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The pope

HISTORY OF ENGLAND: .A. C. 1500. He accordingly joined these confederates, and at:

tacked Ludovico Sforza, sovereign of that dutchy, who was obliged to fly for refuge to the emperor, after having lost all his dominions. But the castle of Milan, and Genoa, of which he had been in

possession, voluntarily submitted to Lewis. Pope proposes a Alexander VI. having published a jubilee for the crusade.

beginning of the century, permitted those christians who lived at a great distance from Rome, to purchase the privilege of the festival, without being obliged to visit the churches of that city. In order to collect the sums arising from this indulgence, he sent agents into all the states of Christendom; and employed a Spaniard called Gaspar Pons, for that purpose in England, where he raised a large contribution. This nuncio was directed to inform the king, that his holiness had resolved to publish a crusade against the Turks, and even to go in person with the English monarch, the Venecians, and the princes of Italy, to attack Constantinople by sea, while the other powers of Europe should fall upon them in Thrace, 'Greece, and different parts of the continent. Henry plainly perceived that Alexander's drift was to amass money by contributions for this expedition ; but, he diffembling his opinion, expressed the utmost zeal for the fuccess of the enterprize ; offered to furnish a large proportion of men and money; to serve under his holiness in person ; and demanded, that some strong places on the coast of Italy might be put into his hands, to serve as retreat in case of necessity. He even appointed ambassadors to go and treat with the pontiff on this subject; and made such a parade of his zeal for the interelt of religion, that the knights of Rhodes chose him protector of their order. But as this was a chimerical project, which Alexander had no intention to execute, he enjoyed the credit of his forwardness, without subject


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A. C. 1500.

ing himself to the least expence; and the other potentates of Europe receiving the pope's proposal with great coldness and indifference, the whole scheme vanished into smoke,

England being grievously afflicted with a plague, Bacon. Henry, after having several times changed the place The king of his residence, retired with his queen and family terview to Calais, where he received an embassy from the with the archduke Philip, desiring a friendly interview; and Philip. the king agreed to meet him in the church of St. Peter, which stands without the gates of Calais, as the archduke expressed a reluctance to enter a fortified city. At the time fixed for their meeting, Henry being informed of his approach, rode out to receive him on horseback, and Philip alighting, ran up to hold his stirrup; but Henry would not admit of such humiliation, and they embraced each other with marks of the most cordial affection. Then they entered the church, where they had a long conference, in which the archduke desired to live in friendship with the English monarch, whom he addressed with the appellation of his good patron, father, and protector. During Henry's refidence at Calais, he was also visited by the governor of Picardy, and bailiff of Amiens, fent by the French king, to congratulate him on his coming to the continent; and notify his conquest of Milan. That prince, in order to testify his good will to the king of England, had follicited and obtained a bull from the pope, declaring him excommunicated, should he ever fail in the yearly payments to Henry, ftipulated in the treaty of Eftaples. The pope, at the same time, granted a dispensation for the marriage of James king of Scotland, with the princess Margaret, tho'on account of her tender years the consummation was postponed.

Henry being now at peace with all Europe, and Practises ehis dominions enjoying the most profound repose, very method


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A. C. 1500. the avarice of his disposition had leisure to exert

itself, and his desire of amassing became every day
more and more rapacious. As he had no longer
any pretence for demanding subsidies from parlia-
ment, he resolved to drain the party of Warbeck,
until they should be quite exhausted. On the sup-
position that the adherents of this pretender were
still subject to the rigour of the laws, he insisted
upon their being indulged with separate pardons,
which they did not at all follicit ; and compelled
them to pay largely for this indulgence. He ap-
pointed commissioners to set on foot a new enquiry
about those who had in any manner asserted or fa-
voured the revolt of the blacksmith, and that of
Perkin Warbeck. These inquisitors were impower-
ed to amerce at discretion every individual who
Thould have the benefit of the pardon; and even
to seize the effects of the deceased, should their
heirs refuse to make a composition. Such oppref-
fion augmented the popular clamour against Hen-
ry, and was in a great measure attributed to the coun-
fels of cardinal Morton archbishop of Canterbury,

who died at this period, very little regretted by the Dean Abi. English. He was succeeded in his metropolitan

see by Henry Dean bishop of Salisbury; and now
the nation perceived, that Henry's avarice and ex.
tortion were not the effects of Morton's advice, but

qualities inherent in his own constitution. Never Rymer,

was king of England more hated by his subjects,
though this hatred was mingled with fear, pro-
duced by his uninterrupted success, and the opinion
of his great ability both as a monarch and a poli-
tician. All the powers upon the continent courted
his alliance'; and all the malecontents of England

were overawed into forbearance. A. C. 1501.

