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A. C. 1517. must be very defirous of Henry's friendship who

would sue fo submissively to his servants. Wol-
sey had gained such an ascendency over the mind
of his sovereign, that he could have persuaded him
to follow any measure whatsoever, even though it
had been opposite to his own interest : but, here
his favourite's inclination, and his own interest
happened to coincide ; and he accordingly'affented
to the proposal. The conditions of the alliance
being regulated hetween the cardinal and M. de
Villeroy; secretary of state, who repaired to Lon-

don for that purpose, the king of France sent over A new alli - a solemn embassy, compofed of the admiral de Bonanc: be nivet, Stephen Poncher bishop of Paris, joined to France and Villeroy, and impowered to renew the treaty of England. friendship between the two kings; to treat of a

league with the pope, and other princes of Chris-
tendom, for the defence of religion and the catho-
lic church; of the match between the dauphin and
the princess Mary; of the restitution of Tournay,
St. Amand, and Mortagne ; and of an interview
between the two kings. They brought over let-
ters patent, by which Francis obliged himself to
pay to his dear friend the cardinal of York, a pen-
sion of ten thousand livres, in return for his giving
up the administration of the bishopric of Tournay.
All these articles being duly discussed, four separate
treaties were signed, and ratified in October. In the
first, the contracting parties agreed, That the mar-
riage should be celebrated when the dauphin fhould
have attained the fourteenth year of his age : That
Mary's portion should amount to three hundred
and thirty thousand crowns of gold : and, That her
jointure should be equal to that of Anne of Bre-
tagne, and Mary of England, who had been wives
to Lewis XII. The second related to the restitu-
tion of Tournay, for which Francis engaged to pay
fix hundred thousand crowns; but from this sum


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he was left at liberty to deduct the portion of the A. C. 15186
princess Mary. The third concerned certain pre-
cautions taken, to prevent an infraction of the
peace, as well as to procure prompt reparation for
the damage that might be sustained by the subjects
of either power.

And the fourth ftipulated an in-
terview becween the two monarchs, in the village of
Sandenfeli, near Ardres in Picardy. These trea - Rymer.
ties being ratified, the princess Mary was betroth-
ed to the dauphin, in St. Paul's church at Lon-
don; and the earl of Worcester, with West bishop
of Ely, and a magnificent train, fent over to de-
mand the performance of Francis, who swore to the
observance of the treaties, delivered hostages for
the payment of the money, and in the name of
his son, fulfilled the contract of marriage.

During these transactions, the pope appointed Defenfive cardinal Laurentius Campejus his legate in Eng cluded at land, with directions to follicit Henry's engagement London. in the general league or quinquennial truce; and authority to demand a tenth of the English clergy. Wolsey was no sooner informed of this appointment, than he sent one of his confidents to Rome, with a remonstrance to his holiness, importing that the nomination of another legate, while he resided cardinal in England, was such an affront as would destroy his credit and influence, and render him incapable of serving the holy fee effectually. Leo being unwilling to disoblige such a favourite minister, joined him in the legation with Campejus, whom the English cardinal found means to detain at Boulogne, until he received the pope's answer. Then understanding, that Campejus was come with a very mean equipage, he presented him with some bales of red cloth for garments to his retinue, and twelve fumpter mules richly caparisoned; with which he made a magnificent entry into London. During the procession, however, one of the mules happen


A.C. 1518. ed to fall, and the coffers which he carried flying

open, discovered nothing but rags, broken meat, and marrow-bones; a circumstance which exposed the foreign cardinal to the ridicule of the populace. Such was the influence that Wolsey had gained at the court of Rome, that when cardinal Adrian de Cornerto was deposed and stripped of all his bepefices, in consequence of his having engaged in a conspiracy against the pope, the administration of the bishopric of Bath and Wells, which he poffeffed in England, was given to the cardinal of York: and now he and his colleague Campejus were veft,

ed with the extraordinary power of granting plenary Kd. Herbert. indulgences.

