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A.C. 1575. of England to oppose the progress of his ambition.

His sentiments were espoused by the bishop of Dur-
ham, and the majority of the members; but the
ancient counsellors diffuaded the king from infring-
ing the peace to which he had so solemnly sworn;
and advised him to turn his arms against Scotland,
where the French party prevailed over the intereft
of his sister. Henry himself seemed to follow a
middle course; which, in all probability, was pre-
scribed by his minjster. He determined to affift
the emperor and Francis Sforza privately : he or-
dered Richard Pace, his ambassador at the impe-
rial court, to treat with them on the subject, and
accommodated them with large fums of money.
The duke of Milan engaged to pay an annual pen-
fion of ten thousand ducats to Wolsey for his good
offices, as foon as he should be re-established in his
dutchy; and the emperor sent Matthew Skinner,

cardinal of Sion, into England, to negotiate a A&. Pub. ` league with Henry.

The parliament re-assembled on the twelfth day of November ; and the clergy met in convocation about the same time, having considered the demand of an extraordinary subsidy, which the popė required on pretence of an approaching war with the Turks. They replied, that the last war, undertaken against France, at the follicitation of pope Julius II. for the defence of the church, had exhausted the clergy in such a manner, that they were in no condition to grant new subsidies : besides, by a decree of the council of Constance, the pope could not impose

subsidies on the clergy, without the approbation of Ld, Herbert, a general council. The English clergy were now fub

jeći to a new pope of their own, in the person of Wol.
fey, who was much more formidable than the pontiff
of Rome, because supported by the king's whole
authority. Since his being invested with the dig.
nity of cardinal, he had become more vain, proud,



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and imperious than ever. He never appeared in A, C. 1515. public without the retinue of a sovereign prince. The pride His cardinal's hat was carried as a trophy before ardWanity him; and when he entered the chapel, placed upon the altar. He was preceded by his serjeant at arms and mace, two gentlemen carrying pillars of silver, and his cross-bearer. His habic was of G\k; and the very harness of his horses embroidered with gold. Warham, archbishop of Canterbury, was shocked at his oftentation ; and still more chagrined at his presumption, in ordering the cross of York to be carried erect in the province of Canterbury. Knowing himself unable to cope with Wolsey in point of interest, he begged leave to retire to his own see, and resign the office of chancellor, which was immediately conferred on the favourite cardinal, whom the king enabled to support his assumed dig. nity with continual benefactions of prebends, wardships, and other perquisites. Besides the income of his archbishopric and office of chancellor, he farmed at a mean price the sees of Bath, Wells, and Hereford, poffeffed by Italians residing at Aa. Pube Rome; and his avarice increased with his revenue.

In the course of this year Alexander duke of Affairs of Albany arrived in Scotland, which he found distract- Scotland, ed by factions, which the king of England carefully fomented. As uncle to the infant king, he assumed the title of protector of that realm ; and, by the connivance of the pope, filled the benefices with his own creatures. The duke of Albany being a stranger in Scotland, conducted himself by the information and direction of Hepburn, bishop of Murray, a passionate and factious prelate; who, having a dispute about his diocese with Formar, who was supported by the earl of Hume, painted this nobleman in such colours to the regent, that when he came to court he found himself treated with coldness and contempt. Enraged at Albar.y's



A.C. 1595. behaviour, he compromised his dispute with the

queen dowager, whom he persuaded to carry her fon into England, where he would be screened from the treacherous design of the regent; but her intention was frustrated by the vigilance of the duke of Albany, who secured the person of the young king, and committed him, for his education, to the care of three persons of unblemished character. Hume and his brother escaped into England, whither they were followed by the queen, and her husband, Archibald earl of Angus. They were however prevailed upon by the assurances of the regent to return, though not before the queen was deliver

ed, at Harbottle in Northumberland, of a daughter, Buthanan. who was called Margaret. A. C. 1516.

