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This condition was altogether in favour of Ferdi. A. C. 15.o. nand, and seems to imply, that he had already pro. Rymer, jected some scheme against France : for, Henry could have no prospect of being attacked from that quarter; and therefore by such a treaty he betrayed his own interest. But, indeed, he was so immersed in pleasures, that he paid very little regard to the political maxims of government. His whole time was engrossed by tournaments, masquerades, festivals, and concerts of music, together with tennis and dice, at which games he lost considerable fums of money to foreign adventurers, until he detected their frauds, and expelled them from court in the most disgraceful manner.

While his time passed so agreeably in these amusements, he left the care of the administration to his ministers, among whom Wolsey began already to enjoy a great share of his favour ; for he was promoted to the deanery of Lincoln, and presented by the king with a fine country-house in the neighbourhood of London, which had belonged to Sir Thomas Empson, lately beheaded. The pope, Rupture lehaving privately engaged in a league with Ferdinand tween the and the Venetians, industriously sought an occasion French the of quarrelling with the king of France, by giving

king. away a bishopric in Provence, contrary to his engagement with Lewis.

When this monarch com. plained of the infraction, the pope denied that he had ever entered into any such engagement ; and they gave one another the lie without ceremony.

Julius, being thus furnished with a pretext for a rupture, found means, by the bishop of Sion, to create a diffention between the crown of France and the Swiss, who, in a diet at Lucerne, declared for the pope, and resolved to send an army into the Milanese. His holiness was so secret in his negotiations, that Lewis, far from suspecting his intention was to form a strong league, which would

drive

24

A. C. 1510. drive ihe French out of Italy, believed he had no

other design but that of seizing Ferrara ; and ordered Chaumont governor of Milan to succour the duke of Ferrara, in cafe he should be attacked. The feet of Venice and the pope's army, however, having attempted to surprise Genoa, the king of France considered the affair in a more serious light, and directed Chaumont to keep a watchful eye over the conduct of Julius, whom that general accordingly had well nigh surprised at Bologna. The pope complained loudly of chis insult at all the courts in Europe, and in particular at London.

He excommunicated the French generals; made another unsuccessful attempt upon Genoa, in conjunction with the Venetian gallies; sent for twelve thousand Swiss, who began their march for the Milanese, under the conduct of the bishop of Sion : but finding the passes strongly guarded, they returned to their own country. Lewis formed two successive treaties with Maximilian, by the last of which, they agreed to afsemble a general council at Pisa, in order to depose Julius; and they actually gained over nine cardinals to their intereit. Mean while, the

pope and Venetians being joined by the Spanish army from Naples, his holiness invested Mirandola in person; and the place being reduced, entered by the breach as a conqueror.

When Lewis complained of Ferdinand's having joined that pontiff and the Venetians, he excused himself by saying, that as king of Naples, he was a vassal of the Roman fee, and in that quality could not refuse to defend the pope's person and dominions; but that, in

other respects, he would not interest himself in the Guicciar- quarrel, but firmly adhere to the articles of the

league of Cambray. A C. 1511.

Hitherto, Henry had not interfered in the affairs of Italy, or indeed in any foreign dispute that might interrupt his pleasure, which was now greatly 4

augmented

dini. Mezerai.

augmented by his queen’s being delivered of a fon, A. C. 151' who died, however, in a few weeks, to the unspeakable mortification of his parents. Ferdinand, with a view to engage his son-in-law insensibly in their alliance againit France, dissembled his real design; and, on pretence of equipping an armament against the Moors of Africa, follicited a reinforcement of a thousand English archers. His request was im. mediately granted; and Thomas Darcy being created a baron, was nominated to the command of this small detachment. The Venetians fent ambassa- Aa. Pub. dors to England, under colour of thanking Henry for having used his good offices towards their reconciliation with his holiness: but their real design was to engage him in the projected league. The pope created Bambridge archbishop of York, a cardinal, and promoted Matthew Skinner bishop of Șion to the same dignity : in a word, the confede. rates spared no pains to gain over the ministers and agents of Henry; to persuade him, that the king of France was become too formidable by the conquest of Milan; and might, if not feasonably checked, form more important schemes to the prejudice of his neighbours. At length he gave ear to

Henry liste their remonstrances, and promised to join their af- ens to the sociation. He appointed commissioners to muster remonand arm the militia of the kingdom, on pretence the rope and of putting the nation in a posture of defence, in his confedecase it should be invaded; and that he might avoid a rupture with the king of Scotland, who he knew was attached to Lewis, he appointed envoys to regulate all differences, which had happened since the Jaft treaty. James, however, found a pretext, in spite of all his precautions. Andrew Breton, a Scottish merchant, having obtained from his sove. reign a commission to make reprisals on the Portuguese, who had plundered and murdered his father on the high seas, equipped two ships of war, with

which

strances of

rates,

with the king of Scotland.

the war in

À. C. 1511. which he made prize of all the Portuguese vesels
Qarrrels that traded through the English channel. The

ambassador of Portugal representing this conduct
to Henry as an insult upon the English flag, he
ordered two large ships to be fitted out, and be-
stowed the command of them upon the two sons of
the earl of Surrey, who attacked the Scottish cor-

fair, and took his veffel, after an obstinate engageBuchanan. ment, in which Breton lost his life. The king of Ld, Herbert.

Scotland demanded reftitution of the prizes, as well
as reparation for an outrage committed against the
articles of peace fubsisting between the cwo king.
doms. Henry refused the fatisfaction he demand-
ed, alledging, that pyrates and corsairs were never
comprehended in treaties ; and James protested
against this refusal, as an affront which he would

resent the first opportunity. Progress of

During these transactions, Lewis made fome ad-
Italy.

vances towards a pacification with the pope ; but
all his proposals being rejected, he ordered Chau-
mont to carry on the war with vigour. That ge-
neral, though inferior in number to the allies, com-
manded a body of such veterans, that they were
afraid to hazard an engagement: at length he
marched towards Modena, in order to besiege that
city; and the pope, rather than it should fall into
the hands of Lewis, ceded it to the emperor, who
began about this time to act very coldly for the
intereit of his ally. Nevertheless, the army cf the
confederates being very hard pressed by Chaumont,
Ferdinand, who still profeffed neutrality, proposed
a congress at Mantua, which produced no other
effect than a delay, that was very prejudicial to the
French interest. After this ineffectual effort to-
wards an accommodation, Maximilian, who was
not yet altogether detached from Lewis, confented
that the council at Pisa should be summoned in his
name, to meet on the first day of September, and

deliberate

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