hour was point of territory, was not very most agrecable to the inhabitants anxious to sign this treaty; and as of Amiens. They, however, ob- nothing conclusive could be donc served his dinner hour, and during at Amiens, till the arrival of the his stay in that city, the play be- Spanish minister, lord Cornwallis gan at seven o'clock instead of six, had for a considerable time no which was, before his lordship's other employment at Amiens than arrival, the time it had always com- receiving and exchanging complis menced. All the constituted autho- mentary visits. rities within forty miles of Amiens The French government and the came to visit and congratulate his first consul were not inactive in lordship; and here, as well as at the mean time. Two grand proParis, he received every compliment jects then occupied the mind of and mark of distinction that was Bonaparté. The first was the repossible to give. The negotiation, covery of the colonies of St. Dobowever, was for a considerable mingo and Guadaloupe, which had
forinerly formerly been of the fist import- They however collected a fleet at ance to France, but which the revo- Bantry Bay, under the command Jutionary army of negroes, who had of admiral Mitchell, which was defended them throughout the war, destined as a fleet of observation, now threatened to wrest from to watch their motions in the West the parent state. The second pro- Indies. When the crews of these ject was still bolder. It was to vessels understood that they were place the Cisalpine republic, which about to be sent thither, notwiththe treaty of Luneville had de- standing the war appeared at an clared independent, absolutely in end, a spirit of mutiny spread the power and at the discretion of pretty universally through the fleet, the first consul. In pursuance of but particularly on board the ships the first project, a considerable Temeraire and Formidable. It was, army and fleet had been for a long however, soon subdued by the des time collecting at Brest, L'Orient, cided conduct and spirit of the and Rochefort, which consisted of otħcers; and fourteen of the ringtwenty-three ships of the line, five leaders, who had most of them of which were Spanish, and 25,000 borne an excellent character before land troops, and which sailed on the mutiny, were tried by a court the 14th of December.
martial, condemned, and executed. The British government was, not The mutiny thus at an end, without reason, jealous of such a and completely subdued, a squadron force, and somewhat anxious about of seven sail of the line proceeded its final destination; but having to the West Indies to reinforce the received express assurances from fleets on that station, and prevent France that its only object was to the possibility of any atiаck upon take possession of the colonies, and our possessions in that part of the restore them to regular government, world. Such were the principal they at length consented to their events which concluded the year sailing, without waiting for the con- 1801. elusion of the definitive treaty !
CH A P. VII.
Commencement of the Year 1902.- Opposite Opinions on the General State
of Affairs at that Period.- Tardiness of the Negotiation at Amiens accounted for.- Projects of Bonaparte -- sets off for Lyons to meet the Cisalpine Deputies-conferences with them in private.-- The Consulta publicly submit the new Constitution of the Cisalpine Republic to him, and solicit him to accept the Presidency.- Constitution of the Italian Republic. - Bonaparté returns to Paris - Additional Acquisitions of France in the Month of January-Louisiana-Parma, &c.- Ella.
IT was the opinion of a vast burden which the bulk of the na
I majority of the British nation, tion had rather impatiently borne, that the year 1802 commenced was now to be withdrawn; that onder circumstances highly aus- the substituted taxes were to be picious. The termination of our such as would press solely on the arduous struggle for everything opulent part of the community; and dear to Britons, with an enemy, that vast reductions were to take the torrents of whose success we place in our military and marine alone could stem, and from which establishments. we had retreated, as far as our own In another point of view our immediate interests were affected, situation was not less flattering: with honour; unimpaired resources; the atrocities of the French revoluadditional territory; the character tionary government, and the desof our army and navy at the high- potism which succeeded them, and est point of reputation ; our mari- to which they inevitably tended, time regulations and laws, contend- thoroughly satisfied the English ed for with the Northern Powers, mind upon the subject of democracy. gioriously established ; a confidence And there was scarcely to be found in the pacific tone and temper of the at the close of the war an individual first consul of France; a belief that who would not have borne the the spirit of rebellion and disaffection pressures he had undergone, mulin Ireland was completely allayed, tiplied tenfold, rather than subject shone forth in the dazzling assur- our happy and tried constitution ances of the minister and those to the horrors attendant on innovawho acted with them: and these tion and revolution. The opening assurances were of too flattering a of the distilleries was a convincing nature not to meet with implicit and gratifying proof that plenty credit. Nor did it contribute in a had once more established herself trifling degree to the general satis- in her favoured seat; and the faction, that it was universally un- ceasing of the provision contracts, derstood that the income tax, a and the quantity of foreign grain
in our ports, in addition to the pro- and temper of the first consul, they duce of the two successive plentiful were not equally sanguine with harvests it had pleased Providence those, who saw in them the spirit to send us, put an end to all ap- of moderation and peace; on the prehension of scarcity, and the contrary, they augured ill of both, markets once more were become from the activity which he manireasonable and abundant,
fested in seizing the first moments Yet were there not wanting some, of this truce to send a vast armaand those too eininent for political ment to St. Domingo; his journey sagacity, who saw this brilliant to the South, to establish himself picture in a very different light: in the sovereignty of Italy; the anwith them, the peace was ill-timed, nexation, by private treaty, conand ill-framed. While they acknow- cluded with Spain on the 21st of ledged the abundance of our re- March 1801, and which now besources, and the high reputation of came public, of Louisiana, and our fleets and armies, they con-' Parma with all its dependencies, tended that the advantages of the and of the island of Elba, so long former, and the victories achieved and so nobly defended by British by the latter, were thrown away in valour*; his treaty with the Porte, negotiation. If we had acquired inimical in the extreme to the interterritory, it was at the expense of ests of England in the Levant, and our old allies, whom by now strip- concluded surreptitiously with that ping of a portion of their dominions, power, as the price of the evacua. we threw more completely within the tion of Egypt by the French troops, power, or rather tyranny of France, at the nioment when, he knew, who, on the contrary, by this treaty they were to a man prisoners to maintained her high tone of unity the British force; in fine, they and indivisibility; who, far from were of opinion, that on the pait parting with any thing she possessed of Bonaparté the peace was deceitby right of conquest at the time of ful and hollow, and would last just the signing the preliminaries, was long enough to witness the surthen, and since engaged in adding render of our conquests in all parts territory and empire to her already of the world, to our unrelenting overgrown dominion. Of the tone enemy, and to enable him again to
* It is much to be regretted that the particulars of the gallant and glorious defence of this spot, by a handful of troops, under the command of leut. col. Airey, of the 8th regiment of infantry, against an infinitely superior French force, has never yet come in a satisfactory form before the public. That island, of the utmost importance as a military station, had by the bravery and great exertions of its small garrison, composed of Tuscans, Swiss, Corsicans, British marines and seamen, together with a jew English merchants who had been obliged to quit Leghorn, been just rendered tenable, when a suspension of arms tok place, in consequence of the preliminary treaty of peace. The military operations in the isle of Elba were the last act of hostility between Great Britain and France ; in point of real merit they have certainly not bren surpassed by any event of the war, although their brilliancy has been in a considerable degree eclipsed, and prevented from exciting that interest to which they were justly entitled, from having occurred at a period, when the public attention was almost exclusively occupied with the more agreeable intelligence of the signature of preliminary articles of peace, and with the more important event of the surrender of the entire French army in Egypt to his majesty's forcue.