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A. C. 1450. headed, without any form of trial; and, in the

evening retired to the Borough of Southwark. For
fome days, he continued the practice of entering
the city in the morning, and quitting it at night,
that he might not give umbrage to the burghers,
with whom he lived at first in very good under-
standing. But, at length, the insurgents having
plundered fome houses, and committed other out-
rages, Cade, one morning, found the gate of the
bridge shut and secured against him. Endeavour-
ing to force his way, an engagement ensued between
the rebels and citizens, which lafted all day, and
was not interrupted until the combants could fee
no longer to fight. The archbishop of Canter-
bury, and the chancellor, who had taken refuge
in the Tower, being informed by their emiffaries of
the disposition of the insurgents, who were dif-
heartened by this check, and heartily tired of re-
bellion, drew up an act of amnesty, confirmed by
the fanction of the great seal, and found means to
publish it by night in the Borough of Southwark.
The effect of this expedient was so sudden and sur-
prising, that by day-break, Cade saw himfelf aban-
doned by the greater number of his followers, and
retreated to Rochester, where the rest of them dif-
persed, notwithstanding all his remonstrances and
artful speeches, in which he endeavoured to per-
suade them, that the pardon was ineffectual, with
out the authority of parliament. Thus deferted,
Cade was obliged to Ay alone into the wolds of
Kent; and a price being set upon his head by pro-
clamacion, he was discovered, and Nain by Alexan-
der Eden, who for this service was recompenced
with the government of Dover caftle.

While the peace of England was interrupted by king expels this insurrection, the war continued in France; but, the English Atill to the disadvantage of the English. The queen mandy and perceiving, that the diffatisfaction of the people



The French

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proceeded in a great measure from the misfortunes A. C. 1450. of the English arms in that kingdom, had made an effort to retrieve her credit, by sending a reinforcement of four thousand men, under the command of Sir Thomas Kyrle, who landed at Cherbourg in Normandy; and proceeded for Caen, where the duke at that time refided. In his march he was joined by several small detachments from English garrisons in that neighbourhood, and took Valognes, after a fiege of three weeks. The conftable of Richemont informed of these operations, affembled a body of seven thousand men, and posted himself at Fourmigni, to intercept the English in their route. Kyrle, tho' greatly inferior in number, attacked them without hesitation ; but, after an obstinate engagement, his troops were defeated, and he himself remained in the hands of the enemy. This reinforcement being destroyed, the duke of Somerset was obliged to keep within the walls of Caen, and see the French extend their conquests without opposition. The towns of Vere, Bayeux, St. Sauveur le Vicomte, Valognes, Avranches, and Tombelaine, surrendered almost without resistance ; and, upon the seventh day of June, the city of Caen was invested. The garrison consisted of four thousand men inured to service; but, the duke capitulated to surrender the place, if not relieved by the first day of July, on condition, that the garrison should be at liberty to retire with their effects to England. Falaise being invested at the same time, Sir Andrew Trollop, who commanded the garrison consisting of fifteen hundred men, capitulated on the same conditions, and the reduction of Cherbourg, the garrison of which submitted on the twelfth day of August, finished the intire conquest of Normandy. In the month of September, the count de Dunois was sent with a detachment into Guienne, where he reduced Bergerac, Jenfac, Mont


A. C. 1450. ferrand, St. Foy, and Chalais, before the end of

the campaign. In May he took the field again ; and in the course of that month took Montguyon, Blay, Bourg, Fronsac, Libourne, and Castillon in Perigord : and Bourdeaux was surrendered by capitulation, because not relieved before Midsummer. This was the case with all the places in that neigh: bourhood. Dax was reduced by the counts of Foix and Armagnac, the lord of Albret, and other Gafcon barons; and Bayonne, which was blocked up by sea and land, submitted on the twenty-sixth day of Auguft. Thus, the whole province of Guienne fell under the dominion of Charles, after ic had been united three hundred years' to the crown of England. The towns were well affected to the English government; but, the great lords, tempted with the hope of preferment at the court of France, .co-operated with the efforts of Charles, in wresting this country from the king of England, who was now dispofseffed of every foot of land which his ancestors had acquired in France, except Calais and its dependencies:

When the duke of Somerset' returned to Engcommitted land, the parliament was fitting; and the outcry

against him was so loud and universal, that the commons could not help taking fome notice of his conduct. They accordingly presented an address to his majesty, désiring, that the regent might be committed to the Tower, until his behaviour in France could be properly examined. Henry did not think it prudent to refuse the request of the commons at such a juncture; and the populace were so transported with joy at the news of the duke's commitment, that they went immediately to his house, which they pillaged: and, notwithstanding a proclamation issued to disperse them, continued in a body, doing abundance of mischief, until some of their leaders were apprehended, and hanged in terrorem. The com

Hint, de
Charles VII.

The duke of

to the Tower.

the duke of

mons then petitioned Henry, to remove from his A. C. 145. presence Edmund duke of Somerset, Alice dutchefs dowager of Suffolk, William Bothe bishop of Chefter, John Sutton, lord Dudley, and others; but, Henry amused them with an equivocal answer. Then they brought in an act of attainder for corrupting the blood, and confiscating the lands of the late duke of Suffolk; but; this act was rejected by the king: and the humour of the commons growing every day more and more obstinate, the parliament was dissolved, without having granted any supply: Immediately after their feparation, the Rot. Pada duke of Somerset was released; and succeeded Suffolk in the ministry, as well as in the queen's favour.

The court was now involved in great perplexity A. C. 1456. and uneasiness about the duke of York, who was intrigues of supposed to have excited the late infurrection, and York to be employed in hatching other more dangerous schemės ågainst the government. The sudden death of Cade had prevented any confession, of which they might have taken the advantage to the prejudice of Richard, whom they could not now arrest without incurring the imputation of injustice; but, as they were apprehensive of his raising an arny in Ireland, to support his title to the crown, the king issued orders to the sheriffs of Wales, Shropshire; and Cheshire, to assemble each his different posse, and oppose his landing. This was a very impolitic precaution, as it not only published his apprehension of the duke of York, which it was his interest to conceal; but, it alarmed the duke so as to put him on his guard, and furnished him with a plausible pretext to take arms in his own defence. As the duke had not yet formed any digested project, nor taken the least step that could be construed into a misdemeanour, he wrote a lettet to Henry, complaining of his sufficion as injurious


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A. C, 1451. and calculated for a pretence to ruin his character

and fortune. He received a mild answer from the king, who promised, that he should have satisfaction; but in the mean time the orders were not recalled. Tho' Cade's enterprize had not succeeded, the duke of York did not fail to reap considerable advantages from that insurrection. The great number of people who joined or favoured that cause, plainly demonftrated, that the nation was fullof malcontents; and, that the title of the house of March was still remembered with regard. He conceived fresh hopes from these considerations ; believing, that if the very name of a person belonging to that family had armed such a number in his cause, he who was a prince of the blood royal, and the lawful representative of Mortimer, could not fail to raise the better part of the kingdom in support of his pretensions. That he might not, however, ruin his project by too much precipitation, he resolved to consult his friends, before he would engage in an enterprize of such moment; and, when the term of his government in Ireland was expired, he embarked for England, in order to confer with them upon this subject. Notwithstanding the vigilance of the sheriffs, he larded without opposition, and repaired to London, where his adherents waited for him with impatience. The principal of these were, John Mowbray duke of Norfolk; Richard Nevil earl of Salisbury, in right of his wife, daughter to him who was Nain at the siege of Orleans ; his son Richard Nevil, afterwards earl of Warwick, by his marriage with Anne Beauchamp, daughter of that earl who died in France; Thomas Courtney, earl of Devonshire, the son in-law of the duke of Somerset; and Edward Brook, baron of Cobham.

The court being on a progress to the western to Wales. counties, these confederates had an opportunity of concerting their measures without molestation; and


The duke of York retires

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