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Edward being now firmly established on the A, C. 1971. throne of England, affembled on the third day of July, ten bishops, five dukes, six eaşls, fourteen barons, Sir William Courtenay, and ten other considerable knights in the Parliament-Chamber, where they swore they would maintain and support the suc. cession of the crown in his family, and took the oath of eventual allegiance to his son Edward, whom he had just created prince of Wales, duke of Cornwall, and earl of Chester. The king granted a pardon to William Wainfleet bishop of Winchester, and seven other prelates who had been partisans of the house of Lancaster ; but George Nevil archbishop of York, to whose intereft his restoration was in a great measure owing, he sent into exile, and imprifoned in the castle of Guisnes for several years, during which Edward enjoyed the revenues of his see, after having seized all his other effects. The dignity of great chamberlain of England, vacant . by the death of Warwick, was conferred upon Richard duke of Gloucester, who afterwards resigned it to Clarence, upon being promoted to the office of conftable. The government of Calais was bestowed upon Anthony Wideville earl of Rivers, the queen's brother : but the garrison refused to admit any person in that quality, except the lord Hastings, who was therefore appointed governor; and Sir John Howard was nominated

Ryrr.er. his deputy. The remaining part of the year was Mit. Croyemployed in negotiations with different potentates. land. The truce with Scotland had been frequently vio- Treaties lated during the troubles; and as the sentiments of with diffeboth kings were altogether pacific with respect to each other, a congress was opened at Alnewick, to adjust and compromise all differences : the trucę was confirmed, but the negotiation continued two years, during which the English ambassadors were instructed to propose a match between the Scottish I 3



DC Hers

A. C. 1471. king and a princess of England. On the thirijeth

day of September, the truce for thirty years with Erittany was confirmed; and another was concluded for eight months with Lewis XI. king of France, though Edward had very little reason to be satisfied with the conduct of that monarch: but his kingdom being quite exhausted by the civil wars,

he was not yet in a condition to execute the schemes Rymer, of his resentment. He did not, however, depend

so much upon these treaties, as to neglect the neces

fary means for putting his kingdom in a posture of A. C. 1472. defence. He convoked a parliament, which met

on the fixth day of October, and obtained from the commons a supply for the maintenance of thirteen thousand archers, together with a tenth from the lords spiritual and temporal. During this session, commissioners were appointed to treat with the deputies of the Hanse towns, about renewing the antient league between England and that alliance, which had been violated by depredations in the course of the civil war. A difference of the same nature with the Flemings was also accommodated; and the old confederacy with Portugal confirmed by letters patent.

While Èdward thus endeavoured to strengthen

his throne with foreign alliances, his tranquility was a tempt in a little invaded by the return of the earl of Oxford, Wales. who had retired to France after the battle of Tew

kesbury. This nobleman, meeting with a very cold reception from Lewis, assembled about one hundred men of desperate fortunes, and landing at St. Michael's Mount in Cornwal, took the place by surprize. The king, alarmed at this exploit, ordered a detachment of troops to march against him before he should have time to form an army; and being invested, he surrendered on promise of life ; but he lost his liberty and estate, which Edward confiscated, without allowing the least trifle for


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the fubfiftence of his countess, who was Gifter to the A. C. 14724 earl of Warwick; and he himself was conveyed to the castle of Hammes near Calais, where he remained ewelve years a prisoner. John Holland duke of Exeter, who had been left for dead on the field at Barnet, retired to the fanctuary at Westminster and intreated his wife, who was Edward's sister, to employ her good offices in his behalf: they had lived separate since the beginning of the civil war. She was now so far from befriending him with her brother, that the desired the separation might be confirmed by law; and she obtained her request, although no sufficient cause could be shewn for such confirmation. The duke, seeing himself precluded from all hope of pardon, and tired of living in confinement on the charity of a few friends, quicted his asylum so privately, that no person knew the time or manner of his retreat, and in about two years after he disappeared, his body was found on the sea-side in the county of Kent. This nobleman was the last branch of the house of Lancaster that could give Edward any disturbance, except the earl of Richmond, who resided at the court of Brittany with his uncle Pembroke ; and although these were in no condition to interrupt the quiet of his reign, he eagerly desired to have the young earl in his power. For this purpose he sent ambassadors to the duke of Bretagne, demanding they should be delivered up : but that prince would not so far violace the laws of hospitality, as to comply with his demand; though he assured Edward he would keep them in such a manner, that they should never disturb his government ; and in consideration of this promise the king payed a yearly pension, on pretence of a maintenance for the two prisoners. The fears of Edward being appeased by this convention, he testified his gratitude to Lewis de Bruges lord of Gruthuysen, by whom he had been so hospitably

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A. C. 1472. entertained in Holland, and created him a peer

of England by the title of earl of Winchester, after he had been naturalized by the parliament.

During these transactions in England, Lewis XI. of Burgundy of France understanding that there was a treaty of

marriage on foot between his brother the duke of Guienne, and the daughter of Charles duke of Burgundy, resolved to prevent an alliance which must have formed such an intimate connexion between his own family and that house which he wanted to humble: he therefore caufed a dose of flow poison to be administered to the duke of Guienne. In the mean time he concluded a truce for a whole year with the duke of Burgundy, who willingly agreed to the suspension, as he had already loft Amiens and St. Quintin by the war, which of himself he was not able to maintain. In a few weeks after the conclufion of this treaty the duke of Guienne died, and Lewis seized his dụtchy without opposition. Then the duke of Burgundy perceived that he had been duped by the French king, who had negotiated the truce, that he might be at liberty to execute his design upon Guienne i and he was so inflamed with resentment at fir.ding himself over-reached, that he entered France with an army, wasting the country with fire and sword. The duke of Brittany, whofe schemes were frustrated by the death of the duke of Guienne, resolved to join Burgundy in earnest, as the only means practicable for their mutual preservation ; but Lewis fufpecting thac he would take this resolution, had already ordered a body of troops to assemble in An, jou, in order to overawe his conduct. Mean while Charles made himself master of Nefle and Roye, and invested Beauvais, which, however, he could not reduce. From thence he marched into Nor. mandy, in hope of being joined by the duke of Bretagne, who could not stir from his own domi

nions ;

an act of re.

nions ; though Lewis by keeping his army in An- A. C. 1473, jou, left Normandy and Picardy at the mercy of the Burgundians. At length, however, the French king found means to make a separate truce with Brittany; and the duke of Burgundy finding himfelf abandoned by his ally, followed his example in concluding a truce with Lewis, which was frequently prolonged

The succeeding year is very barren of events in the parliaEngland, where the parliament, which had been pro

ment passes rogued, met on the eighth day of February, and fumption. granted a fifteenth as an additional subsidy to the tenth which had been voted in the preceding feffion. This assembly was again prorogued to the sixth day of October, when an act was passed for the resumption of all grants of lands and offices, in order to improve the king's revenue, The king of Portu- Rot, Parl, gal, in this interval, demanded the restitution of Tome vessels which had been taken by the English from his subjects; but as it appeared in the course of the enquiry, that they had been pillaged by the Bastard of Falconbridge during his rebellion, the king of Portugal desisted from his demand. The treaty of Alnewick, which had been long depending, was now concluded to the satisfaction of the English and Scottish nations. The disputes with the Hanse towns were amicably terminated, and the antient alliance was renewed with Denmark.

Immediately after the conclusion of the truce A. C.1474. between France and Burgundy, Charles had in- The duke of vaded Guelderland, as a donation made to him by Burgundy Arnold duke of that country, who had quarrelled the fiege of with his own fon Adolphus. On this pretence the Nuys. duke of Burgundy entered Guelderland, defeated and took Adolphus, and reduced the whole dutchy under his dominion. Then he resolved to extend his conquests on the side of Germany, as soon as an opportunity Inould offer. A contest for the arch



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