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thousand pounds of his fine; and this exaction he A. C. 1468. was obliged to pay, over and above large presents to her council. His accuser, with some others, was afterwards hanged at Tyburn, for corresponding with Margaret of Anjou and the duke of Somerset. He was apprehended on the information of a ser. Fabian. vant belonging to Robert Whittingham, taken at Queenborough with letters from France. This man being put to the torture, impeached Sir Gervase Clyfton, and several other gentlemen, who were afterwards tried and acquitted.

The earl of Warwick himself incurred the like The earl of imputation. The family of the Widevilles had lands in used all their endeavours to render this nobleman Wales. suspected to the king, who had, indeed, very little reason to confide in his attachment, considering the ingratitude with which his services had been repayed. He had even attempted to debauch the earl's daughter, one of the most beautiful young ladies, and the richest heiress in England; an insult, for which he could never hope forgiveness from a man of Warwick's character. One would be apt to imagine, that the king and his new ministry practised every method they could devise to provoke the earl to a declaration, which would free them from a disagreeable fufpence; and furnish them with a pretext to complete his destruction. Jasper earl of Pembroke arrived with a small body of troops from France, and landing near Hardlegh in Merionethshire, which was still occupied by the Lancaftrians, was joined by a considerable number of the natives. With these he ravaged great part of North Wales, and burned the town of Denbigh ; but, was encountered and defeated by Sir Richard Herbert. After this action, Hardlegh castle furrendered at discretion; and, Sir Richard Tonftal, Sir Henry Bellingham, Sir William Stoke, and about fifty other gentlemen being taken it it, were Ꮐ Ꮞ


A. C. 1468. sent prisoners to the Tower, where two of the

number, condemned by the earl of Rivers as constable of England, were beheaded. With these Herbert, who was for this service created earl of Pembroke, sent a person who had brought letters from Margaret of Anjou ; and he, in order to save his life, impeached, among others, the earl of Warwick; though the whole charge amounted to no more than that he had heard beyond fea, the earl favoured the cause of Margaret and her husband. : Commiffaries were sent down to Middle ham to examine him, and they found the accusation groundlefs; though this fresh insult gave a keener

edge to his resentment. A, C. 1469. The Widevilles had by this time rendered themGeorge duke selves so odious to the nobility and people, that they of Clarence began to fear the consequences ; and persuaded the daughter of king to mediate a reconciliation between them and the earl of the family of Warwick. With this view Edward

set out for Nottingham, where he effected an accommodation between the archbishop of York and the earl of Rivers ; a great council was afterwards held at Coventry, to which that prelate brought

his brother Warwick, and reconciled him to the Wyrcestre. Rymer.

lords Herbert, Stafford, and Audley. The king was so well pleased with the archbishop's conduct on this occasion, that he restored to him the manor of Denley, and other lands which he had lost by the act of resumption. The accommodation be. tween Warwick and those noblemen was so far from being sincere, that as soon as the ceremony was over, the earl repaired to his government at Calais, in order to execute a scheme of revenge which he had already projected. He knew that George duke of Clarence, the king's brother, was incensed against Edward and his ministry, who had excluded him from all advantageous offices, and all share in the administration, and, as he was, after



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Elizabeth, presumptive heir to the crown, War- A. C. 1469 wick resolved to engage him in his interest: For this purpose he offered to him his daughter Isabel in marriage; and Clarence readily embraced an alliance that would put him in poffeßion of one of the richest and most beautiful young ladies in England. This match alarmed Edward, who endeavoured to prevent it by intrigues and remonstrances at the court of Rome, to which the parties had applied for a dispensation : but, by this time, Warwick had entered into a private negotiation with the French king, by whose influence the dispensation was obtained, and the marriage celebrated in the church of Notre Dame at Calais.

