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accumulation acres Adam Smith advantage agricultural amount capital capitalist causes circulating capital circumstances commodities competition condition considerable consumed consumption cost of production cottier cultivation dealers degree demand depends diminished division of labour duction effect employed employment England equal exchange exchange value exertion exist expense farmer farms favourable fertility France greater habits hectares human hundred quarters improvement increase individual industry interest Ireland kind labouring class land landlord Law of Value less limited mankind manufacture manure materials means ment metayer mode natural agents necessary obtained occupation operations paid peasant permanent persons political economy population portion possession present principle produce productive labour proportion purchase rate of profit remuneration rent saving says Sismondi society soil subsistence sufficient supply suppose surplus tenant things tion trade unless unproductive wages wealth whole yield
Сторінка 587 - equalized by an increased demand, the result of cheapness, or by withdrawing a part of the supply, equalized they are in either case. Thus we see that the idea of a ratio, as between demand and supply, is out of place, and has no concern in the matter: the proper mathematical analogy is that of an
Сторінка 345 - gradually becoming more and more prosperous not-withstanding the increasing prices they have paid for their land, he argues, with apparent justness, that this -would seem to show that not only the gross profits of the small estates, but the net profits also have been gradually increasing, and that the net profits per acre, of
Сторінка 574 - to avoid the wasteful expenditure of two good scientific terms on a single idea, have employed Price to express the value of a thing in relation to money ; the quantity of money for which it will exchange. By the price of a thing, therefore, we shall henceforth understand its value in money ; by the
Сторінка 544 - York when it is three, or three and a quarter per cent in London. The cost of labour, then, is, in the language of mathematics, a function of three variables : the efficiency of labour ; the wages of labour (meaning thereby the real reward of the labourer) ; and the greater or
Сторінка 340 - labouring for themselves. . . . The German peasants work hard, but they have no actual want. Everyman has his house, his orchard, his roadside trees, commonly so heavy with fruit, that he is • Rural and Domestic Life of Germany, p. 27. f Ibid. p. 40. obliged to prop and secure them all ways, or they would be
Сторінка 496 - Disgrace has the contrary effect. The trade of a butcher is a brutal and an odious business ; but it is in most places more profitable than the greater part of common trades. The most detestable of all employments, that of public executioner, is, in proportion to the quantity of work done, better paid than any common trade whatever.
Сторінка 152 - may be cited in further illustration of the waste occasioned to society through the inability of its members to trust one another. " The cost to the purchaser is the price he pays for any article, added to the cost of verifying the fact of its having that degree of goodness for which he
Сторінка 581 - will not hear of D as any controlling power or mitigating agency in the case ; and finally, although at six guineas a-piece in London or Paris you might have loaded a waggon with VOL. i.—35 such boxes, you pay sixty rather than lose it when the last knell of the clock has sounded, which summons you to
Сторінка 498 - and dirtiness of the work, it sometimes raises the wages of the most common labour above those of the most skilful artificers. A collier working by the piece is supposed, at Newcastle, to earn commonly about double, and in many parts of Scotland about three