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greatest interest in girls' club work, and has supported with sympathy, effort and speech all movements that aim at the co-ordination of work among women and girls. Through the National Union of Women Workers, during her time of presidency of the Union, she tried to do for girls' club work, and other societies for the benefit of women throughout the land, what Mrs. Tait endeavoured to effect for Church work of the more elemental kind. To facilitate inter-communication between parishes, to send workers from neighbourhoods where ladies of leisure superabounded into districts where a lady, whether of leisure or otherwise, was a rarity, were aims of work with both wives of London diocesans. These schemes are good and have effected good. But in girls' clubs, as in other parts of the Master's vineyard, the harvest is plenteous, the labourers are few. The fewness, however, is comparative. On the whole there is increase year by year of the number of women who either give themselves wholly, or who devote leisure from toils more exacting to which they are compelled, or from occupations that claim a natural interest, to works of mercy and acts of Christlike service. The years of office of the two last married Bishops of London witnessed a remarkable spread of zeal for good works among the Churchwomen of England.

Mrs. Creighton's gifts as a public speaker are uncommon. She is distinctly an orator, and speaks more with the force of a man than with the persuasion of a woman. Yet her love for her husband and her devotion to the aims of the high calling that was his are all womanly. In the work upon which Mrs. Creighton is now engagedthe writing of the life of Bishop Creighton—it may be confidently expected she will render a service to the Church that could not easily be dispensed with, and that will prove a memorial not only of that good and wise High Churchman, her husband, but of her own loyalty to the Church of the country of her family's adoption, and of her complete devotion to the “ lord spiritual” whose lady she was.

The Hon. Mrs. Maclagan, who is the second daughter of the sixth Viscount Barrington, is a lady of exceptional refinement and cultivation; a musician, a linguist and a horticulturist. With an “old-time" grace and charm, she fulfils the ideal of what a bishop's wife should be in bearing, kindliness and sympathy. Yet Mrs. Maclagan is also of the “new time," and takes an interest in and gives the lead to many of those Church organizations which are the outcome of modern conditions and modern designs. The Girls'

The Girls' Friendly Society, the Mothers' Union and the Women's Home Mission all receive her support and her advocacy. Her public speeches are of the same charming, gracious kind as are her private addresses. In the personality, as in the home surroundings of Mrs. Maclagan, the aristocratic note is an unfailing quantity. The Archbishop of York, her husband, is credited with the dislike of hearing Bishopthorpe termed a palace. It is the house that, with his episcopal income, he holds in charge for the maintenance of the dignity of the See of York. But its beauty of situation and of its internal arrangement, furnishing and decoration make it a palace of a more princely and less official kind than the more formidable and awe-inspiring pile of Lambeth. In a work-a-day world, and in what in some respects threatens to become too exclusively a work-a-day Church, it is well that the aristocratic, the discriminating and the distinguished note which is an element of all worthy national societies, should be preserved.

The Mothers' Union, to the work of which, in the Province of York, Mrs. Maclagan has long been devoted, was the foundation in 1876 of Mrs. Sumner, wife of the Suffragan-Bishop of Guildford. The objects of the Mothers' Union are:

1. To uphold the sanctity of marriage.

" 2. To awaken in mothers of all classes a sense of their great responsibility in the training of their boys and girls (the future fathers and mothers of the empire).

3. To organize in every place a band of mothers who will unite in prayer and seek, by their own example, to lead their families in purity and holiness of life.”

These rules tell us what the woman is who framed them. Two other ideas of the movement tell us also of that altogether loveliness which characterises Mrs. Sumner in countenance, manner and mind. These two ideas are that mothers of the upper classes should be called upon to lead the movement, and that the teaching of children to obey should be regarded by the Mothers' Union as a sacred work. The Union also links together mothers of all classes and in all places; it inculcates a sense of citizenship of the British Empire, and it is a valuable means for carrying out the practical and much needed reform of the habit of sending children to public-houses.

