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A, C,1449. ville ; the duke of Alençon conducted the third ;

and the duke of Brittany commanded the fourth, totally composed of his own forces. All the places in Normandy were ill provided with garrisons and ammunition, and the majority of the governors confiding in the truce, had repaired to England ; so that Charles met with very little opposition in subduing the province. Many places surrendered af sight of the French army. In some towns the inhabitants expelled the English garrisons ; others were sold by their commanders. None of them made any resistance but Pont-audemer, and Chateau-gaillards in a word, before the end of the campaign, Charles was in a condition to besiege the capital of Rouen, which was invested on the eighth day of October.

He did not think it necessary to undertake the Rouen, and fiege -in form, because he knew that the duke of

Somerser and the earl of Shrewsbury, who commanded the garrison, which did not exceed three thousand men, would not be able to defend the place against the inhabitants, for-he carried on a correspondence with the townsinen, and they affured him that they would take arms in his favour. On the first day of the siege, the count of Dunois was on the point of being introduced with three hundred men, when Shrewsbury chancing to come up, had the good fortune to repulse the detachment. This miscarriage did not alter the resolution of the inhabitants, who, on the nineteenth day of October, rose as one man, and opened the gates to the besiegers. All the regent could do, was to ftation the garrison at the principal posts of the city, from which, however, they were soon dislodged. Somerfet and Shrewsbury retreated to the palace with eight hundred men; but, as they foresaw their provilion would foon fail, the duke demanded á parley with 'king Charles. This being granted, he offered

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to retire on honourable conditions ; but the king 4.C.1449. insisted upon his surrendering at discretion, unleis he had a mind to treat for the rest of Normandy that remained in the hands of the English. Thus repulsed, the duke retired to the palace, which he defended twelve days; at the expiration of which he saw himself obliged to capitulate, on condition of leaving all his artillery, paying fifty thoufand crowns of gold, and restoring to the French king Caudebec, Arques, Lillebonne, Tancarville, Montrevilliers, and Harfleur. The earl of Shrewfbury remained as hostage for the performance of these articles ; and the English garrison marched out of Rouen, which Charles entered in triumph on the nineteenth day of November. vernor of Harfleur did not think himself obliged to submit to the capitulation, the count de Longueville was detached with the army to form the liege of that place, which surrendered about the beginning of January. Although Charles had a right to detain the earl of Shrewsbury, as the capitulation of Rouen had not been observed by the Eng. lith, he, in token of esteem for the earl's character, released him without ranson. During these tranfactions, the count de Foix, who commanded for Charles in Guienne, reduced the cattle of Mauleon, which was situated on a rock, and deemed almost impregnable; and thus ended the first campaign, Hist. de so fatal to the English interest.

These disasters were the more severely felt at the A. C. 14500 court of England, as they were followed by a Murmurs rebellion in Ireland, which hindred the ministry agaient the from sending the necessary supplies to France, the duke uf Nevertheless, the queen and the duke of Suffolk Suffolk, hoped to derive fome advantage from that insurrection. They seized this opportunity of removing the duke of York, on pretence of creating him

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governor

Ch. VII.

4. C. 1450. governor of Ireland, where they thought he would

perish. But he baffled their expectation; and, by his obliging and insinuating manners, not only appeased the commotion, without drawing his sword, but even engaged the people of that country in his interest, to which they continued firmly attached in the fequel. The loss of Normandy in one campaign, after so much blood and treasure had been expended in the conquest of that province, together with the rapid progress of Charles in other parts of France, began to produce a violent fermentation in the impatient humour of the English. The whole kingdom resounded with complaints against the duke of Suffolk, who was publicly reproached with having betrayed the state, and co-operated with the queen in favour of the French monarch. The council consisted wholly of their creatures, who likewise filled all the posts of dignity and profit. The duke of Somerset, who had contracted for the defence of Normandy, was accused of having misapplied the money payed for that service. A numerous body of men at arms having been raised by Humphrey duke of Buckingham, on condition that they should receive a whole year's pay advance ; the treasurer refused to comply with the terms of the contract, and the duke returning to court from the sea-side, when they were ready to embark, refigned his commission, saying publicly to the king, “Sir, take heed of your government; you are " milled by traitors : and if I had landed in Nor“ mandy with your forces, I am persuaded we < should have been sold to the enemy.” Suffolk being present, and supposing this declaration aimed ar hin, was so incensed that he drew his dagger, and would have Nain Humphrey, had not the byders interposed. This infolent behaviour, in the royal presence, roused even the indignation of Henry, who could scarce be diffuaded from fend.

ing him to the Tower ; and it served to complete A. Č. 14500 the averfion of the nobility and people, who not only exclaimed against the queen and him in all public places, but also published a great number of libels, affixing them to the doors of churches, and every remarkable place in the city of London.

Tho' this was a very dangerous conjuncture for Who is imthe ministry to call a parliament, the necessities of peached by the crown were so urgent, that they had been mons. obliged to summon one in November of the preceding year. But it proved very backward in the article of supply, and seemed strongly disposed to prosecute the duke of Suffolk. It had been for these reasons prorogued from Westminster to Lon. don; and, during this interval, the city was filled with tumult and confusion. The populace murdered Adam Molyns bishop of Chichester, who had been concerned in the ceffion of Le Maine ; and that prelate, in his last moments, charged Suffolk with having boasted in the council, of his great influence at the French court. When the parliament met after this adjournment, the duke thinking it was incumbent on him to vindicate his character in this particular, harrangued both houses, in a speech containing an enumeration of the services of himself and his family, and a vehement profession of his loyalty; and he concluded with defying all the world to prove him guilty of disloyalty or misconduct. The commons, far from being intimidated by this declaration, petitioned the crown that Suffolk might be committed to ward, according to law, until he should clear himself of the crimes charged upon him by common fame and report. The judges being consulted on the nature of this petition, were of opinion, that as no special matter of Nander or infamy was declared, he should not be committed. The commons, informed of this decision, reprefented next day a special matter of report ; namely,

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A. C. 1450. that the realm of England would be sold to France ;

and that preparations were making in that kingdom
for an invasion, by contrivance of the duke of Suf-
folk, who had fortified Wallingford-caftle, to serve
as a place of refuge. On the seventh day of Febru-
ary, the commons, by their speaker, impeached Suf-
folk of divers articles of treason, contained in a
bill delivered to the chancellor, importing, That
he had consulted with the count of Dunois, Ber-
trand de Pressigny, and W. Cousinat, the king's
enemies, advising them to incite the French king
to invade England, depose Henry, and raise to
the throne his son John de la Pole, who, by marry-
ing Margaret, daughter and heir to John late duke
of Somerset, might claim the crown in her right, as
next heir to Henry, who had no issue: That he
had received money and promises from the duke of
Orleans, to persuade the king to consent to his en
largement, that he might alift Charles in the re.
covery of France : That, by his inftigation, the
duke of Orleans had prevailed upon the French
king to violate the truce, and renew the war in
Normandy : That he had, without sufficient power,
engaged for the cession of Le Maine ; and, after
his return, executed that engagement, which was
the cause of Normandy's being lost to the Eng.
Jish nation : That he had discovered the secrets of
the king's council to the count de Dunois, and
other French ambassadors: That he had made
them acquainted with the state of all the French
fortresses belonging to the English in France; dis-
covered the secrec instructions of the English en-
voys sent to treat of a peace between the two
crowns; boasted of his credit with Charles; re-
ceived bribes from the enemy, for hindering rein-
forcements from being sent to the continent; and
in the truce which he concluded, not only neglect-
ed comprehending the king of Arragon, the old
ally of England, but included the duke of Bre-

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