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Willes is de-

feated by


A, C, 1470. treat was construed into a gross affront by the arch

bishop as well as by Warwick, and his son-in-law Clarence, who imagined it was a concerted fcheme to fix the imputation of perfidy on them and their adherents : the former animosity was rekindled by this circumstance, and both sides reproached one another with great bitterness.

Cicely, dutchess of York, the king's mother,

endeavoured to effect a reconciliation, and they met the king at in her house of Baynard's castle ; but their mutual

jealousy was too deeply fixed to be eradicated at this interview. Nevertheless, Edward impowered Clarence and Warwick to array men in the counties of Warwick and Worcester, in order to suppress an insurrection in Lincolnshire, headed by Robert, the son of Richard lord Willes, Sir Thomas Dymock, and Sir Thomas de la Launde. The pretext for this commotion was the conduct of Sir Thomas Burgh, an officer of the king's houshold, who had oppressed the people ; though it afterwards appeared that Warwick and Clarence had instigated the leaders to raise the disturbance. Edward fent for the lord Willes and Dymock to come to London, and give an account of the insurrection. They fet out accordingly; but being informed on the road that the king was incensed against them as the authors of the rising, they took refuge in the fanctuary at Westminster, from whence they were drawn by the king's promise of pardon; and the lord Willes, by Edward's command, wrote a letter to his son, desiring he would lay down his arms, and submit to the king's mercy. To this injunetion, however, Robert payed no regard; and Edward advancing with an army against him to Staniford, was so incensed at his obftinacy, that he ordered his father and Dymock to be beheaded. This act of barbarity enraged him to such a degree, that although his army consisted of raw, undiscip


lined troops, and he expected to be joined by War: A. C. 1470. wick and Clarence, who had already assembled a strong body of forces, he resolved to revenge his father's death without delay, and attacked Edward with incredible fury, on the fourteenth day of March. The battle was maintained for some time with equal resolution on both sides : but, at length, the rebels were obliged to yield to the discipline and valour of the royal army, and were defeated with great Naughter. Ten thousand men are said to have been Nain in this engagement; and the general, with Sir Thomas de la Launde, being taken prisoners, were beheaded immediately after the action.

Mean while Warwick and Clarence marched in. The duke to Lancashire, in hope of being reinforced by Tho- of Clarence mas lord Stanley, who had married the earl's sister ; of Warwiek and from thence they intended to advance into are proYorkshire, where they expected to be joined by those insurgents who had risen under Sir John Conyers. In order to facilitate that junction, they employed emissaries to alarm them with reports that the king intended to revoke the pardon he had granted: they were disappointed however in both expectations. Stanley refused to embark in their undertaking, and the king got the start of them in Yorkshire, where he published a proclamation confirming the former amnesty. The two chiefs, being thus disappointed, Rymer: retired to the western parts of England; and in iv. their route surprised the earl of Rivers and lord Clause 'e, Audeley, whom they confined in the castle of Wardour, from whence they were afterwards rescued by John Thornhill, a genileman of Dorsetshire. While Clarence and Warwick were employed in Devonshire, in equipping a number of vessels to convey them and their families to Calais, Edward obliged Warwick's brother, John Nevil, to resign what he possessed of the Piercy estate, with his patent for the


claimed traitors,

Frag. Ei,

Ed. IV,

A. C. 1476. honour of Northumberland, and, by way of red

compence, created him marquis of Montacute. In consequence of his resignation, Henry Piercy was declared earl of Northumberland, restored to all his estate, and appointed warden of the East and Middle Marches towards Scotland. John Tiptot, earl of Worcester, and constable of England for life, was constituted lord lieutenant of Ireland, in the room of the duke of Clarence; and a price fet upon the heads of that prince and his father-in-law the earl of Warwick. At the same time the king published a declaration, representing that George duke of Clarence, and Richard earl of Warwick, had formed an unnatural design to dethrone his majesty; thắt they had encouraged Sir Robert Willes in his rebellion, with promise of fuccours, as appeared from the confession of the said Sir Robert and Sir Thomas de la Launde; that the king had summoned the duke and earl to his presence, to clear themselves of those accusations; but, instead of obeying his order, they had marched into Lancashire, in order to raise a greater number of forces, with which they hoped to execute their treacherous designs : that, notwithstanding these repeated acts of rebellion, he was still willing to forgive them, on their submission, and giving fureties for their future behaviour; and therefore summoned them to appear before him by the twentyeighth day of March, on pain of being denounced rebels and traitors. As they paid no regard to this declaration, another was actually published at Nottingham, on the thirty-first day of March, declaring them rebels and traitors : offering rewards for