Lady Laura Ridding, as wife of the late Bishop of Southwell, was another lady of birth and ecclesiastical influence who worked most effectively for the establishment of Mothers' Union branches. Many movements of combined religious and political character claim her interest. She is a Churchwoman of the highly equipped order peculiar to modern England, and has been always zealous for the good work of the Church of England Temperance Society. Of the countless clergywomen who in parish and in diocese are performing to-day the complicated tasks of wife, mother, hostess and parish-worker, it is impossible to give an adequate picture. A vicar's wife is often enough his unpaid curate; the wives of few diocesans escape the toil of being one private secretary to his lordship. And many wives, mothers, daughters and sisters of clerics accomplish, together with much effective parish work, life-tasks of their own in literature, art, science, philanthropy or social service that, in view of the increased demands upon time and interest made by modern life conditions, are in many cases as truly herculean as were those more conspicuous feats of strength and endurance performed by “Sister Dora.” The record of all of them can never be written. But He who is the Source of all efforts to reach back to Him-He knows.

The danger of the hour in Church work, as in many other forms of labour, is the attempting of too much, and the talking a great deal about “works” and “missions"

that are only half attempted, if indeed ever attempted at all. They that do their good works to be seen of men, they have their reward. And those good Churchwomen who stigmatize as Dissent all forms of devotion and phases of belief that do not match their favourite practices and dogmas, they too have their reward. While not without the recompense of their own self-satisfaction are the selfstyled "earnest Christians," who see a Romeward inclination and a bowing to Antichrist in every attempt to brighten services or to give to spiritual teaching a form and a substance that will impress the imagination and provide occupations for "idle hands."

The unofficial yet absorbing character of the parochial work upon which Churchwomen are engaged, prevents much spreading of the fame of many who are doing really valiant service to Church and State.

Putting aside the revived Church order of deaconesses whose functions, in their highest aspect, are after all purely parochial, the only office to which a woman can be legally instituted in the Church of England is that of warden. How seldom a woman is elected people's warden is shown by the fact that only a few-a very few-people here and there are aware that women are eligible for the post. Miss Grace Jones has been warden of the Church of St. Mary, at Kensworth, Dunstable, for eleven consecutive years. She was elected the first time during a short absence from the parish, and the votes and confidence then given to her have never been withdrawn. Kindly-hearted, active-minded and full of piety, Miss Jones ever seeks guidance from Him who permitted her the privilege of becoming “a guardian of His Holy House.” She is always happy in the work that comes to her year by year, and is thankful for the honour that was bestowed on her unsought.

CHAPTER X

EDUCATION AND FOREIGN MISSIONS

FRANCES MARY BUSS, DOROTHEA BEALE, LILLA BLANCHE

STRONG, MARGARET CLARKE, LUCY SOULSBY, ELIZABETH
WORDSWORTH, ANNE MACKENZIE, ANNE JANE ASKWITH,
ISABELLA BISHOP, I. CARUS-WILSON

CHURCHWOMEN have been the chief promoters of the Higher Education of Women.

This fact is not in accordance with much of popular belief. It is very largely supposed that only scientificminded females who have analyzed God out of His Creation are advocates of university teaching for women. But the truth is that Mrs. Creighton is but one of many loyal and devoted Churchwomen who have done splendid service in bringing women within the range of the highest instruction to be obtained.

Two most interesting and most intellectual women of the early nineteenth century were Mrs. Grote, wife of George Grote, the historian of Greece, and Mrs. Austin, whose Considerations on National Education had considerable influence in her time. Both Mrs. Grote and Mrs. Austin were aggressively sceptical, and believed themselves to have entered on a better way than that beset by the superstitions of the Churches. Having forgotten, or choosing to ignore, what the Churches had done for the education of the masses at a time when the State was sublimely contemptuous of any claim of the masses for any kind of instruction at all, these two women, and many others of their order, threw their influence into the scale of the secularization of educa. tion, arrogantly pre-supposing that Church teaching never did any one any good.

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