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fole legatine power. He now celebrated mass as if A. C.1549. he had been pope in reality, attended by bishops and dukes; and earls presented him with the water and towel. He ordered the cross of York, and a. nother for his legatine function, to be carried before him by two of the tallest priests that could be found. He erected a new court of judicature, called the legate's court, in effect a court of conscience, that took cognizance of almost all the ac. tions of life, and one John Allen being appointed judge of this bench, acted with incredible rapaciousness and extortion, on pretence of reforming the morals of the people. He pretended that his juris. diction extended to all suits arising from wills and contracts of marriage; and tried an infinite number of causes, whilst the king's judges durft not op pose this innovation. At the same time, the cardi. Herberta nal legate disposed of all the benefices of the kingdom in favour of his own creatures, without paying the least regard to the rights of churches, monasteries; or patrons. At length the archbishop of Canterbury, from a motive of conscience, informed the king of this oppression ; , and Henry not only seemed surprised at the cardinals insolence, but desired the old bishop to tell him, that he expected he would reform all those abuses. This remonstrance produced no other effect, than that of augmenting Wolsey's hatred to the archbishop. But his agent, Allen, being afterwards accused by one John London, a simple priest, the complaint reached the ears of the king, who reprimanded the cardinal with such severity, that he was more circumspect in the sequel. The great wealth, power, and authority, which he enjoyed in England, could not satisfy his ambition, while there was one degree of ecclefiaftical-dignity which he had not yet attained. He
Wolsey had already begun to take measures for obtain aspires ing the papacy, whenever the holy fee should be at the
398 HISTORY OF ÉN GL Å N D. 4. C. 1519. come vacant; and the king of France had affured
him of the votes of fourteen cardinals; but, since Charles was elected emperor, he seemed to think that prince more capabte of raifing him to St. Peter's chair, and began gradually to wean his master from the interest of France, and engage him in behalf of the houfe of Austria. Neverthelefs, he would not declare himself so far as to prevent the interview between Henry and Francis, because he could not prevail upon himself to resign the pleasure of appearing at the court of France, with all the pomp of ecclefiaftical magnificence, and of Dhewing himself to his countrymen, honoured and caressed by such a powerful monarch. But he was refolved to take such measures as would hinder Francis from turning this interview to the prejudice of the emperor, who at this period gained an incredible accession of wealth by the prowess
of Fernando Cortez, in his conquest of the MexiLd. Herbertcan empire.
Wolsey having regulated the ceremonial of the
interview, the king repaired to Canterbury in the A. C. 1520. latter end of May, in order to pass his Whicfuntide
in that city, and from thence proceed to Calais ; but next day he was given to understand that the emperor
had landed ac Dover. The whole court; and even the king himself, was furprised at the
arrival of Charles, which had been preconcerted Act, Pubbetween that prince and the cardinal, to whom he
had promised his influence with the pope, towards procuring for him the bishopric of Bajadox. Wolsey was fent to compliment the emperor at Do. ver, where the king met him next day, and conducted him to Canterbury; whither alfo the queen came to visit her nephew, whom the had never seen before. The emperor's design in this voyage was to divert Henry from his purposed interview with Francis, from which, however, the king of
clect arrives in England.
England thought he could not recede with honour; A. C. 1529. bur, in all probability, he gained over Wolfey entirely to his interest, by promising to fupport his designs upon the papacy, and Henry affured him that he would never engage with the French king in any meafure that should be prejudicial to his imperial majesty. After having been magnificently entertained during the holidays, he took leave of his aunt Catherine and Henry, and embarked at Sandwich for Flanders, very well fatisfied with the fuccess of his visit. The fame day the king of England failed from Dover for Calais; and on the fourth day of June, he removed with his own queen, the queen dowager of France, and all his retinue, to a fuperb wooden house, erected near the place of interview : it was furnished in the moft oftentatious manner, and from the chapel there was a private gallery, that reached to the strong castle of Guisnes. The house, which Francis pitched near Ardres, was rather large than sumptuous ; for he had intended to lodge in a pavilion of cloth of gold, which was blown down by the wind, fo that he was obliged to build a wooden edifice in a hurry. Before the two monarchs met, cardinat Wolsey waited upon the French king with fome proposals touching the late alliance; and, after fome conferences, Francis agreed that when the million of crowns, ftipulated in the laft treaty, fhould be liquidated, he should continue to pay to the king of England an annual pension of one hundred thousand livres ; that, in case of the dauphin's becoming king of England by his marriage with the princess Mary, this pension should be continued to her and her heirs for ever; and that the differences berween England and Scotland should be re
Interview ferred to che arbitration of Louisa of Savoy, mo- between ther to the king of France, and cardinal Wolfey. Henry and On the feventh of June the two kings met on king.
A. C. 1520; horseback, in the valley of Arden, where they a:
lighted; and, after mutual falutacion, walked arm in arm into a rich tent, pitched for their accommodation. On Monday the eleventh day of the month, the justs and tournaments began in light of the ladies, for whom scaffolds were erected. Both kings entered the lifts, and behaved with great dexterity ; though Henry bore away the honour of the field. He ran a tilt against monsieur de Grandeville, whom he disabled at the second encounter. He engaged monsieur de Montmorency, whom, how., ever, he could not unhorse. He fought at faulchion with a French nobleman, who prefented him with his courser, in token of submission; he disarmed monfieur de Fleurange; and signalized himself above all others in throwing the javelin, wielding the sword and target, and fighting with the two
handed sword, an exercise at which Francis was Polyd. Virg. likewise very expert. This monarch, probably,
thought he should find his account in gratifying Henry's vanity, by allowing him to enjoy this petty preheminence. These exercises being finished, the two kings regaled each other with feasting, balls, masquerades, and mutual presents. They seemed to vie with each other in splendor and magnificence.; insomuch that the place of this interview was ftiled, the field of cloth of gold. At length they parted on the twenty-fourth day of June; and Henry, with his train, returned to Calais. On the tenth of July the king returned the emperor's compliment, by visiting him and his aunt Margaret at, Gravelines; and next day they accompanied him back to Calais, where they were royally entertained. Francis was greatly alarmed at these reciprocal vifits : and his jealousy was not without foundation ; for, on this occasion, they, in all probability, projected the alliance which was concluded in the sequel. In the mean time Henry failed with the first
fair wind for England, where he and his retinue A. C. 1520,
Luther's doctrine having by this time gained
Then the pope endeavoured to persuade the elector of Saxony to put him to death, or fend him to Rome; but, that prince refusing to comply with his request, the papal nuncio ordered Luther's books to be publicly burned at Cologne; and Luther, in revenge, committed the body of the canon law to the flames at Wirtemberg, and published a book to justify his conduct. He was supported by the elector of Saxony, who passionately desired to see a reformation in the church: he was seconded in his endeavours by Ulricus, Zuinglius, and Philip Melancthon, a man of equal piety and learning; and he was encouraged to perfevere by Erasmus, who assured him he had many favourers in England and the Low Countries; and exhorted him to proceed with modesty and circumspection. The emperor, after his coronation, af- A. C. 152.10 fembled a diet at Worms; where, being instigated by the complaints and remonftrances of the pope, he summoned Luther to appear at the assembly, and granted him a safe.conduct for the security of his person; he accordingly appeared, and, refusing to retract his tenets, was with his favourers, proscribed by public edict. Every zealous papist drew his Sleidan. pen against this reformer; and, among the rest, Henry king of England declared himself a champion of the Roman church. He was particularly. Herbert: