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knowledge as to be able to read the Principia of Newton. As the Duke was one day walking in his garden, he saw a copy of Newton's Principia lying on the grass, and called some one near him to take it back to the library. Young Stone, the gardener, modestly observed, that the book belonged to him. “To you ?” replied the Duke: “ do you understand Geometry, Latin, Newton ?” “I know a little of them,” replied the young man, with an air of simplicity. The Duke was surprised, and, having himself a taste for the sciences, he entered into conversation with the young mathematician. He asked him several questions, and was astonished at the force, the accuracy, and the candour of his answers. “But how,” said the Duke, “came you by the knowledge of all these things?” Stone replied, “A servant taught me, ten years since, to read. Does any one need to know more than the twenty-four letters of the alphabet, in order to learn anything else that one wishes ?” The Duke's curiosity was redoubled : he sat down on a bank, and requested a detail of all his proceedings. “I first learned to read,” said Stone : " the masons were then at work upon your house. I went near them one day, and saw that the architect used a rule and compasses, and that he made calculations. I inquired what might be the meaning and use of these things, and was informed that there is a science called Arithmetic. I purchased a book of Arithmetic, and learned it. I was told there was another science called Geometry : I bought the books, and learned Geometry. By reading, I found that there were good books in these two sciences in Latin : I bought a dictionary, and learned Latin. I understood, also, that there were good books of the same kind in French : I bought a dictionary, and learned French ; and this, my Lord, is what I have done. It seems to me that we Diay learn everything when we know the twenty-four letters of the alphabet.” The Duke, highly pleased with the account, brought this wonderful genius out of obscurity, and provided him with an employment which left him leisure to apply himself to the sciences.
Dr. Robert Simson was a native of Ayrshire, and born in 1687. He was appointed Professor of Mathematics at Glasgow in 1711, where he continued to discharge his duties as an instructer for nearly fifty years, During this period his attention was principally directed to the writings of the ancient Greek geometers. His restoration of the Loci Plani and the Determinate Section of Apollonius, and his treatise on the Porisms of Euclid, entitle him to the high reputation he still holds as a geometer. Dr. Simson is generally known at the present day for his translation of the first six and the eleventh and twelfth books of Euclid's Elements of Geometry. The first edition was published both in Latin and English in 1756. The English translation has almost superseded every other, and may be regarded as the standard text of Euclid in English, having maintained its character in this country for nearly a century.
METHODISM IN FORMER DAYS.
No. XL._ADDRESS OF THE REV. DR. BANGS TO THE LATE
CANADIAN CONFERENCE. MR. PRESIDENT,—The manner of my reception in the Conference this morning almost overpowers me, and renders me incapable of uttering my thoughts. I am happy, indeed, in having the honour of saluting you, Mr. President, and through you he members of this Conference, in the name
of the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church ; of bearing to you a testimony of our indissoluble union with every legitimate branch of the great Wesleyan family ; and of recognising the great principle that its members are one-one in doctrine, discipline, and generally in usage. I say, generally in usage ; for, though in its vital principles it is always and in every place the same, yet in its circumstantial features it may vary so as to suit the varied countries in which it is found. This, indeed, is one of its peculiar excellencies, that, while it holds fast the great doctrines of God our Saviour, its external features may vary so as to adapt it to the improvements of the age, and to the various governinents under which it exists.
It is now about one hundred and eleven years since this fruitful tree was planted in a productive soil by the hand of the immortal Wesley. Being watered with the dews of heaven, it has not only taken deep root, but its branches have shot forth in every direction, so that they now extend to the four quarters of the globe ; and not among the least flourishing is this in the two Canadas.
You will excuse me, Sir, if I advert to a few items in my personal history, in relation to the commencement and progress of Methodism in this country. This was my spiritual birth-place. It was here that I commenced my ministry, a little over forty-nine years since, under the fostering care of my venerable father in the Gospel, the Rev. Joseph Sawyer, who is now present with us, and who lives in a green old age to adorn that Gospel which he has preached for upwards of fifty-three years. I remember well the time and the circumstances under which I commenced my feeble labours, and the trials through which I passed in those days of.my childhood, when the woodman's axe and the Preacher's voice were heard almost simultaneously,—when the hardy pioneer of Methodism followed the immigrant into his lonely retreat,-carried provender on his horse, tied him to a sapling in the night because there was neither a barn to shelter him nor a pasture to feed him,—when we used to eat, preach, and sleep in the same room in the log-hut of the settler,—when at other times in the groves, in barns, or log school-houses, we held our meetings, and slept under the foliage of the trees when night overtook us in our travels through the wilderness.
