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an express Concordat, to which his holiness agreed. A. C. 1418.
In a convocation, held at this period in London,
one Richard Walker, a priest of Worcester, was
tried and convicted of witchcraft, which he so-
lemnly renounced, and did public penance. Many
people were likewise obliged to abjure Lollardism ;
and the assembly granted a large subsidy to the king,
who suppressed the French monasteries in England,
and granted their lands to other colleges of the
learned. After this king's marriage, a convocation
held at London presented the king with a tenth,
on condition that his purveyors should not encroach
upon the goods of churchmen; and that no clergy-
man should be imprisoned but for theft and mur-

Pope Martin having summoned a new council at Conftitu-
Pavia, the archbishop of Canterbury held another archbishop
convocation for the electon of delegates, the names Chicheley.
of whom were returned to the king, that he might
pitch upon those who should represent the English
clergy at the ensuing council : a sum of money was
likewise voted for the expence of their journey.
William White, a priest, was censured for heresy,
and recanted; Henry Webb, of Worcester, was
stripped and publicly scourged in the cathedrals of
St. Paul's, Worcester, and Bath; William Taylor,
master of arts, was prosecuted for heresy, recanted,
relapsed, and was delivered over to the secular arm.
In a subsequent convocation a decree palled for the A. C. 14210
collation of benefices on the scholars of Oxford
and Cambridge, which was confirmed by act of
parliament. Some canons were enacted for mode-
rating the fees of inftitutions and inductions; and
for publishing and executing the provincial consti-
tution of archbishop Sudbury against the excessive
ftipends of parochial priests and others. Archbi.
Thop Chichely was famous for a great number of
con?itutions which he enacted; enjoining the cele-



the Benedic

A.C. 5427. bration of festivals ; regulating the probates of

wilts by administration; instituting a kind of inquisition against Lollardism ; providing against false, weights ; reviving the constitution of John Peckham, archbishop of Canterbury, who decreed that those cases and articles, in which the sentence of the greater excommunication was incurred, should be publicly declared in every parish church for the information of the people; and augmenting the

ftipends of vicars, who were allowed to sue for A. C. 1439. fuch augmentation in forma pauperum. Luxury of

Towards the latter end of the reign of the fifth tine monks. Henry, the Benedictine monks were become so

luxurious and dissolute, that the king insisted upon a reformation ; and a provincial Capitulary for that purpose was held in the Chapter-house at Weftminster; where it was ordained, That the abbots

should employ their attention in the care of fouls : - That the extravagance of their equipage should be

retrenched, so as that none should be attended by above twenty horse, under a severe temporal penalty : That they should never make a gift of the effects of the convent above the value of forty thillings : That they should be uniform in the colour and fashion of their habits: That their necessities should be supplied in kind and not in money : That they should noc have distinct private cells for the entertainment of female guests : and, That they fhould be restricted from going into cities and towns to assist at compotations and merry-makings. By writs dated July 10, 1422, 'the king ordered the two archbishops to assemble their clergy in convocation, that they might grant a subsidy for the support of the French war; but the lower clergy alledged they were not properly impowered by their constituents to grant money : so that the assembly was diffolved without having come to any resolution in the king's favour. During this fellion, Robert



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Hake and Thomas Drayton, two priests, were ac- 4. C. 1439.
cused of heresy, because they refused to kneel to a
crucifix, were in poffeffion of books written againstthe
doctrine of transubstantiation, and inveighed against
auricular confeffion as an invention of the devil:
Though these allegations could not be proved, they
were obliged to renounce all these tenets at St. Paul's
cross; and one Russel, a minorite, was ordered to
make the same recantation, for having maintained
that tythes were not claimable by divine right.