Their negotiation, however, proceeded but Nowly; for, though Leo impowered them by an express bull, to conclude a league 4gainst the Turks, between the emperor and the kings of England, France, and Spain, all that they could obtain was, a defensive alliance in favour of

the holy fee, and their respective dominions, in cafe Ad. Pub. they should be attacked by the Infidels. The pope,

by them declared chief of this league, was extremely mortified to find them so averse to an offensive association, by virtue of which he could have amas, fed sums of money ; nevertheless, he approved and ratified the treaty, and the report of an intended invasion by the Infidels immediately vanished.

The peace which Europe now enjoyed was interrupted by the death of the emperor Maximillian, who was no sooner in his grave, than the kings of France and Spain openly declared themselves com

petitors for the imperial throne ; and began to caA.C.1519. bal among the electors. The pope sincerely wish

ed that neither should ascend the imperial throne, because both had such connexions with Italy, chạt he of the two who should be chosen, would have it in his power to embroil that country. The king of England had still a hankering after the imperial

on the im,


dignity, and sent Richard Pace, as his ambassador, 4. C. 1519. to found the electors; but, he was too late in his application: and at length, the interest of Charles prevailing, he was elected emperor at the diet of Frankfort. Leo finding all opposition would be in Charles king vain, assented to the election with a good grace ; of Spain þut Francis was extremely. mortified at his disap grandfather pointment, which inflamed the jealousy that subfift. Maximilian ed between him and Charles, and hastened the

perial rupture that ensued. Indeed, their differences were throne. such as could not be easily terminated in an amicable manner. Francis had pretensions to the king- Mutual jeadom of Naples, and reason to complain that his ri- Charles and val had not restored the kingdom of Navarre to John D'Albret, according to the stipulations of the treaty of Noyons. On the other hand, Charles laid claim to the dutchy of Burgundy, as heir to the ancient dukes, as well as to the dutchy of Milan, which, though poffeffed by Francis, was a fief of the empire. Another source of contention was the duke of Guelderland, who, though a professed enemy of the emperor, was publicly protected by Francis. The pope was obliged to temporize with both, though of the two he was inclined to favour Charles; and Henry of England, by a steady and discreet conduct, might have held the ballance of power betwixt those two rivals, so as to cause either scale to preponderate, according to the necessity of the times, or the dictates of his own interest. These, Mezerai. however, he did not always regard ; because he was absolutely ruled by the passions and caprice of his favourite Wolsey, whom Charles and Francis cultivated with the utmost affiduity, well knowing, there was no other way to procure the friendship and assistance of England, which was deemed fo necessary to the success of their designs. Besides Both court

the good presents and pensions offered to this idol, they vied with each other in carelling him with the groffest Wolsey


graces of


HISTORYO, ENGLAND. A.C. 1519. adulation, calling him in their letters, their friend,

their patron, and their father; and extolling his virtue, prudence, and capacity, in the most hyperbolical expressions

expresions. He cunningly made use of these testimonies, not only to flatter his master's va. nity, by representing how formidable he must be to those two potentates, who stooped so low as to court the good graces of his minister, but, likewise to enhance his own meric in the opinion of Henry, who could not help observing, that Wolsey's parts must have been greatly superior to those of all other favourites, when they were thus acknowledged by the greatest princes of Christendom. He actually looked upon himself as the arbiter of Europe, and remained so fully convinced of his cardinal's capacity, that he saw nothing but with his eyes, and was in every thing directed solely by his advice. Wolsey had now attained the very highest pinnacle of fortune; he was favourite, prime-minister, lord high chancellor, administrator of the fee of Bath and Wells, archbishop of York, cardinal, and legate a latere. He received annual pensions from the

emperor and the king of France, drew immense profits from the office of chancellor, by means of the privileges annexed to it by his majesty, and the king not only loaded him with rich presents, but also furnished him with a great number of opportunities to increase his revenues. The pope, the emperor, the king of France, and the republic of Venice courted his favour with the utmost emulation; and Francis in particular fent him letters. patent, consenting, that he should regulate the ceremonial

of his interview with Henry. That prelate Wolsey was so intoxicated by this flow of profis intoxica

perity, that his pride and arrogance surmounted all bounds. He could no longer bear equality in his legation; and therefore prevailed upon the pope to recal Campejus, and leave him invested with the


ted with power. .

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