taking them, and prohibicing all persons, on the Clause 10. feverest penalties, from aflisting them and their

adherents. They retire

That his brother and Warwick might not have time to assemble an army in the West, Edward


Ed. IV.

to France.


marched thither with great expedition; and from A. C. 1470° Exeter issued commissions to the earl of Wilts, the lord Mountjoye, Sir John Fortescue, and others, for arraying men in Devon and Cornwall: but before these troops could be assembled, Clarence and Warwick embarked at Dartmouth.

When they attempted to enter the harbour of Calais, the cannon of the place began to play upon them ; so that they were obliged to stand out to sea; and the dutchess of Clarence falling in labour, was delivered of a son named Edward, who was afterwards earl of Warwick. The grandfather of the child was not a little mortified at this treatment from his own lieutenant Vaucler, a Gascon, who was prevailed upon to consent to the infant's being christened in the place, and found means to let the earl know the meaning of his unexpected behaviour. The Philip de place was not provided for a siege against the power of Edward and the duke of Burgundy : the inhabitants were apprehensive of losing their trade; and the lord of Duras, who was Warwick's enemy, commanded a good part of the garrison. Vaucler therefore advised the earl to retire into France; and depend upon his fidelity. Perhaps this Gascon played a double game, and resolved to declare for . the strongest: but in the mean time his behaviour was very agreeable to Edward, who gratified him with the government of the place; while a pension of a thousand crowns was settled on him by the duke of Burgundy. Warwick, being obliged to admit of his excuses, failed for Normandy, and landed at Hondeur, where he was courteously received by the bastard of Bourbon, lieutenant-general of the province; from thence he and his son-in-law set out for the court of France at Amboise, where he met with a very favourable reception.

Lewis would not intermeddle in the affairs of England, while the crown was in dispute between


between Warwick and Margaret of An

A.C. 1470. Edward and Henry: but now that Edward had

contracted such a firm alliance with the duke of Bur-
gundy, his interest prompted him to effect the ruin
of both, and his interest on this occasion co-operated
with his desire of revenging the affront he had re-
ceived from Edward in the affair of the marriage.
Besides, the succours which that monarch intended
for the duke of Brittany, plainly demonstrated, that
while he should possess the throne of England, the
princes of France would always have recourse to his
protection. All these considerations concurred in

favour of the English fugitives, to whom he proConvention mised a very powerful assistance. That the civil

war, which he hoped to kindle in England, might

rage with the greater violence, he resolved, if porjou.

sible, to reconcile Margaret of Anjou and War-
wick; and in the mean time fent for Margaret, who
had retired to the habitation of her father. She
looked upon Warwick as the author of all the mise-
ries to which she and her family had been subjected ;
and the most rancorous and inveterate enmity sub-
fifted between them : nevertheless the accommoda-
tion was easily effected, because they stood in need
of each other. Warwick wanted a pretext for de-
throning Edward, and the most plausible he could
use was the restoration of Henry, which he could
not undertake without the queen's concurrence..
Margaret, on the other hand, faw no prospect of
the re-establishment of her family but in the affif-
tance of Warwick; and therefore made no scruple
to ask the protection of her antient adversary. Lewis
managed the treaty between them, which was con-
cluded, on condition that the duke of Clarence and
the earl of Warwick should exert all their endea-
vours for Henry's restoration; that the queen should
engage upon oath to leave the administration in
their hands, during the life of Henry, or the mi-
nority of his son, in case of his accession to the


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