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Sir Thomas Boleyn, a young lady who had been A. C. 1527.
A. C. 1527. tion of England and her allies : perhaps too his
conduct was influenced by the beauty of Anne Boleyn, who now began to be distinguished above all ker cotemporaries.
Be that as it may, he himself profeffed fcruples
of conscience, and desired, that archbishop Warhis wife Ca- ham, who had at first declared againft the mar. therine. riage, should consult the bishops of England upon
the subject. The prelate complied with his request; and presented him with a writing, in which they condemned the marriage as a contract contrary to public decency, and the divine law. This declaration was subscribed by all the prelates, except Fisher bishop of Rochester, whose name is said to have been counterfeited by cardinal Wolsey. The writings of Luther had by this time produced such a spirit of inquiry in England, that the people openly affirmed, the dispensation for the marriage granted by pope Julius II. could never justify, or consoli. date a marriage so notoriousy opposite to the law of God. This would have been a very sufficient reason for diffolving the match in the eye of equi. ty; but, it would have been a very imprudent step in Henry, to solicit a favour of the court of Rome, by seeking to invalidate the authority of a Roman pontiff: he therefore endeavoured to find nullities in the bull of Julius, by which it would be rendered revocable by the maxims of the holy see. The bull been had founded on the request of Henry and Catherine, on the fuppofition, that their marriage was necessary to preserve peace between Spain and England. Now Henry, being then but twelve years of age, could not be supposed to have such politic viewss whence it was inferred, that he was not really author of the request. Besides, the situation of affairs at that time was such, as proved the marriage was unnecessary for the preservation of the peace between
England and Spain ; consequently, pope Julius A. C. 152=
, the English am-
A C 2527. casion for the altistance of Henry, or be able to ef. Guicciar- fect an accommodation with the emperor. He
therefore wanted toga in time, but was so hard preffed by the English envoy, to declare himself, that he promised to sign the acts, on condition that they should not be produced until after the departure of the French and Germans from Italy. Tho' this condition was accepted, he ftill protracted the affair, on pretence of consulting Lorenzo Pucci, cardinal Sanctorum Quatuor, who being secured by a largess of English gold, altered the legate's commillion, which had been defective ; and joined Knight and Cafali, in pressing Clement to sign it without further delay. Thus importuned, he put his hand to the commission, and the bull of dispensation for the king, promising to send the other de. cretal bull for diffolving the marriage, to England, after he should have considered the subject more maturely. But he dated those two acts at the time when he was prisoner in the castle of St. Angelo ; so that Henry did not choose to make use of them, left it should be objected, that the pope
had granted them merely with a view to obtain his liA.C. 1528.
berty by the allistance of England. Clement had by this time smarted so severely by his opposition to the emperor, that he absolutely refufed to re-engage in the league with France, England, and Venice. When pressed on this subject by the amnbassadors of those powers, he observed, that his junction with the league might expose him to new misfortunes, without procuring any real advantage to their cause, and that he was resolved to act as a mediator, rather than involve himself as a party. He had by this time formed the design of re-eltablishing the family of Medicis in Florence ; and foresaw that such a re-eftablishment could not be effected but by means of the emperor, because the Florentines had joined the allies; but, he would
not declare for Charles until he should see the suc. A, C. 1528. cess of the war between him and the confederates. Every thing now seenied to portend the effusion of blood, ruin, and defolation.
The ambassadors of France and England; resi- The French ding in Spain, desired permission to retires and and Englith next day Clarencieux and Güienne, the heralds of clare war ao Henry and Francis, pronounced a declaration of saint the war, in presence of the emperor, fitting on his emperor s throne, and surrounded by his grandees. In anTwer to Clarencieux, Charles complained, that the king of England wanted to join him in marriage with a princess whom he intended to bastardize, by obtaining a divorce from her mother : but he laid the whole blame on the excessive ambition of cardinal Wolsey, who was disgusted at the emperor, because he would not embroil Christendom by endeavouring to raise him to the papacy. He denied that he had ever refused to pay the debt he owed to Henry; but said, the English ambassadors who demanded the money, had no power to grant a discharge. With respect to the indemnity, he obferved, that the king of France had taken it upon himself in the treaty of Madrid. With regard to the sum of five hundred thousand crowns, which he had obliged himself to pay, in cafe he should refuse to wed the princess Mary, he declared, that he had demanded her by ambassadors; and that her father had not only refused to send her into Spain, but had even offered her in marriage to the king of Scotland: besides, Henry could not legally demand the sum, until after having proved, thac he had executed all the articles of the treaty of Windsor.
In his answer to the French herald, he loudly taxed Francis with breach of promise, and desired Guienne to remind his master of what he had
proposed by the archbishop of Bourdeaux, namely,