While Warwick resided in this place, he seems Insurrection to have felt the pulse of the English nation, by em- hire. ploying his emissaries to excite an insurrection in Yorkshire. The people refusing to contribute to the maintenance of the ancient hospital of St. Leonard near York, they were prosecuted at law, and their effects diftrained ; and as they imagined the hospital subsisted by voluntary contribution, they looked upon those suits as the effect of oppression. This discontent was fomented to such a degree, that they took to their arms, and assembling to the number of fifteen thousand, began their march to the city of York, which was overwhelmed with confternation, until Warwick's brother Montague threw himself into the town with a small body of choice soldiers; and, in a faliy, took Robert Hilyard their chieftain, commonly called Robin of Reddisale, whom he ordered to immediate execution. The peasants were not discouraged by this disaster ; but, choosing Sir Henry Nevil, son of lord Latimer, and Sir John Conyers, for their leaders, they advanced to Danesmore in Northamptonfire, about three miles from Banbury. The king had ordered the earl of Pembroke to march againit



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. A. C. 1469. them, at the head of twelve thousand Welshmen,

and they were joined by Humphrey Stafford, lately created earl of Devon, at the head of five thousand archers; but, the two chiefs quarreling about lodgings in Banbury, they separated forces, and Pembroke hazarding an engagement, was defeated and slain. Sir Henry Nevil had been taken in a fkirmish on the eve of the battle, and killed in cold blood ; a circumstance which exasperated the Yorkshire men to fuch a degree, 'that they gave no quarter to the Welsh, five thousand of whom were rain on the field, or in the pursuit. The earl of Devon was feized in his return by the king's order, and beheaded at Bridgewater; and Richard earl of Rivers, with his son John, being taken at Grafton, by a detachment of the rebel army, loft their heads at Northampton, by command of Sir John Conyers, who without having done any further mischief, retired towards Warwick, to wait for the return of the earl from Calais, by whose direction he had

hitherto proceeded. Jealoufies Whether Edward was ignorant of this connexion, between Id- or thought proper to temporize, certain it is, that

when Warwick, and his son-in-law Clarence, arthe family

rived in England, and offered their assistance towards re-establishing the tranquillity of the kingdom, he received them with an appearance of fatisfaction, creating Warwick chief justiciary of South Wales, constable of the castle of Cardigan, and seneschal of all the courts and forests in the shires of Carmarthen and Cardigan, offices vacant by the death of the earl of Pembroke. The king was likewise persuaded to grant a general pardon to Conyers and his followers, who had by this time increased to sixty thousand. As the nation in general was discontented, and Margaret of Anjou, with her son and a small body of troops, reported to be at Harleur in Normandy, ready to embark,


ward and

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and take advantage of the commotions in England, A.C. 1470. commissions of array were issued for raising the milicia of Norfolk, Suffolk, and other maritime counties; and the queen's brother, Anthony, now earl of Rivers, was sent to sea, with a strong squadron, to prevent any atteinpts of the enemy. What- Stowe. ever were the king's sentiments towards Warwick, he seems to have been bent upon making a friend of his brother Montague, perhaps with a view to leffen the power of the earl, which was very formidable. In a great council held on the sixth day of November, Edward asked the advice of the prelates and nobility, about providing an husband for his daughter Elizabeth, heir to the crown of England; and they unanimously concurred in recommending George, the son of Montague, as the most proper match for the young princess. Their sentiments on this subject being agreeable to those of Edward, he, by letters patent, advanced that young

nobleman to the dignity of duke of Bedford. Such a testimony of the king's favour could not but be agreeable to Warwick and his brothers, who began again to live in a friendly corresponce with Edward, until it was interrupted by an artifice of the miniftry, who dreaded the revival of that family's interest. The king, while he resided at Langley in Hertfordshire, was invited by the archbishop of York to an entertainment, at his feat of Morepark in that neighbourhood, and while the guests were employed, according to the custom of the time, in washing hands before supper, John Ratcliffe, afterwards lord Fitzwalter, told the ktng privately, that the archbishop had assembled an hundred men at arms, to seize and convey his majesty to the castle of Middleham. Edward, alarmed at this intelligence, which was feigned for the purpose, made a pretence to go out; and mounting his horse, rode aç full speed to Windsor. Such an abrupt re


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