These things are mentioned not with a view to augment the estimate of our sufferings, nor to enhance our virtues, for indeed they are nothing in comparison to what many others have endured in the cause of Christ; but simply with a view to excite our gratitude to God for what He hath wrought, by contrasting our present prosperous state and high advantages with our former feebleness and the difficulties with which we had to contend. And how great the contrast !
At that time the Methodists did not amount to much over 200,000, all told, in Europe and America. Now they number, including those who have seceded from us, but who still hold fast our cardinal doctrines, nearly 2,000,000, besides the multitudes who have already gone to glory.
At that time there were only about 1,200 found in Canada. Now there are about 25,000 belonging to your hody, exclusive of those who have seeeded from you. And all this has been accomplished in about fifty years. Have we not, therefore, abundant cause of gratitude to God for His abounding grace towards us as a people ? When I commenced my ministry I was in my twenty-third year.
1 have now just entered my seventy-third year. It will therefore be fifty years next September since I entered the Itinerancy under the PresidingEldership of the Rev. Joseph Jewell, and as a colleague with my esteemed father in the Gospel, the Rev. Joseph Sawyer, on the Niagara Circuit; and in the month of December of the same year I was sent to form a new Circuit on what was then called Long-Point, including Burford, Oxford, and several other neighbouring towns and settlements. Here God gave me manifest tokens of His approbation, by the conversion of a number of sinners.
How has God enlarged our borders since that time !—There were then only about 73,000 in the United States. Now, including the North and the South,—and I am mortified to be compelled to make this distinction, as indicating two separate branches of the same church,—there are upwards of 1,000,000, and, as I have before said, throughout the world there are nearly 2,000,000 ; including, of course, the 25,000, whose Pastors I now have the pleasure of addressing.
And what more shall I say? Will you allow me, Sir, to add a few words of admonition and advice? If we would secure the continuance of God's blessing,—the blessing which He bestowed upon our fathers in the Gospel—we must imitate their spirit and practice. They were deeply imbued with the Spirit of Christ. They commenced with the spirit of revival.—Methodism was begotten, fostered, and grew up under the influence of the spirit of revival. If therefore we would perpetuate its prosperity, we must cultivate this same spirit of revival, aiming to promote it by every possible means, urging ourselves on, and pressing our people forward, after entire sanctification of soul and body to God. This doctrine of entire sanctification was that which, above all others, distinguished Wesley among his compeers in the ministry, and which has been the distinguishing characteristic of Methodism from his to our day. If we would therefore catch the mantles of Wesley, of Asbury, and of the many other fathers in our Israel, who have been carried in chariots of fire to heaven, we must make their motto ours, namely, HOLINESS TO THE LORD. To secure this, we must imitate their practice of self-denial--of persevering diligenceof entire consecration of soul and body to God; using all appliances within our reach to diffuse purity of heart and holiness of life all around us.
These few remarks I conclude, by praying God to bless you, my deur Sir, as the President of this Conference, and all its members, with the abundant effusions of His Holy Spirit.
“ THE OBERLIN OF PRUSSIA.” One day Jaenike, Pastor of the Bohemian church in Berlin, met four military officers, who followed him with scoffs and jeers. “Ah, there is Jaenike! Jaenike the bigot, the fanatic ! the mad Bohemian! Jaenike, who would convert us all to his superstitions !” Instead of complaining, the Pastor spoke to them with the utinost meekness, and went away praying for them. Some time after, one of these officers went to ask from this madman spiritual advice. Jaenike received him cordially, explained to him the work of Christ for the salvation of sinners, and concluded by praying fervently for the Divine blessing on his soul. The young officer retired, much affected ; and the next Sunday he went to hear the Pastor, concealing himself behind a pillar in the building ; for he dared not appear openly in a congregation so despised by the world. He soon became, how
ever, one of the most faithful members of his church, and used his influence over his three companions with such effect, that they too sought the peace which made him so happy ; and Jaenike had at last the joy to see among the disciples of the Saviour all the four officers who had so grossly insulted him,-a new proof that patience and charity are all-powerful to soften the hardest heart.
Jaenike was a man of prayer. He passed hours together before the Lord, presenting to Him his own wants and the wants of his brethren. Germany was then in a state of war and desolation. Prussia had been invaded by the armies of Napoleon. The pious Pastor assembled his flock three tiines every Sabbath, and almost every day in the week, in order to invoke the blessings of the Most High in behalf of his country. A little after, the Prussians gained the victory of Gross-Beeren ; and, some officers who had met at a national festival having tried again to turn Jaenike into ridicule, a General said to them sharply, “ The man whom you deride has contributed to gain the battle. He has prayed day and night, with his flock, to the God of battles. Who dares still abuse such a man? Is he not worthy, on the contrary, to receive all honour for his piety, his fidelity to the Lord, to the King, and to the country? May God long preserve such a devoted servant!”
