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This calm was not of long duration. Margaret 4: C: 14610 having obtained a small reinforcement in France, Act, Pub. commanded by Peter De Brezé feneschal of Normandy, set sail for England, in full confidence of being joined by the inhabitants of the northern provinces. But, when she larded at Tinmouth, she found herself in danger of being surrounded by a body of Edward's troops, which obliged her to retire on board of her ships with the utmost precipitation. A storm immediately beginning to blow, her ship was separated from the rest of the fleet, and with great difficulty made the harbour of Berwick, while the other vesels were driven towards Bamburg, where the French attempted to land; but their descent being opposed by the Bastard Ogle, at the head of some forces, they retired to the small island of Lindisfarne. There they were attacked by Ogle, who New part of their number, and took the rest prisoners ; and their commander De Brezé made his escape in a fishing-boat to Berwick.

Edward being informed of these transactions, and a. C. 1463. supposing that Margaret was assured of succours in Henry and Scotland, with which she would not fail to invade Margaret the northern counties, detached baron Montague, at Hexham with the forces that were at hand, to retard her by the baprogress, until he himself should follow with a nu- gue. merous fleet and army to overturn all her projects. Margaret had actually entered Northumberland with a body of freebooters, who enlisted on promise of being allowed to plunder ; and her army encreased to such a degree, that the duke of Somerset and Sir Ralph Piercy began to imagine she would succeed in her enterprize ; and notwithstanding the late oath they had taken to Edward, joined her with all their adherents. Montague, having advanced as far as Durham, halted some days in that place until he received a reinforcement, then continuing his march, encountered a detachment of the

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are routed

ron Monta

A, C. 1463. enemy's army, commanded by the lords Hunger

ford and Roos, on Hedgeley-Moor, where they were routed ; and Sir Ralph Piercy lost his life on this occasion. Montague, encouraged by this success, resolved to have the whole honour of defeating Margaret before the king should come up, and marching directly to Hexham, where her army was intrenched, he attacked them in their lines before they had intimation of his approach, and obtained a complete victory. The duke of Somerset was taken prisoner, together with the lords Roos and Hungerford; but Henry, his queen, and son, efcaped into Scotland, though they were so hotly pursued, that some of Henry's attendants were taken almost by his side ; and among these the perfon who carried his cap of state, which was delivered to Edward. The prisoners were not suffered to languish in confinement; Somerset, Roos, Hungerford, W. Tailboys eart of Kyme, and Sir John Finderne, were immediately beheaded, the first as Hexham, and the rest at Newcastle ; Sir Humphrey Nevil and twelve other gentlemen were executed at York; their estates were distributed among the adherents of the victor, and the lord Montague was created earl of Northumberland ; though Denry Piercy, submitting to Edward in the sequel, was restored to his honours with the consent of Nevil, who contented himself with the title of marquis of Montague.

After the victory at Hexham, the king, who had truce with advanced as far as Durham, thought it unnecessary to Scotland. proceed farther northward in person, but fent the earl

of Warwick to reduce some places which Margaret had taken, while he himself returned to London, The earl dividing his army into three bodies, in. vested at the same time the castles of Bamburg, Dunstanburg, and Alnewick : the two first of these places were soon reduced, and the commanders pu


Edward concludes a

nished as traitors : but De Brezé, who commanded A. C, 1963
the garrison of Alnewick, composed of French
troops, defended himself with great gallantry, un-
til he and his 'men were brought off by the earl
of Angus at the head of a strong body of Scottish
cavalry. Edward's last victory cooled that friendship
which the French and Scots had hitherto mani.
fested for the unfortunate Henry, whose affairs they
now looked upon as desperate. The Scots per-
ceiving the precautions which were taken by Mon-
tague, whom the king of England had just declared
warden of the marches, faw no prospect of eluding
his vigilance by incursions, and desired that Ed-
ward would grant fafe-conducts for ambassadors to
come and treat of a pacification : at the same time
Lewis XI. negotiated a truce with him for one year,
by the mediation of the duke of Burgundy, who
likewise renewed the truce of commerce between
England and the Low Countries. Mean while the
archbishop of St. Andrew's repairing to London, as
envoy from the regency of Scotland, concluded a
like truce between the two kingdoms, on condition
that the respective kings should not in any shape
countenance or assist the enemies of each other.

