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A.C. 1472 close at her heels, that she could not pass the Se

verne without exposing her rear to deitruction : 'it was therefore resolved in a council of war, that her army should be intrenched in a park adjoining to the town, and remain in that situation till the arrival of Pembroke. This scheme was immediately put in execution ; and Edward coming up, resolved to attack them in their intrenchments before they should be better fortified or reinforced. For this purpose he drew up his army in two lines, one of which was commanded by his brother the duke of Gloucester, while he and Clarence took their station in the second. The duke of Somerset disposed the queen's army in three lines within the intrenchments, and he himself commanded the van, that he might sustain the first shock of the enemy. The fecond line was commanded by the lord Wenlock, under the prince of Wales, who was considered as general in chief; and the rear was conducted by the duke of Devonshire. Edward observing that Somerfet had left some openings in the front, thro'. which he proposed to sally, and being well acquainted with the impetuous disposition of that nobleman, directed his brother Gloucester, who began the attack, to decoy Somerset from his intrenchments, by giving ground and retreating with precipitation, until he should see the duke and his line in the open plain, and then to turn and renew the charge ; in which case he should be properly suftained. Gloucester, being thus instructed, attacked the intrenchments with great vigour, and meeting with a very warm reception, retired in such hurry. and seeming confusion, that the duke of Somerset believing they fied, sallied forth from his works to pursue them, after having sent an order to Wenlock to follow and sustain him, in case of emergency. The duke of Gloucester having drawn his antagonist into the open plain, practised with great fuc


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teľs the leffon he had received. His troops halting, A. C. 147". were instantly ranged in their former order; and he led them back to the charge, to the astonishment and consternation of the enemy, who had begun the pursuit in some disorder, and were now fo confounded, that, instead of standing the assault, they thought of nothing but saving themselves within their intrenchments. The duke of Somerset

perceiving that the lord Wenlock had not stirred from his fration to support the first line, was so incensed that he rode up and cleft his head with a battle-ax; and the duke of Gloucester entering the intrenchments with the fugitives, made a terrible carnage. The young prince of Wales, seeing all his army in confusion, did not know on which side to turn; and the duke of Somerset was so choaked with indignation, that he could hardly speak, much less take the necessary steps for reducing his troops to order. King Edward, following his brother with the second line, completed the overthrow of the queen's army, which was routed with great Naughter, the second and third lines having betaken themselves to fight, 'without striking one stroke. The earl of Devonshire and Sir John Beaufort were found among the dead, which amounted to three thousand ; the duke of Somerset, the great prior of St. John, and about twenty other gentlemen, retired to the abbey-church, thinking they would have been fafe in the sanctuary: from which, however, they were Fabian. forcibly dragged to execution. The prince of Stowe, Wales falling into the hands of his enemies, was brought into the presence of Edward, who, with an air of insolence, demanded how he durft presume to enter his kingdom in arms? To this arrogant question he replied, with great fortitude and dignity, that he had come to recover his father's crown and his own inheritance, which Edward had unjustly .


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Revolt of the Bastard Falcon

A: C. 147.. which would have excited the admiration and esteemi Prince Ed- of a generous enemy, than Edward struck him on

the face with his gauntlet, and retired, and this the queen seerns to have been a preconcerted signal to the sent prisoner

dukes of Clarence and Gloucester, the lord Hastings, and Thomas Grey, the son of queen Elizabeth, who instantly fell upon him like so many wild beasts, and hewed him in pieces. His mother Margaret of Anjou, being found on the field of battle in a waggon, where she lay more dead than alive, was fent prisoner to the Tower, where the remained about four years, until the king of France payed fifty thousand crowns for her ransom. Such was the catastrophe of this French princess, whose ámbition and arbitrary temper coft England oceans of blood and incredible misery, and involved herself and her whole family in' ruin.

