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A. C. 1456. ment reassembling, Henry appeared in person, and

declared from the throne, that as he now enjoyed
perfect health, and was in a condition to resume the
réins of government, he did not think the king-
dom 'had any further occasion for a protector: he
therefore delired the parliament would discharge the
duke of York from the toils of that troublesome
office. Whether the two houses thought the request
reasonable, or the members had been tutored for the
purpose, they readily complied with his defire ;
and he sent an order to the duke to abstain from the
function of protector. York was not a little con
founded at finding himself thus over-reached; but,
making a virtue of necessity, he and his adherents
fubmitted with a good grace to the orders of the
king and parliament. But, on pretence of their
having no further business at court, they retired to
Yorkshire, where they lived in the fame neighbour:
hood. In a little time after they had withdrawn
themselves an insurrection happened in London, oc-
casioned by a quarrel between an English and Ita-
lian merchant; and the duke of Buckingham and
Exeter, being empowered to try and punish the de-

linquents, were prevented by the populace from 'The queen executing their commission. The queen fufpecting endeavours that this tumult was excited by the partisans of the York and duke of York, and thinking the king's person was

not safe in London, conveyed him to Coventry, Coventry.

on pretence of his enjoying the benefit of a change
of air : though her real design in taking this route,
was that she might be nearer the discontented lords,
who had retired from the council.

She had re-
ceived intelligence of their holding several fuccef-
five meetings in the North, and she resolved to arrest
them, if poflible, in Coventry, where they had
fewer friends than in London. With this view
she caused the king to write letters with his own
hand, inviting them to court, where he had occa.

his associates to


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fion for their advice and allistance in an affair of the A. C. 1456. utmost consequence. As the duke of York and his associates had taken no step towards publishing his design upon the crown, but covered all their conduct with the pretext of patriotism, they refolved to comply with the invitation of Henry, who they imagined had at length opened his eyes with respect to the conduct of the queen and the ministry, and really desired their assistance, in order to reform the administration. They therefore set out for Coventry; but being apprized on the road of the queen's intentions, they suddenly changed their resolution, and separated immediately, in order to provide for their own safety. The duke of York hastened to his estate of Wigmore, on the borders of Wales į the earl of Salisbury retired to his own house in Yorkshire ; and Warwick took shipping immediately for Calais, of which place he had continued governor since the battle of St. Alban's. Though the queen was mortified at her disappointment, she enjoyed the consolation of having parted three noblemen whose union was very Stowe. dangerous to her interest.

The mutual jealousy and machinations of the Invasion by, two parties were at this period interrupted by other and the considerations. As the English had formerly taken Scots. advantage of the divisions in France, to make conquests in that kingdom, Charles VII. resolved to follow the same maxims of policy, and profit by the quarrels that began to divide England. He prepared two squadrons to attack the kingdom in different parts. One of these piliaged the town of Sandwich, and the other made a descent upon Cornwal: but, as they were very ill provided with neceffaries, they did not undertake any enterprize of importance, and this was rather an insule than an invasion; for their troops reimbarked and returned to their own country, after having plundered a


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A. C. 1457. few inconsiderable villages. In all probability che

French court had engaged the Scots to co-operate
with its measures against England, as they invaded
the northern counties, notwithstanding the truce
subfifting between the two nations, and carried off
a considerable booty. The truces were fo ill ob-
ferved on both fides, that a predatory war was ge-
nerally carried on without intermission between the
borderers ; and the mutual incursions of private
adventurers furnilhed continual pretences for in-
fringing the truce or accommodation. The Eng-
lish authors alledge that this invasion was headed
by king James in person, who retired at the ap-
proach of the earl of Northumberland; whereas
the Scorcish historians affirm that Piercy, and the
earl of Douglas, at that time a refugee in England,
entered Scotland and ravaged the country, until
they were encountered and defeated by the earl of
Angus and Sir James Hamilton. Be that as it will,
the truce between the two kingdoms was renewed,
and afterwards prolonged for four years, though
both kings had been greatly incensed, and written
outrageous letters to each other.

