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time their own distinctive views and professions, and conform to the habits of the hospitable family. Now, without pronouncing a judgment upon this sort of arrangement, where both parties are spiritually-minded, and alike anxious to promote the glory of their Saviour, it must be declared highly injurious and discreditable in all cases of maintaining friendship at the expense of religious consistency. The highest of all authorities has adopted the sentiment,—“Evil communications corrupt good manners.” And it is not to be denied, that, where we allow our religious distinctiveness to be kept in abeyance, or our consciences to be silenced through fear of giving offence, we must suffer great spiritual loss,—to say nothing of the sorrow and self-reproach, or of the difficulty of retracing our steps, which such a course always involves.
Other considerations do not fall within the limits assigned to this paper. The great point, in brief, is, for each one to ask, “What is my duty ?” If the foregoing observations induce this inquiry, they will not have been penned in vain. May 27th, 1850.
THE GRAND BAZAAR AT CONSTANTINOPLE. In these Eastern thoroughfares, narrow and crowded, one continually labours under the impression of being about to turn into a broad street or large square from a by-way; but this never arrives. A man may walk for hours about Constantinople, and always appear to be in the back streets ; although, in reality, they may be the great arteries of the city. Tortuous and very much alike, Stamboul is also one large labyrinth, as regards its thoroughfares: the position of a stranger left by himself in the centre would be hopeless.
Smyrna had in some measure prepared me for the general appearance of an oriental bazaar ; but the vast extent of these markets at Constantinople created a still more vivid impression. To say that the covered rows of shops must altogether be miles in length-that vista after vista opens upon the gaze of the astonished stranger, lined with the costliest productions of the world, each collected in its proper district—that one may walk for an hour, without going over the same ground twice, amidst diamonds, gold, and ivory; Cashmere shawls and Chinese silks ; glittering arms, costly perfumes, embroidered slippers, and mirrors ; rare brocades, ermines, Morocco leathers, Persian nick-nacks; amber mouth-pieces, and jewelled pipes—that, looking along the shortest avenue, every known tint and colour meets the eye at once, in the wares and costumes; and that the noise, the motion, the novelty of this strange spectacle is at first perfectly bewildering,-all this possibly gives the reader the notion of some kind of splendid mart, fitted to supply the wants of the glittering personages who figure in eastern tales. Yet it can convey but a poor idea of the real interest which such a place calls forth, or the most extraordinary assemblage of treasures displayed there, amidst so much apparent shabbiness. No spot in the world-neither the Parisian Boulevards, nor our own Regent-street-can boast of such an accumulation of valuable wares from afar, as the great bazaar at Constantinople. Hundreds and thousands of miles of rocky road and sandy desert have been traversed by the moaning camels that have carried those silks and precious stones from Persia, with the caravan. From the wild regions of the mysterious Central Africa, that ivory, so cunningly worked, in the next row, has been brought—the coal-black people only know how-until the Nile floated it down to Lower Egypt. Then those soft Cashmere shawls have made a long and treacherous journey to Trebizond, whence the fleet barks of the cold and stormy Euxine at last brought them up the fairy Bosphorus to the very water's edge of the city. From the remote active America ; from sturdy England ; from Cadiz, Marseilles, and all along the glowing shores of the Mediterranean, safely carried over the dark and leaping sea by brave iron monsters that have fought the winds with their scalding breath,—these wares have come to tempt the purchasers in the pleasant, calm, subdued light of the bazaars of Stamboul.- A Month at Constantinople.
HINTS ON EDUCATION, FROM A MINISTER'S DIARY.
I. TIE CLAIMS OF THE SUBJECT
SEPT. 24th.-Have spent this afternoon in pastoral visitation. A Minister may hear or read much of the mental and moral degradation of the masses of the community ; but it is when he mixes among them, goes from house to house, and looks into their circumstances, that he is able fully to appreJiend the fearful fact. This knowledge is valuable, because it leads one to see the difficulties, as well as the benefits, of education. Theorists may give currency to splendid speculations ; but there is “a great gulf” between theory and fact. A lecturer delivers a stirring harangue on the use of the plough, and at the close is requested to strike a furrow across a field close by. How foolish the man looks, when he gravely declares he does not understand that part of the business! Perhaps my views are too old-fashioned for these modern days; but I have a growing conviction that persons must be able to do a thing, in order properly to understand it. Books will greatly assist me in gaining intelligence; but I must be able to educate, before my knowledge is complete. No medical man's course of study is complete before he has walked the hospitals.