The battle of Tewkesbury, which was fought on

the fourth day of May, extinguished the hopes of bridge.

the house of Lancaster, though there was still a small army in the field, under the command of the earl of Pembroke : but this dispersed of its own accord, upon hearing the news of the engagement; and the earl, leaving the defence of Pembroke to Sir John Scudamore, fed into Briccany, with his nephew Henry the young earl of Richmond. While Edward was thus employed in the West, Thomas Nevil Bastard of Falconbridge, who had been created vice-admiral of the channel during the adminiftration of Warwick, and lost his employment after the death of that nobleman, 'assembled fome vessels, and enlisting a good number of vagabonds, and people of desperate fortune, cruized along the coast of Kent, exercising the trade of piracy. At length his followers increased to such a degree, that he ventured to make a descent at Sandwich; and was admitted into Canterbury by Nicholas Faunte the mayor.. His-number:daily augmenting, he began

his march for London, at the head of seventeen thou. A. C. 1471. fand men ; and on the fourteenth day of May'entered the suburbs of Southwark, but found himself excluded from London-bridge by the citizens, who had by this time received the news of the battle of Tewkesbury. He detached part of his army cross the river, with orders to attack the city in three different places, while he himself should storm the bridge; and one of his detachments forced its way through Aldgate into the city, but was repulsed by the valour of alderman Robert Baffet. This at. tempt' miscarrying, and the insurgents deserting their leader, in consequence of the disappointment, Thomas embarked on board of his ships at Blackwall, and failed round to Sandwich. Mean while Edward, rerurning to London with a body of three thousand men, pursued him to the place of his retreat, and reduced the town, after Nevil had made his escape by sea ;: buľ he was afterwards taken and executed at Southampton. . This infurrection in all probability hartened the Death of

king Herity ideach of the unfortunate Henry, who was found

VI. dead in the Tower, to which he had been confined since the restoration of Edward. The greater part of hiftorians has alledged that he was affassinated by the duke of Gloucester, who was a prince of the most brutal disposition; while fome moderns, from ản affectation of fingularity, affirm that Henry died of grief and vexation. · This, no doubt, might have been the case, and it must be owned that nothing appears in history, from which either Edward or Richard could be convicted of having contrived or perpetrated this murder: but at the same time, we must observe some concurring circumstances that amount to ftrong prefumptions against the reigning monarch. Henry was of a hale constitution, but just turned of fifty, naturally infensible of affliction, and hackneyed in the vicisitudes of fortune; so



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A. C. 1471, that one would not expect he should have died of

age and infirmity, or that his life would have been affected by grief arising from his last disaster. His sudden death was suspicious, as well as the conjuncture at which he died, immediately after the suppression of a rebellion, which seemed to declare that Edward would never be quiet, while the head of the house of Lancaster remained alive: and lastly, the suspicion is confirmed by the characters of the reigning king and his brother Richard, who were bloody, barbarous, and unrelenting. Very different was the disposition of the ill-fated Henry, who, without any princely virtue or qualification, was totally free from cruelty and revenge: on the contrary, he could not, without reluctance, consent to the punishment of those malefactors who were sacrificed to the public safety; and frequently sufcained personal indignities of the groffest nature, without discovering the least mark of resentment. He was chaste, pious, compassionate, and charitable, and fo inoffensive, that the bifhop, who was his confeffor for ten years, declared, that in all

that time he had never committed any fin that reHollingshe]

quired penance or rebuke. In a word, he would have adorned a cloister, though he disgraced a crown; and was rather respectable for those vices he wanted, than for the virtues he poffeffed. He founded the college of Eaton near Windsor, and King's college in Cambridge, for the reception of those scholars who had begun their studies at Eaton. On the morning that succeeded his death, his body was exposed in St. Paul's church, in order to prevent unfavourable conjectures, and next day lent by water to the abbey of Chertsey, where it was interred; but it was afterwards removed, by order of Richard III. to Windfor, ard there buried with great funeral folemnity.




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