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adorned with all the attraction and proved itself superior both in coudignity of success. He felt sorry rage and capacity. The French, to differ from ministers, and con- although superior in numbers, were sidered it now most peculiarly his very inferior in military address, duty to support such measures of After passing very high encovigour as might give the country a miums on the conduct of our army, chance of safety.

his royal highness passed to the The duke of Clarence supported brilliant achievements of our navy. the peace. He considered that we The memorable 1st of June, 14th had as much security as could be of February, 11th of October, and expected in those revolutionary list of August, would be for ever times, from a government of the brilliant and glorious in our naval nature of the French republic. His history. The time was however royal highness took an able re- corne for making peace. Each of view of the events of the last war: the powers, from their vast conafter bestowing the warmest en- quests, was placed in that predicacomiums on our feets, he paid the nient, that no blow could be given highest tribute of applause to the with effect on either side. France gallantry of the British soldiers had completely overcome every conduring the course of the war. In tending power on the continent. this respect he traced the glory of Great Britain, as far as regarded the British arms, not only in gal. maritime affairs, was in the same lant exploits achieved upon the state. This was therefore (as excontinent of Europe, but in the pressed by a distinguished personage) conquest of the enemy's colonies, no common peace; but a reconand in the overthrow and destruc- ciliation of differences between the tion of Tippoo Saib. While the two greatest powers in the world ! British arms were attended with He considered the possessions that such glory and success, a gigantic we retained as very judiciously seenterprise of the present first con- lected, not only from their producsul of France threatened for a time tions and real value, but on account to interrupt their progress. 40,000 of their situations and the advanof the best troops of the French tages we might derive from their republic embarked on the expedi- harbours. It was the obvious potion to Egypt. This plan not only licy of Great Britain to pay her inenaced all our possessions in the principal attention to commercial East, but threatened the existence stations; while an immense power of the Turkish government.

like France naturally looked to The first important check which continental acquisitions. His royal this formidable army of French highness concluded by giving his invaders met, was from a handful hearty assent to the motion. of British troops under Sir Sidney Lord Pelham, in vindication of Smith, long before the landing of the treaty, compared it with the that army which became in their projet which the fornier ministers turn the conquerors of Egypt. It had given in in 1797. The only difwas on the memorable 21st of ference was, thai the Cape of Good March last, when a British army, Hope, which by that projet was to engaged with a French army, have been retained, is now to be



made a free port. This difference attainment of that object, which surely would not authorize a con- for so many years of his life it was tinuation of the war. As to no his duty continually to urge to their mention having been made of the lordships. He feared, however, prince of Orange, it was most that all the pains he had bestowed evident that we had not the power upon that object, would turn out to reinstate him by force of arms; mere fruitless labour, for he was but certainly no opportunity would sorry to say, that, according to his be lost in negotiating for his inte- view of the subject, no one of the rests. Naples, which now was objects for which we had so long possessed by the armies of France, warred had been obtained. If sewas to be restored to its lawful curity was the object of the war, sovereign. Malta was to be availing we now remain in a state of greater to neither of the contracting parties. insecurity than at the commenceAs for Portugal, she had retained ment of the war, or at any time every thing that could be useful to during its continuance. He should retain, and had made no sacritice agree that our naval and military that could be injurious. There was efforts had been crowned by success Nothing in the West Indies which greater than at any former period: could have justified a continuance he also agreed that peace ought to of the struggle, and in the East have been made when it could be the overthrow of Tippoo had com- made on secure and honourable pletely secured our empire from terins, for a secure and honourable annoyance. Ceylon and Trinidad peace is the only legitimate object were important acquisitions ; but of war. The question was not it was much more important that whether the peace should or should we had overcome the erroneous not be agreed to, for the honour of opinions prevalent in England and the nation was now , pledged to the in Ireland. He concluded with observance of its conditions ; and trusting the peace would be found as so many sacrifices had already advantageous and safe for the coun- been made, he should be the last try.

man who would propose to sacriLord Westmeath also spoke in tice the national honour. The quesfavour of the address.

