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CH A P. II.
Copies of the Convention uith Russia laid lefore the House of Lords--- and
Commons. - Motion by Mr: Grey for Papers-ly Mr. Whitlread on the second Article of the Preliminaries.- In.quiry by Lord Grenville on the Subject of Portugal.- Address to the King moved for in the Lords on the Peace. – Debate. — Speeches of Lords Romney-Limerick-Spencer Duke of Clarence - Pelham-Grenville-Chancellor-- Moira-Mulgrave
- Duke of Bedford – Fitzwilliam-St. Vincent- Nelson--The Marquis of Buckingham -- Carnarvon-Hobart.- Division. Address carried.
N Friday the 30th of October, stances, in which so much had been U copies of the convention with given up without any equivalent, the emperor of Russia, and of the such unlimited concession made, so preliminary articles of peace with much disgrace incurred, and the naFrance, were presented to the bouse tion placed in such awful circumof lords by lord Pelham; and to the stances of impending peril. He house of commons by lord Hawkes: hoped, however, that his noble friend bury.
would, by an express declaration, In the house of lords, lord Gren- render the motion unnecessary. pille rose to move for copies of Lord Pelham regretted extremely all treaties and conventions made that the noble lord should think it within the last year by France with necessary to oppose the measures of any of the powers which were allies his majesty's ministers on so imporof bis majesty: the object for which tant a point. With respest to the he moved those papers was to ex- production of these papers, he obplain that article of the preliminaries served, that while matters stood in which respectéd the integrity of negotiation between this country and Portugal, inasmuch as by one treaty France, such papers could not be Portugal had ceded a province. to laid upon the table, without conSpain, and by another a still greater siderably embarrassing his majesty's proportion of its territory to France: servants, and endangering the pub. he wished then much to know what lic interests. was this integrity of Portugal which Lord Grenville said he did not was guarantied by the preliminaries, mean to embarrass his majesty's or what claim the government had ministers, nor oppose their measures, to the praise of fidelity in securing unless in matters of such import as the possessions of our allies. For left him no option. On the conbis part, he was of opinion that trary, he was ready to give them all there never was a transaction of any the assistance and support he could, kind in the history of our country, provided they would act with more at any period, or under any circum- firmness and vigour in maintaining
the peace, than they had shown in Spain and Holland had appointed
On the same day, in the house petent to act for her allies : he add-
a footing with those of Portugal. Lord Hawkesbury considered these On the next day a most important questions as unusual and irregular, debate took place in both houses, on and therefore declined, for the pre- the motion for an address to his masent, to enter into any explanation, jesty : this debate naturally drew and more particularly as the subject forth the sentiments of every distinwould soon come before the house guished member of either house, as in a regular way of discussion. to the general merits or demerits of
The thanks of both houses were the preliminary articles: previous given to general Hutchinson, lord however to the order of the day for Keith, and sir James Suamarez. reading his majesty's speech, a de.
On the 2d of November, in the bate, or rather an animated conver, house of commons, Mr. Whitbread sation, took place in both houses reasked lord Hawkesbury whether specting some further information
which was demanded from ministers, he observed was more peculiarly and which they were not disposed to necessary, as Portugal had signed grant.
two treaties with Spain, une at BaLord Grenville, in the house of dajos, the other at Madrid, and the peers, asked his majesty's ministers house ought to know which of them whether Portugal was now at liberty was guarantied. to maintain her accustoined relations Lord Hawkesbury said, governwith this country, as by the treaty ment was not then possessed of offiof Madrid she had been bound not cial information on the subject, but to give any exclusive privileges to he was ready to say, that he underthe detriment of the contracting stood that by the treaty of Badajos, parties.
Portugal only ceded the town of OliLord Pelham answered, that she venza to Spain, and that by the was still at liberty to treat with this treaty between France and Portugal country.
there was so far an alteration of the Lord Grenville replied, that this frontier in Guyana, that for the fuquestion was, whether Portugal re ture the river Arewara was to be the mained at liberty to maintain her boundary. former connection with us, under The preliminary conversation bewhich we enjoyed exclusive advan- ing thus disposed of in both houses, tages, for which we gave reciprocal that part of his majesty's speech reprivileges.
lating to the preliminary articles was [No answer was made by minis- read. ters.
Lord Romney moved the address Lord Thurlow complained of the in the house of lords : he began by irregularity of this conversation. stating, that we had now terminated
Lord Grenville said, it was by no the greatest and most momentous means unusual to call for important war which this country had ever information previous to discussing been engaged in; a war, which the order of the day; however, for though productive of the heaviest the sake of regularity, he should burdens, had been on our side a war move an humble address to his ma- of necessity, not only for the dejesty, praying for a copy of the treaty fence of our allies, but the preservaof Madrid, signed on the 29th of tion of our religion, laws, property, September
and constitution. And as it was on Lord Hobart said, that the preli- our side nesessary, so it was, as far minaries only respected the integrity as we were concerned, attended by of the territories of Portugal; com- the most brilliant successes. Glomercial regulations must remain for rious as that war was, in which the future arrangement.
immortal Chatham presided at the After several observations from helm of affairs, this was no less the lord Chancellor, lord Thurlow, splendid. Our fleets had been vice and other lords, the house proceeded torious in a still higher degree; they to the order of the day.
