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dissembling politician, who knew how to disguise A. C. 1465 his sentiments and designs; who could stoop to the meanest condescensions, when he thought his interest would be promoted by such compliance; and whose reign was a continual exertion of low cunning, by which he sometimes overshot his purpose, and never failed to incur the contempt of his neighbours.

The earl of Warwick returned to England glow- Warwick's ing with resentment and revenge, which, however, clines in the he concealed with great care and circumspection ; court or

England, and from this very dissimulation Edward divined the nature of his sentiments : but, as it was the intereft of both to disguise their real thoughts, the king continued to treat him with exterior marks of respect, and the earl maintained his place in the council, until his credit and influence were wholly fuperseded by the earl of Rivers. In the mean time the ceremony of the queen's coronation was performed at Westminster on the twenty-sixth day of May, with great pomp and magnificence'; tho' neither Warwick nor his brothers, the earl of Northumberland, and George lately promoted to the archbishopric of York, afsifted on this occasion. These two seem to have absented themselves from disgust; but the earl of Warwick was at that time in Boulogne with the lords Hastings and Wenlock, as ambassadors from Edward, sent to treat about a commercial truce with the count of Charolois, and the envoys of his father, Philip duke of Burgundy. This negotiation miscarried, through the count's attachment to the house of Lancaster, from which he was descended by his mother : but Warwick and his colleagues, being empowered to treat with the ambassadors of France and Brittany, concluded a truce with both of these powers, though they were Rymes. at war with each other,




A. C. 146§. The duke of Brittany had not only engaged the State of count de Charolois and the duke of Bourbon in the France,

war of the Public Good, but even brought over the French king's brother the duke of Berry, to the interest of the confederates. The count de Charolois was personally incensed against Lewis, who had, by bribing the ministers of his father Philip, obtained the restitution of the towns upon the Somme, for the confideration of four hundred thousand crowns, according to the treaty of Arras; and afterwards employed the Bastard of Rubempré, and others, to surprise the persons of the duke and the count, and bring them to him dead or alive. His scheme being detected, the count de Charolois was so exasperated at his perfidy, that he raised a

numerous army and approached Paris, while the duke Philip de of Brittany and the rest of the confederates made pre

parations to join him with a strong reinforcement. Lewis, who was then in the Bourbonnois, being informed of his motions, marched directly towards the capital. Their armies meeting at Monthlery, a battle ensued, and both sides claimed the victory. The king threw himself into Paris, and took such precautions for the defence of the capital, that, when the confederates joined, they found it so well fortified, that they could not undertake the siege with any prospect of success. At length the war was terminated by a treaty signed at Conflans, by which Lewis restored to the duke of Burgundy the towns situated upon the Somme ; and granted Normandy as an appenage to his brother the duke of Berry.. After the ratification of this agreement, the count de Charolois returned to the Low Countries; and the duke of Berry, accompanied by the duke of Brittany, went to take poffeffion of Normandy, where, in a few days, these two princes happening to quarrel, the duke of Brittany retired to his own dominions. Lewis, taking advantage of this dis


fension, marched without delay into Normandy, A. C. 14654 from whence he expelled his brother, who found himself obliged to take refuge in Brittany, where, notwithstanding his quarrel with the duke, he met with an hospitable reception.

All these different powers negotiated at the fame A. C. 1466, time with Edward, who politically amused them all Edward, with hopes of a solid alliance; but in the mean treaty with time agreed to a short truce with each, that he the count de

