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A, C, 1467. Ireland under the duke of Clarence, and the fur-

vivancy of the constable's place was conferred upon the earl's fon Anthony Wideville. The queen's fifter Catharine was married to Henry duke of Buckingham; and another fifter called Anne matched with George son and heir of the earl of Kent, formerly Edmund lord Grey of Ruthvin: William, eldest son of the lord Herbert, espoufing Mary a third fifter of the queen, was created lord of Dunftar, and afterwards earl of Huntingdon; and his fifter Margaret was given in marriage to Thomas Talbot viscount L'Ine. These honours and alliances given and contracted in favour of an obscure family, excited the hatred and envy of the commons as well as of the nobility, who could not but repine at the king's partiality, in behalf of his wife's relations; but of all the nobility, the earl of Warwick and his brothers had the greatest reason to complain of these promotions, to some of which they were more than any other persons in the kingdom, intitled, by the great services they had done to Edward. Instead of being recompensed as they deserved, over and above the indelible affront offered to the earl in the affair of the lady Bona, he was excluded from all share in the administration, subjected to a series of nights and insults from the queen and her kindred, who seemed intent upon driving him from court, left he should one day retrieve his credit at the council; and at last, the king, by act of parliament, resumed all grants of lands and offices since the day of his accession, except in certain cases mentioned in special provisos, added to the act when it obtained the royal assent. These were chiefly in favour of the clergy and corporations; but Edward's real view in this bill, was to render the house of Nevil dependent on his pleasure, for the enjoyment of those estates with which their services had been rewarded. So many con•


concludes a

commerce with Bre

curring motives could not fail to operate strongly A. C. 1469, on the resentment of Warwick, who was one of the proudest noblemen that England ever produced : he therefore could no longer diffemble his disgust, but retired to his castle of Middleham in Yorkshire.

In the mean time Edward amused the ambassa. Edward dors of Lewis, with hopes of a perpetual alliance, treaty of until the marriage between the duke of Burgundy and his sister Margaret was concluded; then she de- tagne. parted from England, accompanied by the dutchess of Exeter and Suffolk; and the nuptials were fo. lemnized at Bruges with incredible magnificence. The remaining part of the winter was employed in negotiating an alliance with the duke of Brittany, under the mediation of Edward's new brother-inlaw, who was so much embarrassed by the war of Liege, that he could yield very little assistance to that ally. At first the truce was prolonged till A. C. 1468. July, when Edward's commissioners signed a treaty of commerce with Brittany; and next day orders were issued to levy troops for the defence of that dutchy. In the beginning of August, the king sent ambassadors to France, on prétence of treating with Lewis about a perpetual peace; and in less than three days after their departure, subscribed a treaty, by which he obliged himself to reinforce the duke of Brittany with three thousand archers. These troops being levied, the king bestowed the command of them upon his brother-in-law Anthony Wideville, lord Scales, who proposed to set sail for Brittany in the beginning of October,

Rymer, During these negotiations at London, the dukes Accommoof Bretagne and Berry were reduced to great dif- dateen boficulties. The truce they had obtained of Lewis France and

Burgundy. was almost expired; the English succours were not yet arrived; and the duke of Burgundy was still hindered by the war of Liege, from marching to G 2


A C. 1468. their relief. At length, however, that prince found

an opportunity to bring his enemies to a battle, in which they were defeated, and obliged to sue for peace; which was granted on pretty favourable conditions. Immediately after the ratification of the treaty, he began his march into Picardy, and had already advanced to the banks of the Somme, when he was informed, that his allies had made peace with Lewis ; that the duke of Berry had renounced all foreign alliances ; and resigned all claim upon Normandy, in consideration of a moderate pension, and a small estate in land. - Charles was not a little confounded, when he received the account of this transaction ; nevertheless, he would not retire, but continued encamped in the same place; on this supposition, that as the duke of Brittany had submitted on compulsion, he would retract his engagements with Lewis, upon seeing himself so powerfully supported. This resolution of Charles alarmed the king of France, who began to fear what the other hoped, and in this apprehension set out for Picardy, to treat of an accommodation with the duke of Burgundy. That prince, uncertain with respect to the resolves of the duke of Bretagne, consented to retire, on payment of four hundred thousand crowns, which Lewis disbursed for the expence of his expe. dition.

