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number of acolytes and chaplains, and forty apof- A. C. 1521. tolical notaries : to legitimate baitards, grant the doctor's degree in all the faculties, as well as all

forts of dispensations nay, to all the honours, wealth, and power he already poffefled, be this year received the addition of the rich abbey of St. Alban's in commendam. No wonder that a prelare of his ambition, thus forwarded by every gale of prosperity, should aspire at the highest dignity of the church. He is even said to have been fo impatient to possess St. Peter's chair, that he was concerned in abridging the days of Leo by poison. Be that as it may, he was certainly so arrogant as to affect contempt for the nobility of the kingdom ; and so vindi&tive, that the most powerful peer in England could not disoblige him with impunity.

His revengeful dispofition appeared too plainly in the fate of the duke of Buckingham, a weak nobleman of strong passions and the most childith vanity; who was to unguarded as to say, in a private company, that should the king die without iffue, he would lay claim to the crown as the defcendant of Anne of Gloucester, grand-daughter of Edward III. and that, should he ever afcend the throne, he would punish Wolsey according to his demérit. This expression was reported to the cardinal, who forthwith devoted him to destruction. He bribed fome of his domestics to begray the private life and conversation of their master. From their information, the cardinal learned that he corresponded with one Hopkins, a monk in the priory of Hinton, who pretended to the gift of prophecy; and: Aattered the duke with afsurances of his succeeding to the throne of England. Wolsey, having thus collected sufficient matter for an impeachment, deprived him of his two principal supports, the earl of Northumberland, his father-in-law, who

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A. C. 1521. was committed to the Tower, on the frivolous pre

tence of his claiming some wards to which he had
no title ; and his son-in-law the earl of Surrey, who
was appointed governor of Ireland, that he might
be at a distance from London. These previous steps
being taken, Edward Stafford duke of Bucking-
ham was arrested and accused of high-treason. The
chief evidence against him was one Knevit, whom
he had dismissed from his service for some misde.
meanors. He was taxed with having frequently
consulted Hopkins the monk, touching the fuc-
cession of the crown, as well as with having affected
popularity ; with having declared to Knevit, that
if he were ill used he would execute against Henry
the scheme which his father had projected against
Richard 111: whom that nobleman meaned to have
affassinated with a knife, had he been admitted into
his prefence; and with having said to lord Aber-
gavenny, that should the king die he would af-
Tume the rule of the realm, in spite of all op-
position ; adding, that should the lord Abergavenny
disclose his purpose, he would call him to account
in single combat. He was tried by one duke, one
marquis, feven earls, and twelve barons, before the
duke of Norfolk, appointed high-steward for the
occasion. When he heard the indictment read, he
said it was a false forged conspiracy : nevertheless,
he was convicted upon the evidence of Knevit, Hop-
kins, and two others"; and condemned to die the

death of a traitor. The duke of Norfolk could not Bucking

help shedding tears when he pronounced his sen

tences to which the duke replied, “ My lord of high trea

:“ Norfolk, you speak to me as to a traitor ; but, beheaded. « traitor was I never. My lords, I malign you

“ not for what you have done; but, may the eter-
“; nal God forgive you my death, as I do. I shall
“ never fue to the king for life : however, he is a
s gracious prince, and more grace may come from

Duke of

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A. C. 1521



" him than I defire ; and so I intreat you, my
“ lords, and all my fellows, to pray for me." He
was carried back to the Tower, where he received Hollingshed,
a message from the king, intimating, that his pu-
nishment was mitigated into a decapitation ; and
he suffered death accordingly, to the universal re-
gret of the people, who did not scruple to impute
his fate to the ill offices of the cardinal, whom they
openly libelled as the son of a butcher, delighting
in blood.

Henry now wanted nothing but a pretext for A. C. 1522. declaring his junction with the emperor.

He alledged, in his own justification, that Francis had been the aggressor in the affair of Robert de la Marck; but, he was really incensed against the French king, for allowing the duke of Albany to return to Scotland from France, where he had been detained for some years at the request of the English monarch, that he might intermeddle the more successfully in the Scottish affairs during the absence of the regent. Besides, he imagined the duke intended to marry his filter, the queen dowager of Scotland, because she had sued for a divorce from her husband the earl of Angus; and the duke of Albany had supported her suit at the court of Rome. Notwithstanding the pains which the regent took to clear himself of this suspicion, by assuring Henry he had no such intention, and that his own wife was alive, the king of England wrote a letter to the Scottish parliament, accusing the duke of a design upon the crown, to the prejudice of the lawful fovereign ; and desiring them to expel him from the realm. To this charge they answered, That he had been misinformed touching the designs of the duke of Albany, which were upright and honourable ; that he himself had acted against the interests of his own nephew in fomenting disturbances in his kingdom ; and, that if he was not inclined to re

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