tion now is, what are the merits of Lord Grenville said it would be this treaty ? or can the house assure indeed to him a matter of the most his majesty that the terms of it met lively satisfaction and heartfelt joy, their approbation ? To this he could if his judgment could permit him not agree, because he conceived to congratulate the house as the the terms disadvantageous to the noble mover of the address had country, and fraught with national done, or if he could agree to an degradation. This was stated to address which stated that we had be only a question about terms, and brought an arduous and important therefore it must be tried by an contest to a successful termination, examination of the terms, by weighIndependent of every public con- ing our cessions and our conquests, sideration which must have ani- and considering our relative simated him, every private feeling he tuation. He considered that it was possessed must have rejoiced at the perfectly known to every statesman,

that that there were but two principles and fresh conquest. On our side, on which negotiations for peace our successes were no less brilliant. usually proceeded: the first was We had rescued Egypt ; possessed the state of things before the war; ourselves of Malta and Minorca ; or the status quo ante bellum ; or and shut up the Mediterranean the actual state of things at the time against the ships of France and of negotiating, or the uti possidetis. Spain. We had the Cape of Good If the situation of things was such Hope,' a most important key to the as tlrat it was not possible to restore Easi. In the West Indies we had them to what they was before the every thing that was desirable, war, then the negotiation should Martinico, Trinidad, &c. On the have been on the latter principle, continent of South America we had, and every deviation from that prin- at Demerara ånd Swinain, an emciple should be strictly watehed. pire almost equal in extent and imIf we had been much inferior to portance to the power to whom we the eneiny in strength at the time of restored it. Although the war had the negotiation, that surely must not been undertaken for colonial enter into the account; but every acquisitions, yet it was wisely dinoble lord who had yet spoken, rected to that object, as being the disclaimed, and indeed it had been best means of crippling her marine, completely disproved by the event by contracting her commerce ; but of the last year's war, in which it although we were disappointed in was by no means found that we the objects of the war, these poswere inferior to the enemy, either sessions should have been beld as in success, in means, or resources. pledges for indemnity, and still more I the situation of the country then so for security. If the continent of was elevated and prosperous, we Europe could not be restored to its ought to have had honourable terms former state, they ought to have of peace; we were in a condition been retained as a counterpoise to to demand such terms as were ade- the power of France. The noble quate to our rank and power. He lord had seemed principally to rely then requested their lordships to upon an argument ad hominem, by consider the situation of France, comparing this treaty with the proand by comparing it with that of met of Lisle, but he had forgot to this country, ascertain the relative state that, besides the cessions consituation of both. He by no means tained in that projet, the present mcant to undervalue the conquests treaty gave up Surinam, Minorca, of France, on the contrary, he and Malta. After four years of thought then of the highest im- additional war and expense, we portance. By taking the Rhine for had given more to receive less; beber boundary, and annexing Suroy, sides we should have remembered &c. she had not only extended her in what a period of despondency empire beyond what the most am- those negotiations began. The bitious of her monarehs had ever stoppage at the bank, which threatconceived, but she had her fron- ened more alarining consequences tiers additionally secured by depen- than resulted from it, to which was dent republics and tributary kings, to be added, the unexpected deadditional war, continued success, fection of our allies, and, above all,