Jaenike was also familiar with the Bible. After having read the Scriptures many times, he re-read them continually with new delight, and discovered in them new treasures. He passed part of his nights in these excellent meditations. During the last year of his life, a Pastor of Berlin, passing before his house at a late hour, perceived still a light at his window, and wished to see what he was doing. He found him sitting with a Hebrew Bible in his hand, and his face beaming with heavenly joy. “Ah, dear brother,” said Jaenike to him, after the first salutations, “what an unfathomable depth each word of the Bible contains! I was just reflecting upon the rich and sublime meaning of the word Elohim, and I cannot leave off pondering it. What other occupation should I have—I, a poor and feeble old man—but to converse with my good Saviour, who has borne with me so meekly through all my sinful life, and who pardons me so kindly? I cannot enough read His holy word ; and the more I search it, the greater the treasures I discover. It is only now, when I am come to the close of my life, that I see clearly how ignorant I have been of the profound meaning of the Bible. At every text which relates to my Saviour and my supreme Benefactor, my heart prompts me to sing a new hallelujah to His honour.”
One of the establishments founded by this good man was a Missionary school or institute. In the year 1800, when no one in Berlin thought of pagan nations, he received into his house seven young men, whom he prepared for the Missionary work. Some friends said to him, “Where will you find money to defray the expenses of this school ?” Jaenike replied simply, “ I trust in Him who governs all things : God will provide." In fact, resources were not lacking. He received aid from remote countries, and in moments when it was most needed. About a hundred young men were taught by Jaenike, and several celebrated Missionaries have sprung from his school.
Jaenike reached the age of eighty years. He preached as long as he could the word of eternal life to his flock, and he felt especially strengthened when the day and hour of his ministrations arrived. On the morning of his eightieth birthday, he had still the satisfaction of assembling around him a numerous circle of pious friends, and of preaching from this text: “ Looking unto Jesus the Author and Finisher of our faith.” (Heb. xii. 2.)
On Saturday, July 28th, 1828, John Jaenike breathed his last. His friends sang a hymn by his bedside. He sang himself with perfect composure these words :- -“When I shall quit this world, O Jesus, do not quit me !” Then, full of hope, he lifted his eyes to heaven, and, without an effort or a struggle, he slept in the Lord.
Twelve Missionaries, twelve members of the congregation, and twelve students of the university, bore his mortal remains to the place of burial. An open Bible was held by a Missionary before the coffin, and some children, according to a simple German custom, strewed flowers in the path. A modest monument has been erected to him, and his friends have inscribed upon the stone this text of Scripture : “ Because I live, ye shall live also.” (John xiv. 19.)—Christian Treasury.
No. XXXIII.-ARE THERE ARCHANGELS ?
All points of divinity are open to fair and reverential examination, and may be profitable in exciting a close and critical attention to the word of God. The question, “ Are there Cherubim ?" discussed in the article No. XXXI., suggests another inquiry, which is placed at the head of this paper.
Cherubim are so distinctly mentioned in the Old Testament, both historically and prophetically, that I do not see that any individual has a right to raise the question in the manner of Professor Stuart. But it is not so with the present subject. Nowhere, in the Old or the New Testament, do we meet with the word "archangels.” The singular form alone is admitted in the sacred pages; and it will be found, on examination, that even this occurs only in the New Testament. We read, in the General Epistle of Jude, verse 9, “ Yet Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against him” (or, as some prefer, “ did not attempt to bring against him”) “a railing accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke thee.” And again, in 1 Thess. iv. 16, “ For the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God,” &c. These appear to be the only texts of Scripture in which the word occurs. But we frequently read of angels. Gabriel himself is called “the angel Gabriel.” There is mention, indeed, in Revelation x. 1, of a "mighty angel ;” but, in several verses of the same chapter, he is named “the angel.” Mighty angel” occurs again in the same book, chap. xviii. 21 : “ And a mighty angel took up a stone,” &c. But it appears that this was the same angel that forbade John to worship him, saying, “I am thy fellow-servant, and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus.” (Chap. xix. 10.)
MICHAEL THE ARCHANGEL.
The idea of “archangels,” as the highest created powers in heaven, is perhaps more prevalent than true. The word "archangel ” conveys the idea of a being in the mode and capacity of an angel, but greatly superior to the rest both in dignity and power. Jude, in his Epistle, verse 9, furnishes something like a clue for ascertaining somewhat of the capacity and