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A. C. 14974 tion suffered themselves to be surprised. Nevers

theless, they fought with unconmon courage, tho in a tumultuary manner, and killed above three hundred of the king's foldiers, with arrows of a very uncommon length. The lord Daubeney attacked them with such fury and precipitation, that he was taken prisoner in the beginning of the action, but immediately rescued by the valour of his men, who charged with irresistible fury, and the rebels were routed with great flaughter; for when they attempted to fly, they found themselves intercepted by the earl of Oxford's division. The lord Audeley, Flammock, and the blacksmith were taken and of fixteen thousand, to which their number amounted, two thousand fell in the field of battle : as for the reft, they submitted to the king's pleasure. Audeley was beheaded on Towerhill; Flammock and the blacksmith fuffered at Tyburn, the latter expressing great fatisfaction that his name should be famous in after-times; and all the rest were pardoned by proclamation.

While Henry was employed in quelling this rebellion, the king of Scotland, judging this a favourable opportunity, made a second irruption into England, and invested the castle of Norham; but the earl of Surrey marching to its relief, he retired to his own country, whither he was pursued by

the English general, who took the castle of Ayton, Treaty of

situated between Berwick and Edinburgh. The

king of England desired nothing more than a ty and the peace with James, by which he would not only be king of

freed from his apprehension of Perkin Warbeck, but also be enabled to save the subsidy in his own coffers : but he was afraid to make the first overtures, lest he should meet with a repulse. In reflecting upon this subject, he bechought himself of a fit agent for negotiating a peace between the two nations, without his suffering in point of honour.

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This was Don Pedro D'Ayala the Spanish ambal. A. C. 1497. fador, sent by Ferdinand and Isabella to conclude the contract of marriage between the prince of Wales and the infanta Catherine. who enjoyed a great share of Henry's confidence, undertook to visit the king of Scotland, and as from himself propose an accommodation. He accordingly set out for Edinburgh, and executed his commission, on pretence that nothing would afford more pleasure to his master the king of Spain, than to see two monarchs, who were his friends and allies, live in good understanding with each other. He found the Scottish king so well disposed to a Bacoste treaty, that he wrote to Henry, assuring him of success; and a congress was immediately opened at Ayton, under the mediation of this ambassador. The greatest difficulty that occurred was on the subject of Perkin Warbeck, whose person Henry demanded, and whom James positively refused to dea liver. The bishop of Durham proposed an interview between the two kings at Newcastle ; but the Scot rejected this proposal, observing, that how desirous foever he might be of peace, he would not go and beg it in his enemy's country. At length both sides agreed that James should honourably dismiss the pretended duke of York, and afterwards proceed with the negotiation, as if Perkin had never been in Scotland. In pursuance of this convention, that monarch told this adventurer, that he had done every thing in his power to support him in his pretensions ; that he had twice entered England at the head of an army; but that, as the English had refused to espouse his cause, he could not expect that the Scots would, without their concurrence, be able to establish him on the throne of England. He therefore advised him to form fome more feasible plan, and chuse some other country for the place of his residence : at the same time he


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A. C. 1497. assured him, that he would punctually fulfil his pro

mife; that he should not repent of having put himself into his hands; for he should be honourably

accommodated with ships and necessaries' for his Sir J. Ware, Voyage. Perkin bore his misfortune with a good

grace ; thanked the king of Scotland for the protection and other favours he had enjoyed from his bounty; and desired that he and his wife might be conveyed to Ireland. James complied with his request; and he arrived at Cork, where he still found friends and adherents. He had no sooner quitted Scotland, than the ambassadors at Ayton signed a treaty of truce for seven years, importing, That the two kings should not make war upon each other by themselves, their subjects, or any other person whatsoever : That certain points about which the ambassadors could not agree, should be referred to the arbitration of Ferdinand and Ifabella: And that the truce should be prolonged till one year after the death of that party who should die before the other. But at this treaty no mention was made of the marriage between James and