The present educational movement will do much, by the blessing of God, towards the elevation of our country. It does not supersede the preaching of the Gospel of Jesus Christ ; but it may be regarded as a powerful auxiliary. There are some persons who place unbounded confidence in any thing that possesses the charm of novelty. The Minister who preached his first sermon last Sunday is praised to the skies. Many think him a Solomon in wisdom. What point! What pathos! What argument! What learning! This is something like pulpit eloquence! These admirers carry the same feelings to the popular subject of the day. Everything else dwindles into insignificance. Education is the balm for every grievance the emollient for every wound. It is to shed peace and prosperity over every land, -diffusive as the soft light of the morning. Poetry is to immortalise its fame. The amaranth and the asphodel bloom in the fadeless wreath to be placed upon its brow. Perhaps my views are too sober for this novelty-loving age. I do regard education, based upon the word of God, as a mighty lever for raising the down-trodden masses of the community. But I dare not think it is the only lever. It is not to do every thing. It is an instrument among other instruments. I would not put religious education before the preaching of the Gospel, nor apart from it. It certainly has a powerful claim upon every devout and enlightened man, because it facilitates the introduction of Divine truth into the mind. It is a well-tested fact, that through the ignorance of the masses a vast amount of pulpit-labour is thrown away. Raise the mental character of the audience. Let the youth of our land receive a sound religious education ; and our sanctuaries will be filled with intelligent and hopeful hearers.
25th.—This afternoon our conversation turned upon the subject of these notes. One of the party strongly reprobated the idea of educating the masses. He had the humility to set up his opinion before that of every one else. He had no patience with so much education. What did ploughboys or milk-maids want to know about geography or grammar?—The moral I gathered was this,—that persons who have not received the benefits of early training, are insensible of its claims. This very consideration leads us to despair of exciting much interest among those who have grown up in ignorance. Our hope is in the rising race. Immediate effort must be put forth, or they, too, will be beyond our reach.
The educational movement has a powerful claim upon my understanding. It is a subject worthy of most candid consideration. It is hard to conceive how any man can have intelligent views of it, without careful and patient thought. Education must be studied in its great principles. Hearing or reading a few speeches cannot be enough. Who, that has access to the fountain, will confine himself to the rivulet? Who will be guided by dim star-light, when he may walk in bright sunshine ?-And the subject has a claim upon my heart. ignorance may be the mother of Romish devotion ; but it is not the parent of any correct sentiment. To feel aright on any subject, we must have clear and comprehensive views of that subject. The more education is examined, the firmer hold it will have upon the best sympathies of our nature. Let the intelligent and the godly give to this matter that attention which it most righteously demands, and we have no fear for the future glory of our land. The present movement has a claim, moreover, upon my energies. The way to secure uniform action is, to implant right principles. This being done, all may blend their efforts in aiding a glorious enterprise. The great stratagem of the prince of darkness is, to urge the church to expend her strength upon internal differences, when she ought to go forth as the benefactress of the world. We have no superfluous strength. This is not a day for division and altercation. Effort must not be broken up into fragments. Our energies must be concentrated. We must all work, and be always at work. True Christian philanthropy loves expansion. A Christian “receives that he may give : he turns to the light, and catches its brightness; he turns to the world, and scatters there the reflected rays which he has received from a brighter sun and a higher sky.” If men of evangelical principles do not admit the claims and promote the interests of education, others will do so. But these others will educate in their own way. They will train the head, and neglect the heart. They will train for time, and not for eternity. The Bible, the atonement of Jesus Christ, the influences of God the Spirit, the solemn realities of eternity, will have no place in their scheme of education. Shall we suffer this?
On Ministers this movement has a special claim. They must either take the lead, or follow. It will be their own fault if they do the latter. But it is said, “ We want time. Some of us want suitable talent. Many other things demand our attention. It will not do to neglect pastoral visitation, or careful preparation for the pulpit, or the business of the church.” This is all very true. Not an iota of pulpit or pastoral work must be neglected. “These ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone." When a Minister has a practical acquaintance with education, he will be able to sympathise with the Teachers in his Sundayschool. They will be cheered, in their arduous but blessed service, by his presence and counsel. When he conducts the public worship of God, the interests of the Sunday-school will not be forgotten. Heaven's best blessings will be sought upon this nursery of the church. The Minister will know whether the Teacher in his day-school is competent for his work, and whether he does it. Such a Teacher will not be left merely to the direction of a Committee. In pastoral visits to the flock, the junior members of families will not be overlooked. Many a little child, with disappointment marked on an intelligent countenance, has complained that a Minister has not said a word to the youngest objects of his charge. One of my dear brethren whispers,—“The way to have a street clean is for every man to sweep before his own door.” I grant it. I have no fault to find with any one but myself. Yet, for the future, my mind is made up thoroughly to study this great subject. Let me note the results of my reading and practice, under the title of “Hints on Education.” Whatever may illustrate the nature of the work, its necessity, its benefits, and the different systems on which it is pursued, cannot be deemed unworthy of record.