This dispute being happily terminated, Henry,
who was of a mild, pacific disposition, and dreaded
nothing so much as the revival of domestic troubles,
pressed his queen to listen to terms of accommoda-
tion, to which she did not appear averse ; nor in-
deed was it her interest to prosecute a quarrel with
such powerful antagonists, at a juncture when her
administration was so odious to the people. On
the other hand, York and his confederates did not
think their scheme ripe for an open revolt against
the established king, who, though a prince of mean
capacity, had, by the innocence of his life, and
the piery of his devotion, acquired, if not the ef-
teem, at least the good will of his subjects. They
therefore lent a willing ear to the overtures of peace



Reconcilia., tion between

the queen

and the duke of York,

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and reconciliation, which were made in the king's A. C. 1458.
name, by the archbishop of Canterbury and other
prelates ; and both parties agreed to meet at Lon-
don in January, that all disputes might be agreeably
determined. Not but that the queen and York
mutually diftrufted each other's fincerity; and up-
on the duke's signifying his suspicion, the king con-
sented to his coming with his friends in a posture of
defence. Salisbury arrived at the time and place
appointed with a retinue of five hundred men ;
York repaired to the congress with four hundred
followers, and took up his quarters at Baynard's
castle, while Salisbury resided at Cold barbour ; on
the fourteenth day of February, Warwick landed
from Calais with six hundred men, and chose the
Greyfriars for the place of his residence, the rest
of the party lodged within the city. Somerset,
Exeter, Northumberland, Egremond, and Clifford,
came with numerous retinues, who were quartered
in the suburbs; and the mayor of London, at the
head of five thousand men, kept guard within the
city, and patroled through the streets, to maintain
the public tranquillity. The conferences were be-
gun; and, after some dispute, the warmth of which
was moderated by the mediating bishops, the treaty
was concluded to their mutual satisfaction. Some
masses were founded for the souls of the people
killed at St. Alban’s, and a pecuniary satisfaction
made to their heirs : both parties solemnly pro-
mised to lay aside their animosity, and live toge-
ther in perfect friendship for the future; and the
duke of York with his associates were readmitted
into the council. The fifth day of April was ap-
pointed for a thanksgiving, and a solemn procession
to St. Paul's church. The king, queen, and all
the noblemen allisted on this occasion : those of dif-
ferent parties walked hand in hand, in token of
amity, and the duke of York handed the queen,


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Id. Ibid. Another rupture.

A. C. 1458. who affected to treat him with public marks of

esteem and confidence.

Nevertheless, there was little fincerity on either fide. The duke of York and his friends still dreaded fome deceit or perfidy on the part of Margaret, who had formerly eudeavoured to entrap them; and they quicted the court on various pretences. The duke and the earl of Salisbury repaired to York, and the earl of Warwick returned to his government of Calais. In his passage he fell in with some ships belonging to Genoa and Lubec, and a quarrel ensuing, in consequence of their refusing to pay proper deference to the English Aag, he funk some of the number, and carried the reft into Calais. The republic complained to the king of this outrage; his majesty appointed commifsioners to enquire into the particulars, and Warwick was obliged to come over and justify his conduct. During his stay at London on this account, he occasionally affifted at council; and a domestic belonging to his train happening to quarrel one day with a fervant of the king, who was wounded in the fray, all the retainers at court took to their arms, to revenge the insult offered to their companion. The delinquent having made his escape, they attacked the earl himself as he came from council ; so that it was not without the greatest difficulty that he reached his boat, which waited for him on the side of the river, and which conveyed him to the city, after he had seen some of his followers killed in his defence. He forth with conjectured that the queen had contrived this scheme for his destruction ; and this conjecture was confirmed that same day, when he understood that the king had granted a warrant to commit him prisoner to the Tower. He received this intelligence time enough to elude the order ; and retired to his father the earl of Salisbury, to consult about measures to be caken against the queen, upon 5


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