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tagne as ally of France; a circumstance which had A. C. 1450. detached that prince intirely from the interest of the English.

This bill of articles was presented to Henry, who A tecnd fet had already ordered Suffolk to be committed ; and

preferred nothing more was done in this affair till the seventh againft him. day of March, when the lords agreed, that the duke should be called to his answer. In two days after this resolution, fome of the lords going to the house of commons, were presented with seventeen new articles against the duke of Suffolk, to be delivered to his majesty. These amounted only to misdemeanors; charging him with having, in quality of a privy counsellor, advised the king to make such Javil grants of the crown lands, that a sufficiency was not left to defray the expences of the houshold: with having procured grants of privileges and franchises, to obstruct the execution of the laws, and icreen offenders from justice : with having procured for the Captal de Buche his son-in-law, the earldom of Kendal, and lands in Guienne to the value of a thousand pounds a year, violently taken from the lawful poffeffors; with having advised grants of castles and lordships in Guienne, fo as to weaken the power of the crown in that country : with having maintained an intelligence in France, touching the treaty between England and the count of Armagnac; by which means that negotiation was rendered ineffectual, the count ruined, and the Gascon lords were oppressed, until they submitted to the French government: with having procured offices and commands in France and Normandy, for unworthy persons : with having been the means of granting a toll on wine and merchandize brought down the Seine, to Peter de Breze, an enemy to the English nation: with having procured a grant of Evreux, Longueville, and other fignories in Normandy, for the count of Dunois, Previgny, and


A.C.145: the said Breze ; grants, in consequence of which, the

great towns were taken without resistance: with
having brought the French ambassadors to a pri-
vate conference with Henry, in which he agreed to
a personal convention with Charles, and other ar-
ticles stipulated without the consent or knowledge
of the privy council : with having misapplied and
embezzled subsidies : with having given away con-
fiderable fums of the public money to the queen of
France, and the ministers of Charles : with having
shared between himself and his adherents, fixty
thousand pounds, being the produce of subsidies
left in the exchequer by the lord Sudely, when he
resigned his poft and treasurer: with having pro-
cured for himself a grant of the county of Pem-
broke, the reversion of Haverfordwest, and other
castles in Wales, together with the wardship and
marriage of Margaret, daughter of John duke of
Somerset : with having embezzled the bonds of
the dutchess of Burgundy, and other persons bound
for the ransom of the duke of Orleans : with hav.
ing likewise embezzled writs, perverted justice,
'maintained bad causes, and impaired the antient
friendship subfisting between the crown of England

and the princes of the empire.
His banish. The duke of Suffolk having received a copy of

thele articles, was conmitted to a tower in the
royal palace of Westminfter ; from whence being
brought before the lords on the thirteenth day of
March, to give in his answer, he kneeled down
and declared the eight articles of high treason to
be falte and malicious. He observed, that the first,
relating to Margaret, could not possibly be true,
fince she was not the next heir of the crown by
law; and, he appealed to several lords, to vouch
for his design of marrying his son to the duke of
Warwick's daughter. With respect to the other
articles, he referred to acts of council and parlia -

ment and death.


ment for his justification; and affirmed, that the A. C. 1450* bishop of Chichester had misrepresented the words spoken by him in the Star-chamber. On the seventeenth day of March, the lords spiritual and temporal were assembled in the king's chamber. Suffold being brought before them, kneeled down ; and the chancellor asking, what he had to say in his own defence, he again protested he was innocent, affirmed the articles to be false, and submirted himself to the king's pleasure. Then the chancellor gave him to understand, that his majesty did not hold him convicted on the first bill of articles of high treason; and, as to the second, charging him with misprisions or misdemeanors, the king, by virtue of his submission, out of his own motion, and not by way of judgment, banished him the realm for the term of five years, during which, he should not abide in France, or any country under the French dominion ; nor should he by word, deed, or writing, by himself, or his adherents, thew malice to che commons in parliament. At the same time, the lords joined the viscount Beaumont, in a protest, that this sentence was not the result of their ad. vice, but, purely the king's own act, which should not at all derogate from their liberties in the case of peerage. The duke of Suffolk bore his sentence Rot. Parte without repining; because, he saw it was the only expedient that could have been used for saving him from the fury of the incensed people. He therefore embarked for France; but, the vessel being searched in her passage, by one Nicholas, captain of an English cruiser, the urfortunate duke was discovered, and instantly beheaded without form of process. His body being thrown upon the fands near Dover, was taken up and interred in the collegiate church of Wingfield in Suffolk.