But let me aim at the practical. Some there are who talk largely about the claims of education, and are full of schemes and improvements. Ardelio is one of this class. He always speaks at the debating meetings. On his table you see a pile of pamphlets, which he pronounces invaluable. You are never thrown into his company, but out he brings something new, which he has either written or read. His attachment to the present educational movement he gravely pronounces to be his besetment. He fully admits that many excellent things on the subject have been given to an enlightened public. But it strikes him, he could write a first-rate paper suggesting manifold improvements. It sounds a little like egotism, yet it is his private opinion that he could do something better than what has been done. He spends considerable time in criticising educational writers. Henry Dunn's “ Normal-School Manual” is a very good work of the kind, but (to his mind) it is not practical enough. Stow's “ Training System of Education ” is too mechanical. He pushes his favourite points a little too far. Todd is a beautiful writer. His style is fascinating ; but his defect is this,—the thought is not sufficiently solid. There is not enough honey in his flowers. Richard Winter Hamilton's book on Institutions of popular Education” is too profound by half. To hear this critic talk, one would think his mind resembled the proboscis of an elephant, which, as naturalists inform us, can pull down an oak, or take off the insect from its bark. He can stoop to the minute, or comprehend the vast. Report says he has already recommended for adoption at least half a dozen different “methods” of instruction. Perhaps this representation may be doubted ; but I sketch from life. In this glass some may see their true likeness. Let them not blame the glass, but try to alter their own features. Who can wonder that our stirring age is familiar with these schemers? It has its evils, as well as its excellencies. The same sun which warms the earth into fertility,—which gives beauty to the lily, and sweetness to the rose, -fosters also the thistle and the noxious hemlock. Let us guard against all extremes. Ingenuity in devising plans of instruction, and enterprise in following them, must be encouraged. Yet there is a distinction between a new and a better method. All additions are not improvements. Instead of hunting for novelties, let me enter on a careful and patient examination of what has been recorded by wisdom and experience. The standard works on the subject are but few. Some have a direct reference to secular, and others to religious, education. Not a few take up both. There are writers who tell us what should be taught; and a few show how to teach. A judicious course of reading will correct the taste and the judgment. It will help us to discern between that which is gilded, and that which is gold.
THE LABOURERS FOR THE DAILY PRESS.
The reporters at home are as busy as the correspondents abroad. Amongst the earliest afoot in the morning, is one noting at Smithfield the prices of cattle ; others, at Wakefield and Mark-lane, the prices of corn ; another, in Southwark, the prices of hops ; and in Mincing-lane, the qualities and rates of coffees and sugars. At Liverpool the cotton, at Manchester the yarns, and at Leeds the woollens, are being watched, their prices jotted down, and the tones of the market noted. Stocks and shares, also, are being inquired about in all these and many other towns; whilst cornprices and supplies are equally attended to. Where large local meetings occur, there also the reporters are to be seen taking up their places on the platform to note the thrice-told tales of agricultural distress, and the equally familiar promises of prosperity to come from free trade. In one part of the country a railway collision is being reported; in another, an inquest on a mine explosion ; in a third, an assemblage of persons favourable to churchextension ; in a fourth, a lecture on the separation of Church and State ; in a fifth, some terrible accident or appalling murder-be it where it may, there is a busy pen at work for the London paper. Post-hour has less importance for the newspaper-man in England than abroad. The last train is the point of interest here. As the hour for that approaches, the names of the sufferers by the collision, of the speakers for church-extension and church-disruption; the described horrors of the fatal choke-damp; a full account of the murderer's looks and deeds,—are all quietly packed up together in little brown-paper parcels, and steam-power bears them away towards the sub-editor's table. Before this, London is contributing its quota. In each law-court there is a pencil busy in a note-book, or on the back of a brief; in each police-court the reporter's box is occupied ; in each coroner's-court the “highly-respectable jury” look with surprise on the often tattered habiliments of the penny-a-line representatives of “the papers.” Does an engine rattle through the alarmed streets, there goes a reporter with it; does a gentleman fall down in an apoplectic fit, a surgeon and a reporter are sure to be ready—the one to “use every means that medical skill could afford,” and the other to earn a few shillings by writing a paragraph. The “Court Circular” is chronicling the Queen's proceedings; the “Morning Post” has its fashionable friend buzzing about Gunter's to hear of fashionable routs, or about Banting's to learn full particulars of a fashionable funeral. Every district has its penny-a-linerevery district its historian.- The Fourth Estate ; a History of Newspapers, by F. K. Hunt.