Notwithstanding this felicity, he was not a little disturbed by an accident which at this juncture en. croached upon his repose. The earl of Suffolk, 7



nephew to king Edward IV, and brother to the A. C. 1501" earl of Lincoln, who had fallen in the battle of Scoke, chanced to kill a man in his passion; and, though he was a branch of the house of York, the king consented to indulge him with a pardon; but, in order to leave a ftigma upon his character, he obliged him to appear personally, and plead his pardon in public. The earl being of an haughty Earl of Sufdisposition, resented this disgrace so deeply, that tolk retires he retired in disgust to his aunt Margaret, dutchefs tent to the dowager of Flanders ;, and Henry was not a little Low Counstartled at his retreat. In order to anticipate any Bacon, designs he might hatch to his prejudice, he sent over emiffaries, who by dint of promises and professions, persuaded him to return and be reconciled to the government. Henry's throne being now fu firmly established, that there was hardly a possibility to shake it, Ferdinand king of Arragon, parted with his daughter Catherine, who arriving in England Catherine of in the month of October, was married to Arthur Arragon prince of Wales, and the nuptials were celebrated Arthur ar London, with great pomp and folemnity, on Prince of the fourteenth day' of November, the prince being then turned of fifteen, and the lady about the age of eighteen. Her dower amounted to two hundred thousand ducats in money, jewels, and plate ; and a third part of the principality of Wales, dukedom of Cornwal, and earldom of Chester, was afsigned to her as a jointure, provided her liusband should die before his accession to the throne.

Rymer, This match was succeeded by the contract of another marriage, between the king of Scotland, and Henry's daughter Margaret, on whom her fa-tween James ther bestowed a portion of thirty thousand crowns. Scouland The marriage treaty was ratified by the Scotcih and Herry's ambassadors at London, on the twenty-fourth day Margaret. of January; and the nuptials were folemnized by , . 1503 proxy, amidst the rejoicings of the people, who


married to

Contract of marr age


A.C.1502. hoped the mischiefs attending the mutual enmity

of the two kingdoms would cease, by virtue of this alliance, tho' perhaps they did not foresee the union which it afterwards produced. When this affair was debated in council, an English nobleman obferved, that if Henry should survive his male-issue, the crown would devolve to the king of Scotland; to which insinuation Henry replied, that in such a case Scotland would become an accession to EngJand, as the smaller would always be swallowed up in the greater dominion.

dominion. On this occasion a treaty of perpetual peace between the two nations was figned and confirmed, together with certain articles for preventing excursions on either side ; but the consummation of marriage was, on account of the tender years of the princess, postponed till the following year, when the king accompanied her on her way as far as Colli-Weston, where he consigned her and her attendants to the care of the earl of Northumberland, who, with a considerable retinue of noblemen and ladies, conveyed her to the king her husband at Edinburgh.

The joy produced by this marriage was soon damped by the death of Arthur prince of Wales, who did not survive his nuptials above five months. He died at Ludlow-Castle, universally regrerred by the English nation, who had conceived happy

omens from his promising talents ; and, in about His brother three months after his decease, his brother Henry Henry cre

was, in the twelfth year of his age, created prince ated prince

of Wales, earl of Chester and Flint, the dutchy of Cornwal devolving upon him by act of parliament. During the course of this year the emperor Maximilian sent an embassy to England, to propose a league against the Turks, and to borrow money of Henry, who chose rather to present him with ten thousand pounds sterling, as a free gift for that purpose, than to engage in the league, or begin a



Death of

of Wales,

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