Archbishop Chicheley was certainly a great ene- Chichele
my to Lollardism; but at the same time it must oppefes the
be owned, he was a bold defender of the church ments of the
of England against papal encroachments. In his pope, hay
first convocation he moved for annulling papal perfecuted.
exemptions; he opposed the great power with which
the pope had invelted the cardinal bishop of Eng-
land. He presented to the king a full extract of
the nature, extent, and mischievous consequences
of the legatine office. As the cardinal was em- Walfing.
powered to hold the bishopric of Winchester in
commendam, he remonstrated against the practice,
as unprecedented in England; he represented that
the English church needed no such fupplemental
buttreffes as the power of legates a latere : that
this office had been always dangerous to the crown
of England, even when limited to one year; and
that the danger must be much greater from the
cardinal's commission, which was for life. Henry V.
protected the archbishop against the vengeance of
the pope, who was incensed against that prelate for
his opposition to the encroachments of Rome, and
much more so for his acquiescence in the ftarute
of premunire. The king's eyes were no sooner
closed, than he poured forth his indignation in a
letter to Chicheley, wherein he accused him of
having neglected his pastoral care, and minding
nothing but the means of amassing wealth. He


No. 45

A. C. 1439. said the archbishop suffered his flock to brouze on

poisonous herbs ; and that when wolves came to devour them, he stood like a dumb dog without so much as barking. Then he inveighed against the statute of premunire, as an act that repealed the laws of God and the church, and destroyed the antient usages of the kingdom. He complained that Jews, Turks, and Infidels of all sorts, were allowed to land in England ; whereas any person commissioned by the holy fee, was treated as a common enemy: and he concluded with an order to the archbishop to repair to the council, and use all his interest there and in the parliament for the repeal of this statute ; otherwise he should incur the penalty of excommunication.' Chicheley fent an apology for his conduct to Rome; notwithstanding which he was again severely reprimanded, and his legatine power suspended. From this sentence he

ap pealed to a future council; or, if that should not fit, to the tribunal of God. Marcin wrote monitory letters to all the clergy in England, expatiating upon the illegality of the acts of provisors and premunire. He sent a letter to the two archbishops, annulling all those statutes, and forbidding the metropolitans to act upon the authority of such laws, on pain of excommunication, and at the same time wrote a monitory letter to the people of England, which he charged the archbishop to publish and alfix in all public places. The archbishop of York, and the bishops of London, Durbam, and Lincoln, wrote to his holiness in favour of Chicheley. Their example was followed by the university of Oxford, which gave teftimony greatly to the honour of the archbishop's character, and termed him the golden candlestick of the church of England. These recommendations were accompanied with a submisfive letter of the prelate's own writing : but, in spite of all this interpofition, Martin remained emplaca


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ble, and summoned Chicheley to Rome, as an A. C. 1439: enemy to the pope in England. His holiness was the more exasperated, as the nuncio, who delivered his letters and bulls, had been imprisoned by the government. This outrage produced letters from the pope to the king, the duke of Bedford, and the parliament, complaining of such barbarous treatment, and exhorting them to concur in repealing the statutes. When the parliament met, the archbishop of Canterbury, attended by him of York, and the bishops of London, St. David's, Ely, Norwich, together with the abbots of Westminster and Reading, repaired to the house of commons; and, in an elaborate speech, advised them to repeal the statutes which had given such offence : but the members supposing this harangue was the effect of compulfion, payed no regard to the remonstrance; but presented an address to the king, desiring his majesty would write to the pope for the purgation of the archbishop. When the crusade against the Bohemians was preached up, and the cardinal of Winchester declared general of that enterprize, che pope ordered that prelate to collect a tenth from the English clergy for the expence of the expedition : but all the convocation would grant was eight-pence in the mark, on condition it should be found confistent with the king's prerogative and the laws of the kingdom. The nuncio, thinking this supply insufficient, ventured to collect money without being properly authorized ; and was imprisoned for his presumption.

A council being summoned to meet at Basil, the Convocating archbishop of Canterbury held a convocation at cilat Bali. London, when delegates were chosen to represent the English church in that assembly, and two pence in the pound voted for their expence.

Thomas bishop of Worcester; William prior of Norwich; Thomas Brown dean of Salisbury; Peter Patrick,



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