that which he would wish to blot In the West Indies we had given up from his memory, the mutiny in Martinique, the value of which was our fleet. At Lisle, though we certainly greater than that of Trinigave up much for ourselves, we re- dk. In the Mediterranean we had tained the dignity of stipulating given up everything; Minorca, for our allies. We then expressly Malta, Porto Ferrajo, and Egypt : stipulated for Portugal. We ex- and the first fruits of the liberation of pressly stipulated for the prince Egypt, was a treaty by which France of Orange. We did not leave was to be as much favoured as eurhis interests for future negotia- selves, throughout the whole extent tions. If ministers had insisted on of the Turkish empire. As to an indemnity for the prince of Naples, the advantages she had obOrange, could it be supposed that tained by this treaty were illusory. the treaty would have been broken The French army was to evacuate off on that account? If it should her territory, but might remain appear that his property had been within sixty miles of it, in the eonfiscated on the pretence of his Cisalpine territory, and regain in a having given an order for the sur- few days all that they now conrender of some colonies, was it not sented to give up. He could not clear that this confiscation should conceive that the situation of France be taken off when those colonies entitied her to make such exorwere restored ? He objected much bitant demands; there was no reto that sort of preliminary treaty ciprocity in the treaty, all the sacriwhich was to be construed by se- fices were on our part, and none cret understandings between the on theirs. His lordship concluded parties; for instance, when an ar- by giving his opinion, that we trad acle, expressing to guaranty the given every pledge of security whichi integrity of the territories of Por- was in our hands, and had now tugal, was, in fact, to mean the no other security but the word of dismemberment of it, pursuant to France: that whatever might be the the separate treaties which Portugal feelings which induced ministers to had made with Spain. In periit- consent to such humiliating and ting this dismemberment, in addi- dangerous sacrifices, (the more dantion to what we had ourselves gerous because they were g humiceded, he conceived that the secu- liating,) and whatever delusive conrity of our possessions in the East fidence the country entertained in had suffered much ; for when the the continuance of such a peace, enemy should be able to exclude us yet that the nation would be imfrom touching either at Brazil or pressed with this conviction, that the Cape of Good Hope, when the stand must at least be made they were able to place as strong then, if not sooner; and that we European garrisons as they pleased must act like men having incauin Pondicherry and Cochin, they tiously surrendered the out-works, would have great advantages in an but who retained the citadel, and Indian war. They could send over would rather bury themselves in armaments with safety and conve- the ruins than surrender that. nience : we could not, for want of The Lord Chancellor defended any intermediate port to touch at. the peace, and was firmly persAnded

that that the war had been carried on 1797 ; and although he should not till it was hopeless to proceed any pretend to call this a glorious peace, further. So far of its object as yet he conceived it would be conwent to the security of our con- ducive to the security of the essenstitution had been attained. He tial interests of the country : he, should not boast of this peace as therefore, in his conscience apa very honourable one; but his proved of it, and from his consciprincipal wish was satisfied, if it ence and best judgment he had adwas a secure and lasting peace, vised his majesty to agite to the and the former ininisters had de- terms of it. clared that was their only object. Lord Moira, in reply to lord We had certainly conquered many Grenville, said, the peace was only possessions of the enemy; but had so far inadequate as it was inadeFrance gained no dominion over quate to the expectations which that Naples and Portugal ? As to the noble lord and his colleagues had projet of Lisle, that was but a projet, daily held out to parliament and a proposition, and by no means an the country, of indemnity for the ultimatum, and it is by no means past, and security for the future. certain what would have been the Although parliament had given the terms agreed to, if these negotia- most unbounded confidence, and tions had gone on; however, he ample supplies that were ever enwished to procure a suitable indem- trusted to ministers, yet those pronity for the prince of Orange; he mises constantly failed, and the could not, in his conscience, risk country was brought so on the the peace by insisting upon this verge of ruin, as that a peace at point; he thought it better to leave any price became necessary. He it for future arrangement. As to should, however, wish that what the Cape of Good Hope, however was past, should be, as much as important it might be as a station possible, buried in oblivion, and and as a harbour, he thought it by that we should look forward to the no means worth continuing the war more pleasing prospects which now at an expense of thirty millions a open upon us. He did not at all year to obtain the possession of it; agree in the justice of the metaand as to the Mediteranean, he phor used by lord Pelham, that conceived we were better off now this country and France had gone than in 1797, when the island of on in parallel lines; he thought Malta had no power to guaranty there was no parallel between them. it from France; and we were much France was an extensive continental better off than we would be if we, power, and her greatness depended for the sake of retaining it, suffered on her army. The security of EngFrance to keep possession of Naples land rested on her navy; but howand Portugal. In the West Indies, ever glorious and brilliant our viche confessed that he should prefer tories bad been both by sea and by Martinique, if it could be obtained, land, Great Britain stood in a state to Trinidad. He thonght there of comparative inferiority both in . was a greater chance of this peace strength and aggrandizement. The being permanent, than any peace acquisitions we had made certainly which might have been made in bore no comparison to those which


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