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A.C.1474: bifhopric of Cologne happening between Robert of
Bavaria and the brother of the landgrave of Hesse, he espoused the cause of the former, and undertook the siege of Nuys, a strong town in the archbishopric, which he hoped to reduce before the expiration of his truce with Lewis : but that prince, by his intrigues, raised such obstacles to his success, as he could by no means surmount. At his instigation the emperor Frederic raised a numerous army, to compel him to raise the liege; and a confederacy was formed against him by the Swiss, the dukes of Austria and Lorraine. Thus circumstanced, he saw no other way to free himself from the perfecution of Lewis, but that of prevailing upon Edward king of England, to make a powerful diversion in France.; and for this purpose he sent ambassadors to London while he continued at Nuys, which he besieged for ten months without success. In order to engage Edward in his views, he promised to join him with all his forces, as soon as he should make a decent in Picardy; he flattered him with the hope of St. Quintin's being delivered to him, by the constable of Sc. Pol, and of the duke of Bretagne's entering into their association. He at the same time amused the English monarch with an account of a correspondence which he maintained with the French princes, and persuaded him that the conquest of France, would be much easier at this juncture, than it had been during the reign of the sixth Charles.
Edward longed with impatience for such an op
portunity of being reyenged upon Lewis ; and every seaties with thing seemed to conspire to the ruin of that turbuthat prince. lent prince, who would not have been able to cope
with three such formidable enemies, had they acted against him with unanimity: but the fole: aim of Charles was to procure such a diversion in France, as would prevent Lewis froin interrupting his own
Edward concludes five feparate
IV. progress in Germany. Nevertheless, he pretended A. C. 1474. to be hearty in his resolution to allift Edward in making a conquest of France, and invested his ambassadors with full powers to treat on this subject. The conferences were immediately begun by the plenipotentiaries of both sides ; and in July, they signed divers treaties relating to that important enterprize. The first was a league of friendship, alliance, and confederacy, between Edward and the duke of Burgundy, who engaged to assist each other with all their power. The second comprehended certain particular conventions, relating to the war against France. These imported, That Edward should invade France before a certain specified time, at the head of ten thousand men at least, in order to recover his dutchies of Guienne and Normandy, together with the whole kingdom: That the duke of Burgundy should personally altist him with all his forces, in the execution of this design: That the king should listen to no proposal of peace or truce, without the duke's consent; and that the duke should act in the same manner with respect to Edward : That both princes should proclaim war againft Lewis as their common enemy : That, if either of them should be besieged, or find it necessary to give battle, the other should join him with all his forces, and at his own expence, that they might share the fame fate; and that their lieutenants should act on the same principle : That immediately after the declaration of war, the two allies should attack their common enemy in the most convenient places, and in such a manner as that they should be at hand to allist each other: That the war being once begun, one party should not defift while the other should proceed with his operations; and, that in case of one's being absent, his lieutenant should obey the other in every thing relating to the common advantage of the allies. The third treaty regulared the
He prepares for an expe.
A.C. :474. number of troops that each obliged himself to fur
nish for the expedition : and the fourth contained a donation to the duke of Burgundy, of several provinces in France, with which Edward promised to recompence his friendship and affiftance. The fifth convention related to the payment of the troops furnished by the duke of Burgundy ; and the last was expedited in form of letters parent, by which the duke impowered and allowed Edward and his fucceffors, kings of France, to enter Rheims, and be consecrated with the holy oil, with
out molestation. This article was necessary, because Fyener,
all Champagne was ceded to Charles as part of the donation,
We are not to suppose that either party imagined dition into France could be conquered by the forces they inFrance.
tended to assemble for this expedition. They endeavoured to deceive one another; for as we have already observed, the duke had no other view than that of making a diversion, and Edward's ambition was limited to the recovery of Normandy and Guienne. Those treaties being ratified, and approved by the parliament in its fifth session, which granted the necessary supplies, the king began to issue commissions for levying troops ; and in the mean time, fent ambassadors to different courts of Europe, to form new alliances, or at least prevent the union of the several powers with his enemy. The peace with Scotland was cemented by a contract of marriage between Edward's second daugh. ter Cecilia, and James the son and heir of James III. king of that country; and the parties being infants, were affianced by proxy. In the mean time, Edward engaged to pay twenty thoufand marks as her portion, at different terms, on condition of retouching the sum, in case the marriage should not take effect. The cruce was prolonged for six and forty years ; and the two kings engaged mutually
to assist each other in suppressing all rebellions, Ed. A. C. 1494. ward having taken these prudent precautions to Act. Pube fcreen his dominions from hostile invasion, carried on his preparations with redoubled vigour ; and as the subsidies granted by parliament would not answer the expence of the expedition, he solicited a benevolence or free-gift from his subjects, according to their abilities. This expedient succeeded to A, C, 3478: his wish. Some contributed with a good grace ; others were gained over by the eloquence and insinu. ation of Edward : the female sex exerted them. selves in favour of a prince whom they admired. Many individuals chose rather to part wich their money, than run the risque of incurring his indig, nation;
; and a war with France was a very popular pretence at this juncture. The king did not fcruple to visit particular persons, and receive their aftiftance in person. Among others, he addressed him. self to a rich widow, who told him the could not help contributing twenty pounds to a handsome young prince who begged with such a good grace: Edward, in return for this compliment, approached, and kissed her with great cordiality; and she was so well pleased with the unexpected honour, that she doubled her benevolence. Of the new levies three thousand men were destined for the service of the duke of Brittany, who, though he had changed his truce with Lewis into a perpetual peace, no sooner understood that a league was formed by the king of England and the duke of Burgundy, than he privately desired to be comprehended in the treaty; and his request being granted, this body of troops, commanded by the lords Audley and De Duras, Rymer. was destined for his defence.
Edward having assembled an army of fifteen hun- He lands dred men at arms, fifteen thousand archers on army at horseback, and a great number of infantry, ap- Calao. pointed his son Edward prince of Wales, though an
A. C. 1475. infans, guardian of the kingdom, and embarked
at Sandwith for Calais, on the twentieth day of June, though he was so ill provided with transports, that he spent three weeks in conveying his troops to the continent.
On his arrival at Calais, he fent an herald to fummon Lewis to deliver up the crown and kingdom of France, which he usurped; and, in case of a refusal, to denounce war and vengeance. The French king having heard the he. rald's message without emction,' replied, he was well informed, that Edward had not taken this violént step of his own accord, but at the inftigation of the duke of Burgundy, and the constable de St. Pol; and, desired him to tell his master, that he would be deceived by both these allies. He asked feveral questions; and by the herald's answers, understood that the properest persons to whom he could address himself, in cafe he should have occasion to make proposals of peace, were the lords Howard and Stanley: then he presented the messenger with three hundred crowns, and thirty yards of velvet for a robe, and dismissed him with great cour..
tefy. Is disap Mean while Edward advanced into Picardy, pointed by the duke of where he expected to be joined by the duke of BurBurgundy. gundy: but that prince, instead of fulfilling his en
gagement with his ally, was still employed in the siege of Nuys. He obstinately persisted in that enterprize, although the emperor had approached the place with an arıny four times as numerous as that which he commanded, and harrafled him in such a manner, that he could not proceed with his operations; at the same time Sigismund duke of Austria made himself master of Feretti, the duke of Lorrain ravaged. Luxemburg, and his truce with France
was no sooner expired, than Lewis reduced Roye, ... Corbie, and Montdidier. Notwithstanding all this opposition, he would not raise the liege until Ed