In February the following year, the queen of Death of England brought into the world a princess, christen. king of

ed by the name of Mary; and the fame month Spain, was rendered remarkable by the death of Ferdinand

king of Spain, who was succeeded in the throne of Castile and Arragon by his grandson, Charles archduke of Austria ; juit afrer that prince had renew. ed the alliance between England and the Low Countries, of which he was fovereign. As it was the interest of Charles to live in peace with France, until he should be firmly established in Spain, where he met with some opposition, Maximilian found himself obliged to act alone in Italy, where he affembled an army of twenty thousand Germans and Swiss, by means of the money he had received from England; and with these he made a fruitless attempt on Milan.

Baffled in this undertaking, he endeavoured to engage the pope, the king of England, and his grandson Charles, in a league against France : and, miscarrying in this effort also, he tried to cajole Henry, by assuring him he would resign the empire in his favour, and assign to him his whole right to the dutchy of Milan.


The king of England, being by this time pera A. C. 1516.

. fectly well acquainted with the character of Maximilian, thanked him for his good will ; but desired he would defer the execution of his scheme to a more favourable opportunity; and, in the mean time, gratified him with a sum of money, which Gucciatdi

. was the real object of the emperor's pursuit.

In the mean time Francis I. formed a project for the conquest of Naples, and endeavoured to render the pope propitious to this undertaking: but Leo wished for nothing so eagerly as for the expulsion of the French from Italy, and exerted all his endeavours to traverse the design of Francis in private, while he amused him with vague negotiations. The king of France, being at length convinced of his double-dealing, laid aside all thoughts of that expedition ; and at. Noyon, concluded a treaty of

Mezera peace with Charles the new king of Castile. The pope, the emperor, and the king of England, em. ployed all their artifice to derach Charles from the interest of France; but all they could obtain was his concurrence in a defensive league, concluded at London, , by which they engaged to support one AA. Pub. another mutually, in case of being attacked: The Maximilian emperor soon grew tired of a league which produ- makes peace ced no money; and, before the end of the year, cis. acceded to the treaty of Noyon. He, at the same time, referred his dispute with the Venetians to arbitration, and consented, that the five cantons of Swiss, who had formerly refused to enter into an alliance with France, should now be comprehended in the treaty, together with the rest of their countrymen.

While the princes of the continent endeavoured Truce beto oppose the ambitious designs of each other, tween EngHenry concluded a truce for one year with the re- Scotland. gent of Scotland, that he might have an opportunity to cabal against that nobleman, by the inNUMB. XLIX.



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A. C. 1516. Auence of the Humes, who were devoted to his

interest. He wrote to the Scottish parliament, desiring they would send back the duke of Albany to France, because it was not proper that the young king should be in the power of his presumptive heir; and he threatened, in case they should refuse to comply with his proposal, that he would take other meafures for the preservation of his nephew. The parliament paying very little regard to this remonftrance, the Humes persuaded Hamilton earl of Arran to claim the regency, as kinfman to the king; and in the mean time, they levied troops to support his pretensions. The duke of Albany being informed of this conspiracy, marched against the earl of Arran, and in a few days reduced his castle at Hamilton : then the Humes pulling off the mask, made themselves masters of Dunbar, which they demolished. They were afterwards decoyed to court by the regent, and beheaded for rebellious practices.

During these transactions, the pope, and the council of the Lateran, were employed in reforming the calendar, which was extremely defective; and briefs were addressed to all the princes of Europe, desiring they would send their most able ma

.thematicians to Rome, to facilitate this reformation. A. C: 1517. At the same time his holiness follicited the powers Projected

of Christendom to join in a league against the league against the Turks, which had just been concluded between the

emperor, the kings of France and Spain. In this treaty a place was left for Henry of England, whom the pope earnestly exhorted, 'to concur in oppofing the progress of the Turks against the Mamelukes of Ægypt, alledging, that the infidels, after having subdued the Ægyptians, would certainly turn their arms against the Christians : but, it afterwards appeared, that the sole design of his holinefs was, to enrich himself and his family with the spoils




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