The death of this nobleman was the prelude to a great many popular commotions. John Ayscough,


Rot. Ex 28,
H. VỊ,




A. C. 1450. bishop of Saruin, was murdered in Wiltshire, Tho.
of John

mas Thany, a fuller, attempted to raise an insurrec-
tion in Kent, but was taken and executed at Can-
terbury. The whole nation was now in a ferment;
and nothing was heard but complaints and menaces
against the queen and ministry. The duke of York,
who still remained in Ireland, being by Suffolk's
fate freed from a powerful antagonist, resolved to
improve the popular discontent for his own advan-
tage; but, before he would personally appear in
fupport of his pretensions, he thought it would be
necessary to prepare the nation for his design, by
exciting their affection for the house of Mortimer.
For this purpose, he employed an Irishman, called
John Cade, who had served under him as a soldier
in France, to raise a sedition in England in favour
of the family of March, that their title, which had
lain dormant so long, might once more attract the
attention of the public. Cade, who was a man of
undaunted resolution, great cunning, and some dis-
cernment, being properly instructed by the duke's
agents, assumed the name of John Mortimer, pre-
tending to be son of Sir John Mortimer, who was
beheaded for treason in the last reign ; and, repairing
to the county of Kent, in which the duke of York
had a great number of partisans, he assembled a
strong body of malcontents, on pretence of reform-
ing the government and ealing the people of their
taxes. The number of his followers increased in a
few days to such a degree, that he thought himself
in a condition to execute his scheme; and approach-
ing London, encamped on Blackheath. The king
being informed of this commotion, fent a mel
fage to demand the cause of their affembling in
arms; and, Cade answered, in the name of the
community, that they had no intention to hurt the
person of his majesty; but, their design was to ad-
dress che parliament, that evil ministers might be


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brought to condign punishment, and the people be A. C. 1450. allowed to live more happily than they had lived since the beginning of Suffolk's ministry. They accordingly presented two addresses to parliament, explaining the grievances of the nation; and, among other things, demanded that the duke of Somerset should be punished for the loss of Normandy; and, that the king's council might be composed of the princes of the blood, and other wise and worthy persons; not by vicious wretches, void of virtue and capacity. These petitions being communicated to the king, the council deemed them seditious; and resolved to suppress the insurrection by force of arms. Henry, having afsembled a body of fifteen thousand men, marched at their head towards Blackheath. At his approach Cade retired, as if he had been afraid of an engage. ment, and lay in ambush in a wood, not doubting but that he should be pursued by the king's whole army; but, Henry believing they were totally dispersed, returned towards London, after having sent a detachment in pursuit of the fugitives, under the command of the lord Strafford, who falling into the ambuscade, was cut in pieces with all his followers. Cade, immediately after this action, began his march to London, while the king and court leaving a garrison in the Tower, commanded by the lord Scales, retired with precipitation to the castle of Kenilworth. The city of London, intimidated by the success of the insurgents, opened its gates at their approach ; and, Cade entered in triumph, at the head of his forces, which had been considerably increased since his late advantage. But, he forbade his followers, on the most severe penalties, to commit the least disorder, or give any cause of complaint to the inhabitants. Next day, being informed that the treasurer, lord Say, was in the city, he caused him to be apprehended and be


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