Hitherto the French king had succeeded to his

wish, in diffolving the league which had been formed France, and against him, and reducing his brother to an incaBurgundy at pacity of hurting him for the future ; but, still he

hankered after the execution of his first project, to ruin the duke of Brittany, that he might afterwards humble the rest of his nobility, and even reduce the overgrown power of the duke of Burgundy. This was his favourite scheme; and seemed to engross his whole attention so much, that he was betrayed by it into the most dangerous inadvertency.


Adventure between Lewis of



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After having signed his treaty with the duke of A. C. 1468.
Burgundy, he resolved to confer with him per-
sonally ; hoping by his eloquence and insinuation,
to detach him intirely from the interests of the duke
of Bretagne : at least, he thought he should be able
to sow such jealousies between these allies, as would
produce an harvest that would turn out to his ad-
vantage. With this view, he demanded a safe-
conduct from the duke, by virtue of which he
might visit him at Peronne; and this being granted,
he repaired to that place with a very sender retinue.
Before he took this resolution, he had sent ambar-
sadors to persuade the inhabitants of Liege to re-
nounce the last peace, and take arms against Charles ;
in which cafe he promised to supply them with
powerful succours.

He had even forgot to recal
the ambassadors, who succeeded so well in their ne-
gociation, that the Liegeois immediately recom-
menced hostilities; and, intelligence of this was
brought to Charles while the king of France was
with him at Peronne. The duke of Burgundy
was so incensed at this double-dealing in Lewis,
whose aim he imagined was to surprise him unpro-
vided for his own defence, that he put the French
king under arrest in the castle of Peronne; and
detained him prisoner for some days, during which
he wavered in his resolution, about the conduct he
should observe on such an occasion. Lewis, whose
own knavish disposition taught him to dread the de-
signs of his enemy, remained all that time under
the utmost terror and agitation, and resolved to
purchase his liberty, by submitting to all the con-
ditions that the duke should please to impose. But,
he found in Charles such generosity, as even trans-
cended his warmest hope. All that he demanded
was that Lewis should bestow Champagne and
Brie on his brother, the duke of Berry, in lieu of
Normandy, which was granted to him by the treaty





mas Cooke.

A. C. 1468. of Conflans; and that he would accompany the

duke in his war against the Liegeois. In a few days after this convention, they set out together for the country of Liege, and Lewis had the mortification to be an eye witness of the destruction of the capital city, which he himself had instigated to its own ruin.

At length he obtained his liberty, after having undergone the most dreadful apprehension Philip de

of losing his life, or being detained in perpetual imprisonment.

About this period, Edward renewed the antient of Sir Tho- alliance between England and Arragon; so that

being at peace with almost all the princes of the continent, he had nothing to fear but from domestic troubles; and of these he seemed to have but little apprehension : though a spirit of discontent began to diffuse itself through the nation, which was disgusted by the pride and infolence of the queen's relations. Sir Thomas Cooke, who had been mayor of London, was accused of treason by one Hawkins, a servant of lord Wenlock, and ar. rested; but, bailed at the request of the princess Margaret, before her marriage with the duke of Burgundy: after her departure he was again apprehended, and sent prisoner to the Tower; and his house and effects, to a very considerable value, were seized by the earl of Rivers, as treasurer of England. After having lain a long time in prison, he was tried and acquitted by feveral juries, though not released : then a bill being found against him, for misprision of treason, he was committed to the Compter, and from thence conveyed to the King's Bench in Southwark. There he continued for a long time, while the servants of Rivers plundered his houses, until he purchased his liberty, with eight thousand pounds, by way of fine to the king for his offence. Nor was this the end of his persecucion, The queen demanded an hundred marks for every


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