Charolois, might keep himself unengaged until he should see the issue of the war, and take his measures accordingly. During these transactions, Isabel de Bourbon, second wife of the count de Charolois, dying, he began to look upon Edward in a different light from chat in which he had considered him before. He saw him triumphing over all opposition, and firmly settled on the throne of England; he foresaw nothing but mischief to himself from the conjunction of Edward and Lewis ; and the faireft advantage from an alliance with the king of England. In there sentiments he demanded Edward's sister Margaret in marriage; and this proposal was very agreeable to the English monarch, who knew that Lewis hated him in his heart on account of his sister-in-law Bona; that all his advances and professions were insincere ; and that sooner or later he would manifest his resentment: besides, it was not the interest of England to fit tainely neutral, and see the French king ruin the dukes of Burgundy and Bretagne. He therefore, on the twelfth day of October, signed a treaty of personal alliance, friendship, and fraternity, with the count de Charolois; and sent a safeconduct to Lewis of Bruges lord of Gruthuysen, whom the duke of Burgundy had appointed as his plenipotentiary, to treat with Edward concerning a perpetual peace, and regulate the conditions of the marriage between the count de Charolois and the

Rymer. princess Margaret.

Mean 7


A.C. 1466. Mean while the duke of Brittany was hard pressed Birth of the by Lewis : since the duke of Berry had been exElizabeth. pelled from Normandy, he was supported by this

prince, who endeavoured to execute the treaty of Conflans; and the count de Charolois engaged to: make a powerful diversion in Picardy. But his father Philip having undertaken a war against the : inhabitants of Liege, the count could not possibly perform his promise ; so that the duke of Brittany was obliged to temporize with Lewis, by entering into a negotiation with him about his giving up his right of sovereignty. This, however, was no more than an expedient to gain time, until the count de Charolois should be in a condition to give him effectual aliistance. Accordingly, the war of Liege being suspended by a truce, the count was on the eve of marching into Picardy, when Lewis, by his intrigues, induced the Liegeois to recommence hostilities, which prevented him from carry. ing his scheme into execution ; and the duke of Brittany was left to struggle alone against the whole power of France. By this time Edward's queen was delivered of the princess Elizabeth, who proved the means of extinguishing the fatal quarrel between the houses of York and Lancaster, and the kingdom enjoyed profound tranquility. The young monarch concluded treaties of perpetual alliance with the kings of Castile and Denmark; and pro

longed the truce with Scotland for the term of five Rymer.

and forty years. a. C. 1467.

Lewis of France continued his operations against Philip duke the duke of Brittany, who lost all the places he

poffeffed in Lower Normandy, and saw himself on gundy.

the brink of being attacked in his own proper dominions, while the forces of Burgundy were still employed against the inhabitants of Liege : but the French king understanding by his spies, that the negotiation between Edward and Philip related

Death of

of Bur


to the defence of Bretagne, he exerted all his art A. C. 1467.
and influence to divert the king of England from
thofe engagements with his enemies. He fent the
Bastard of Bourbon and the archbishop of Nar-
bonne, as his ambassadors to London, with pro-
posals of alliance with Edward, who pretended to
be entirely free of all connexions, and immediately
appointed commissioners to treat with these envoys :
but he found means to protract the negotiation ;
and Lewis was afraid to drive the duke of Bretagne
to extremity, left the king of England should break
off the treaty, and declare in that prince's favour.
Such was the situation of affairs when Philip dukeof
Burgundy died; and was succeeded by his only fon
the count de Charolois, who, on the very day of
his father's death, racified the alliance with Edward,
and declared himself more zealous than ever in sup-
port of the duke of Brittany.

Mean while the court of England underwent con. The earl of
siderable changes, which were productive of infinite Blivers and
mischief to the nation. As the queen's relations other rela-
advanced in Edward's favour, the earl of Warwick the whole
and his brothers declined in their interest, and were administra-
every day subjected to new mortifications. The
poft of chancellor, which had been occupied by the
archbishop of York, was taken in an abrupt and
disobliging manner from that prelate, and given to
the bishop of Bath and Wells, one of the queen's
most zealous partisans. The earl of Warwick was
no longer employed in any affair of importance;
and his brother the marquis of Montague was kept
at a distance from court, by his office of warden
of the Scottish marches. On the other hand, the
earl of Rivers was elevated to the highest pinnacle
of greatness. To the post of lord high treasurer,
which he already poffeffed, was added that of high
constable, vacant by the resignation of the earl of
Worcester, whom the king created his lieutenant in




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