had crushed the navy, and annihiIn the house of commons, the lated the commerce of the enemy. honourable Mr. Grenville made a The whole of maritime Europe, similar demand of information re- jealous of the power of our navy, specting the treaty of Madrid, which had conspired its humiliation; they
found found their vain endeavours recoil pecuniary, than this country was supapon themselves. He had himself posed to possess, and so far the imporbeen taught, by the glory that our tant objects of the war had been setroops had obtained in Egypt, the cured. His lordship then dwelt on the truth of one observation made to importance of the islands of Ceylon him formerly by a noile lord, him- and Trinidada (both from their si. self an ornament to the military pro- tuation and capability of improvefession (lord Moira), who told him meni), as also on the vast conquests that he might rely upon it, that which had been made in India, from British soldiers, when they had an Tippoo Sultan, the old ally of equal opportunity of distinguishing France, and the deliverance of themselves, would not fall short of Egypt from the French dominion. British sailors. Egypt had lately He concluded by giving his opinion witnessed such glorious exertions of that we had done all that could British troops, as the annals of his- have been done for our allies, and tory could not surpass. We had that we had laid a foundation for then to contend with a completely British security, which held out a disciplined army, more numerous promise -of permanent peace. He than our own, inured to the clinate, then read his motion for the adand commanded by a most skilful address. and experienced general. The chosen Lord Limerick seconded the adtroops: of France, who had gained dress. He thought it augured well so many brilliant victories against of the peace, that almost all ranks the Austrians, and deemed them- and descriptions of men in the selve's “ invincible," found, for the country approved of it. He was first time, that they were not invin- sorry, however, to find that many cible when they came to close quar- of the highest characters in point of ters with British soldiers. Success abilities and integrity thought difhowever was the best season for ferently upon that subject. The concluding peace. In no former situation of this country was, as war has the victorious party insisted he thought, decidedly better than on retaining all its acquisitions. In at the late peace. At the last the war which lord Chatham had so peace we lost our finest colonies, gloriously conducted, the object was and several most important islands to secure our American colonies : and fortresses had been taken from that being effected, we restored, at us in the war which preceded it; the peace, Martinico, Guadaloupe, but in this the character of the the Havannah, and Pondicherry. In country as well as its territories the American war, when France had were preserved inviolate: Britain succeeded in detaching from us these had also successfully interfered for colonies, she did not hesitate to re- its allies, Turkey and Portugal. store several islands and settlements His lordship then expa tiațed on she had taken from us during the the glorious achievements of our war. We now have secured the troops in Egypt, and regretted the great.object of the war, our religion, loss of that hero, who led on those laws, constitution, property, and in- troops to victory and immortal hodependence. We had displayed nour. His spirit, however, did not greater resources, both military and die; it fell upon those gallant offi,
cers who succeeded him, and whose by land and sea had conquered, conduct best spoke their culogilun. and which would have secured us He boped the house would pardon from the effects of the aggrandizehis national vanity in mentioning, ment of France upon the continent. that many of them came from the It had been said that we had prosame part of the united kingdom tected our allies. What was the with himself, and were his par- fact? How had we protected Porticular friends. He spoke this with tugal ? It appeared that it was only particular pleasure, from the recol- a portion of her territory whose lection of the disaffected and dan- integrity was to be preserved. A gerous spirit which prevailed too part of the important province of much amongst the inferior orders Olivenza was to beceded: our of people in that country. To this ally the Prince of Orange was not subject he thought the attention of even named in the preliminaries, government should be directed, and although from his faithful attachthat above all things a large peace ment to us he had lost both his establishment must be kept up. territories and his station. Could He concluded by generally approv- it be said that Ceylon and Trinidad ing of the conduct of ministers, gave either sufficient indemnity for but particularly for procuring for the past, or security for the future? the nation such preliminaries of In India the bravery of our army peace as the present.
had subdued Tippoo Saib, and Earl Spencer lamented the ne- placed that country out of danger; cessity he felt himself under from but by this peace, which surrenhis sense of duty, to deliver an ders to the enemy the Cape of opinion opposite to that of the two Good Hope and Cochin, we afford noble lords who had last spoke. If them an entrance into Malabar ; he did not feel himself called upon while in South America we have by his sense of duty, he should permitted Portugal to cede to France much rather have deplored in silence a strong military position at the the calamity of the present peace, mouth of the river of Amazonis. and the enthusiastic joy with which In the West Indies we had surrenthe people had received it. He dered Martinico, and left the French shou d rather have suppressed the in possession of St. Domingo. In mortification he felt at the degrada- the Mediterranean we had surrention of his country: he felt peculiar dered every thing and excluded pain at opposing the measures of ourselves. In Malta the French men with whom he had so long were to have equal footing with acted, and with whom he was con ourselves. In short, he saw nothing nected by the ties of friendship; but a precarious peace. It was said but his opinion on this subject was it was the interest of France to diametrically opposite to theirs. maintain this peace, but who had He thought that no single object of learned to calculate the interest of the war had been obtained, and an usurper? If ever peace was prethat we had sacrificed all means of carious, this was that peace. If protection. We had in every part ever precarious peace was dangerous, of the world made cessions of coun- this was that peace. The French tries which the valour of our forces principles are triumphant, and