Henry's daughter, which afterwards took effect, Rymer. and gave birth to the union of the two kingdoms. A. C. 1498. Henry was by this convention secured from a

Scottish invasion, and found himself at peace with all the princes in Europe. Since the treaty

of Eftaples, no quarrel had arisen between him and Charles king of France, who, dying at this period, was succeeded by the duke of Orleans, under the name of Lewis XII. This prince was no less difposed to maintain an amicable intercourse with Henry. He turned all his views towards Italy; and therefore found it convenient to live upon good terms with the king of England, who might have defeated all his projects, by making a diversion in Picardy. He no sooner mounted the throne of France, than he procured a diffolution of his mar


riage with Jane, daughter of Lewis XI. in order to A. C. 1498. espouse Anne of Brittany, widow of his predecessor. of France Without such an expedient, he might have seen marries his that dutchy once more separated from France, and predecessor's in the power of some foreign family.

Though the king of England had nothing to fear from foreign enemies *, he was once more exposed to the danger of a domestic insurrection. His clemency to the Cornish insurgents, who had payed two or three shillings each for their ransom, instead of reconciling them to his government, served only to excite new disturbances. When they returned to their own country, they publicly proclaimed, that the gentleness with which they had been treated was not owing to the king's mercy, but his apprehension of his own subjects, three fourths of whom were of the same sentiments which they professed. These insinuations persuading their 'friends and neighbours that the whole kingdom was ready to take arms against Henry, they began to assemble in companies, and concert measures for making another attempt against the government. Some of the most zealous among them, understanding that Perkin Warbeck was in Ireland, proposed that he should be invited over, and chosen general of their intended expedition. They accordingly fent a deputation to tell him, that if he would repair to Cornwai he would find considerable succours, which, with the altistance of his other

his bro

* In the course of this year, the Columbus, who, in all probability, king granted another patent to Sebasti. would have been retained in the service an Calot, the Venetian, for the dif- of Henry, and annexed that country to covery of new lands ; and he embark. the crown of England, had not ing at Bristol, discovered Newfound- ther Bartholomew, whom he sent to land and North America, from whence London with his proposals, been taken he brought home three native Indians. by ryrates, and met with such difafThis voyage, he performed about fix ters, as retarded his application to the years after the islands of the Weft-In- king, until Christopher had engaged dies had been discovered by Christopher with Ferdinand and Isabella.


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Warbeck arrives in England, and makes


A, C, 1498. friends, would, in all probability, establish him on

the throne of England. Perkin, finding himself without resource, and abandoned by all those foreign powers who had formerly countenanced his projects, accepted the invitation, by the advice of his three chief counsellors, namely, a bankrupt

mercer called Herne, one Skelton taylor, and a Pirkin scrivener of the name of Aftley. He forthwith

embarked with about seventy men in four small

vessels, and, arriving at Whitsand-Bay, in Septeman attempt ber, repaired to Bodmin, where the former. insurupon Excrection had begun. There being joined by about

three thousand men, he published a proclamation, in which he assumed the title of Richard IV. king of England, inveighed bitterly against Henry Tudor; and exhorted the people, with promise of ex. traordinary rewards, to take arms, in order to depose the usurper. Then he marched to Exeter, with a view to establish a magazine in the place, and keep it as a retreat, in case of disaster. Being denied admittance, he tampered with the inhabitants; but finding them staunch to the established government, he resolved to take the city by assault. For this purpose, he provided scaling-ladders and beams to batter one of the gates, which he afterwards set on fire : his attempt, however, miscarfied; and he was repulsed with the loss of two two hundred men, which greatly discouraged his followers.

When the king was informed of these circumstances, he expressed himfelf' well pleased with the tidings, saying in derision, that now the king of Rakehell' was landed in the West, he hoped to have the honour of seeing him before he Thould leave the kingdom. At the same time he hinted,

that he should thankfully receive and requite the Bacon

services of the noblemen on such an occasion. Several lords and gentlemen of the county of Devon


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