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the king's presence by his three upstart favourites, A. C. 1482.
who had rendered themselves odious to the whole
nation, they were so exasperated, that they held a
consultation, to deliberate upon means for removing
these evil counsellors; and resolved to sacrifice them
to the public good without further delay. This
resolution being taken, they seized the three delin-
quents in the king's chamber, to which they had
fled for refuge, and dragging them to the bridge
of Lauder, hanged them in light of the whole
army. James, terrified at this execution, promised
to reform his conduct ; but in a few days retired to
the castle of Edinburgh : and the army being left
without a chief, the nobles returned to their own

Mean while the duke of Gloucester, having The duke of
taken the town of Berwick, and left some troops Chochester
to besiege the castle, advanced without opposition Edinburgh.
to the city of Edinburgh, which he entered in
triumph, and expressed a desire of having a con-
ference with James ; but this prince declining the
interview, the duke published a proclamation by
sound of trumpet, importing, that if the king of
Scotland should not before the month of Septem-
ber fulfil his engagements, he would lay walte the
country with fire and sword. These engagements
were the observation of the truce, and the restitu-
tion of the money which he had received as part

of the dower of the princess Cecilia, betrothed to the prince of Scotland; and to these, Gloucester added the re-establishment of the duke of Albany in the possession of his estate and offices. James made no reply to this proclamation ; but the nobility, reassembling at Haddington, fent deputies to assure the duke of Gloucester; that they wished for ncthing more ardently, than for the accomplishment of the marriage between young James and the princess Cecilia ; and that it was not their fault if the

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A. C. 1482.

truce was not exactly observed.' This message proBuchanan, duced a negotiation between Richard and the ScotRymer.

tish nobility, managed by the duke of Albany; and, after some disputes, both sides agreed, that the citizens of Edinburgh should give security for the repayment of the money which James had received, provided the match should miscarry; that the castle of Berwick should be delivered to the Englifh ; that the duke of Albany should be appointed regent

of Scotland. The archbishop of St. Andrew's, the bishop of Dunkeld, the chancellor, and the earl of Argyle, obliged themselves to procure his pardon ; and the duke promised to acknowledge his brother as his sovereign, and take the oath of allegiance to him a-new.

This agreement being ratified, the duke of Gloucester marched back to England; and the duke of Albany restored his brother James to the exercise of his royalty, without ftipulating any thing but an amnesty in his own favour. That prince, however, could not forgive him for the part he had acted: he resolved to seize the first opportunity of securing his person; and the duke being apprized of his intention, retired to the castle of Dunbar, which he surrendered to the English, after having renewed his former treaty with Edward : but seeing no appearance of being succoured accord. ing to his expectation, he repaired to the court of Lewis, where he was accidently killed by the splinter of a launce in a tournament with the duke of OrJeans, who afterwards ascended the throne of France

by the name of Lewis XII. A:C. 1483. Now that the war with Scotland was terminated, The young Edward turned all his attention towards the profeBurgundy is cuticn of the revenge he had vowed against Lewis; betrothed to but the conjuncture was not so favourable to his deof France fign, as it had been before his rupture with James.

Mary dutchess of Burgundy having died in consequence of a fall from her horse, her husband



Edward IV.

Maximilian retained so little credit with the Fiem- A. C. 1483. ings, that he was obliged to let his children remain in the hands of the inhabitants of Ghent; and Lewis, by his artful insinuations, obtained the consent of that people to the marriage of the dauphin with Margaret daughter of their deceased dutchefs, to whom the counties of Artois, Burgundy, Maconnois, Auxerre, and Charolois, were assigned as a portion. This negotiation was so privately carried on, that Edward had not the least intimation of it, until the young dauphinefs, abɔut two years of age, arrived at Paris, where the ceremony of her betrothal was performed with great pomp and magnificence.

The king of England was equally astonished and Death of incensed at this event, which he looked upon as an king of unpardonable affront offered to his family in the England. person of his daughter Elizabeth, who had for some time been distinguished by the appellation of the Dauphiness, in which she was now supplanted by an infant. Edward did not conlider that Lewis, on this occasion, had done nothing more than retort his own behaviour in the case of the lady Bona. He listened to the suggestions of his resentment only, which, however, he could not obey with any prospect of success; for he was now deprived of the assistance of the Flemings, who favouredLewis ; and the duke of Bretagne was oppressed with melancholly to such a degree, that he could no longer manage his own affairs. In spite of all these

Argentré, disadvantages, the king of England resolved to carry war into the bowels of France: he convoked a general assembly of his nobles, who approved of his resolution; and the whole nation rejoiced as much at the prospect, as if they had already obtained a victory. He forthwith began to levy troops for this expedition; and his people contributed towards the expence with the utmost alacrity • but


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A. C. 1483. in the midst of his preparations he was seized with

a violent fever, produced by some excess, and died a penitent on the ninth day of April, in the fortyfecond

year of his age, and in the twenty-third of his reign * He was a prince of the most elegant person, and insinuating address; endowed with the utmost fortitude and intrepidity; poffeffed of uncommon fagacity and penetration : but, like all his ancestors,, was brutally cruel and vindictive, perfidious, lewd, perjured, and rapacious; without one liberal thought, without one sentiment of humanity.

* By his wife Elizabeth' he had Bridget, who took the veil, and died three sons and seven daughters; name in the nunnery at Dartford ; Cathes ly, Edward who succeeded hini on the rine, married to William Courtenay throne ; Richard duke of York ; earl of Devonshire. His natural chilGeorge, who died in his infancy; dren were Arthur Plantagenet viscount Elizabeth, who in the sequel, married Life, born of Elizabeth Lucy; and Henry VII. king of England; Mary, Elizabeth Plantagenet, married to betrothed to the king of Denmark, Thomas lord Lumley; another Eliza. who died before marriage; Cecilia, beth by Catherine, daughter of Sir first married to John viscount Willes, Robert Clavenger; and Isabel Myland afterwards to Sir John Kyme; bery, married to a brother of the lord Margaret, who died an infant; Anne, Audely. married to Thomas Howard, the third

Rymer, Dugdale, Anstis. duke of Norfolk, of that name;

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