Henry being thus abandoned by all his allies, Henry is
and thinking his perfon unsafe at Edinburgh since taken and,
the conclusion of this last agreement, took the im- the Tower.
prudent resolution of repairing privately to England,
where perhaps he hoped the northern counties
would again rise in his favour. He accordingly
set out from Edinburgh, in disguise, attended by
three divines, and reached Waddington-Hall in
Lancashire, where, after he had lain concealed for
some time, he was discovered by Sir James Har-
rington, who treated this unfortunate prince with
the utmost indignity. He was seized as he fat at
dinner, and being placed upon a horse, his legs
were tied under the belly of the beast, as if he had


Act. Pub.

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A.C. 1463. been the vilest malefactor. In this manner he was

conducted to London, and being met upon the
road by the earl of Warwick, that nobleman in.
sulted him in the most opprobrious terms, even en-
couraging the multitude to deride the unfortunate
monarch. After the capture of Henry, his queen,
and son, afraid of trusting to any person's fidelity,
fled for refuge into woods and desarts, where
they suffered all the extremity of distress, till at
length they were rifled by robbers, who would, in
all probability, have deprived them of their lives as
well as of their apparel and effects, had not the
thieves quarrelled about the booty, and attacking
one another, afforded an opportunity for the royal
prisoners to make their escape. They had not pro-
ceeded far when they were met by another ruffian,
who approached them with a drawn sword in his
hand and fury in his aspect. On this occasion,
Margaret exhibited a remarkable proof of presence
of mind and resolution. Taking her son by the
hand, and assuming an air of confidence and ma-
jesty, “ Here, friend,” said she, “ save my son, the
“ fon of good king Henry." The robber was
ftruck with the dignity and beauty of her person,
as well as with the nature of her address.
pened to be one of those who had been outlawed for
adhering to the cause of her husband. His favage
heart was melted with compassion, at sight of his
queen and prince in such deplorable distress. He
comforted them with assurances of fidelity and pro-
tection; and carefully conducted them to a village
near the sea-side, where they found an opportunity
of embarking in a vefsel for Flanders. They were
hospitably received by the duke of Burgundy, from

whose court they repaired to that of Margaret's faMontzelet, ther René of Anjou. About the same time Ed

mund duke of Somerset, brother of him who was beheaded at Hexham, and the duke of Exeter, ef


He hap

Various matches


caped to the Low Countries, where they concealed A. C. 1463. their quality, in apprehension of being delivered into the hands of Edward; and were reduced to such extremity of wretchedness, that even in the severest time of winter, they ran about barefoot as errand boys to the lowest class of people, till at length they were discovered and accommodated by

Philip de the duke of Burgundy with moderate pensions for Comines. their subsistence.

A. C. 1464. Edward having Henry in his power, and Margaret having quitted the kingdom, there was no other person capable of disturbing his tranquility. He propofed for therefore seized this opportunity of acquiring the affection of his subjects, who had been alarmed and disgusted by his late acts of severity. He had published a general amnesty in favour of all the Lancaftrians who, within a certain specified time, should submit to his government, and take the oath of allegiance. He exerted all his talents in efforts to render himself popular. He treated all his noble. men as if they had been his own brothers : he affected to appear the father of his people. His personal accomplishments and gallantry recommended him to the favour of the female sex, which he cultivated with the most affiduous address. By his affable deportment he ingratiated himself with all degrees of people; the meanest suppliant was admitted to his presence, and every day was distinguished by his acts of compassion and generosity. During this season of peace and good humour, his chief counsellors advised him to convert his thoughts to matrimony, that he might see the fucceflion settled upon his own issue. He seemed to relish the advice; and three matches were proposed for his acceptance. The first was Margaret sister of the Scottish king; but besides that this princess was already betrothed to Edward the son of Henry, the was too young for consummation. The second was

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