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antiseptics after 24 hours and for subsequent dressing. Moist picric acid gauze for burns may be made and kept in a jar for immediate use as follows: Prepare and pack aseptic gauze, as above. Prepare a picric acid solution in the manner described (1 to 2001 and pour it over the gauze. Let it stand and then pour off the excess and seal it air-tight.

CHAPTER XIII

HINTS AND KINKS

Hacksaw Blade Reflector-Holding Polished Pipe-Easily Made Soft Hammer

Straightening Shaft on Planer-Holding Small Work Without a ViseHolding Small Work in Vise—Putting on Tools—Illuminated MagnetRemoving Keys Truing Crankshaft-Repair of Broken Gear Case—Simple Priming Device Coal Gas for Engine Testing-Warming Manifold for Easy Starting—Stopping Fuel Pipe Leaks on the Road-Use of TapSome Threading Kinks—Removing a Stud—Removing Stubborn NutUse of Nuts and Bolts—Placing Nuts in Difficult Places—Forming Rod Ends—Winding Springs in a Vise—Cutting Sheet Metal—How to Make a Wiped Joint-Forms of Keys—How to Make Keys and Keyways—Woodruff Key Sizes-Nut Locking Means-Shop Uses of Arbor Press and Wheel Puller-To Make Wood Acid Proof-Sharpening Old Files—Cheap Blackening of Brass—Heat Proof Paint-Etching-Use of Tools—Drilling Holes in Glass-Making a Magnet of a File-Peculiar Cause of Knock: ing-Rust on Tools—Screw Cutting Gears—Restoring Dull Polished Iron or Steel-Speed of Grindstone-Cleaning Brass Castings—Pipe Joint Cement-Drilling Hints—Body Polishes—Care of Tops—Leather Upholstery-Cloth Upholstery.

Hacksaw Blade Reflector Useful.— When sawing metal with a hacksaw and trying to saw it to a line which has been scribed on the surface the task is found very difficult unless there is good light. A workman in a shop where the writer was employed made a reflector for his saw so that it could throw a good light on the work. A round disk of brass was made as shown at Fig. 468, B. The disk was turned so as to have a collar at the back; a slot was cut through the center of disk so that it could be slipped over the saw. A 316-inch set screw in the collar served to hold the disk in place while in use. Some white enamel was spread over the face of disk to provide a good reflecting surface. A better reflecting surface would result if the disk were nickel plated.

Holding Polished Pipe in Vise.—A very good way to hold pipe or rods having a polished surface is to sprinkle dry plaster of Paris on heavy paper and roll in this paper the article to be held, having plenty of powder between the paper and the polished surface. Place the roll between blocks of wood having hollow faces and clamp firmly in an ordinary bench vise. When removing the paper, if the plaster adheres to the pipe in hard cakes, do not scrape but wash the surface in clean water, which will loosen the plaster and

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Fig. 468.—Straightening Shaft on Planer at A. B Hacksaw Reflector.

C—Holding Small Work Without a Vise. D—Holding Polished Pipe.
E—Holding Small Work for Filing. F—Making Soft Metal Hammer.

leave the pipe in perfect condition. Another method is to place the pipe between pieces of lead sprinkled with plaster, and use a pipe vise for a clamp. A means often employed by mechanics who handle quantities of polished pipe is to face the hollowed wood blocks with soft felt, which is sprinkled with crocus or plaster of Paris to increase the friction. The method is shown in sketch Fig. 468, D, which is self-explanatory.

An Easily Made Soft Hammer.-A soft hammer often comes in handy around an automobile wherever heavy driving is to be done on metal that must not be marred or scratched. Nearly every automobilist carries a hammer of some sort around and is therefore loath to believe that another hammer, even a soft-face one, is a necessity. Whenever metal parts are to be protected he protects the driven piece with wood, leather, or other soft substance. There is nothing handier, however, than having a hammer that is soft and various types have been made for different kinds of machine shop usage, some out of all-metal from pipe and pipe fittings and others similar to the one in Fig. 468, F. To make this one, use an ordinary gas pipe that will easily slip over the head of the hammer and cut off a suitable length so that when finished and assembled the proportions will be about as indicated. Saw out any number of V's from the pipe so that when the teeth are bent inward a spring is formed that will snugly catch the head of the hammer. After the V's are cut out of the pipe, slip the pipe over the head and arrange for pouring the lead or babbitt. The mold is easily made by submerging nearly the whole hammer in sand or by filling the space between the pipe and hammer head with putty. Part of the hammer head should be surrounded with the poured metal in order to insure a good, close fit, but the fit must not be too close. It is well before pouring, to wrap a single thickness of paper around the head, holding it in place with thread or string. Lastly, bend the teeth to produce the spring-locking effect and you have a nice serviceable hammer. As soon as the face is worn it is a simple matter to repair it by melting out the soft metal, and remolding it.

Straightening Shaft on Planer.-It is sometimes possible to straighten a long shaft or tube, such as a propeller shaft or live axle on a planer bed if no straightening machine is available. The

method is clearly shown at Fig. 468, A. The shaft is placed on the planer bed resting on wood blocks supported by that member. A screw jack is placed between the planer head and on the bent portion of the shaft and pressure is thus easily exerted to straighten the defective axle. This is so placed that the high point is directly under the jack so that the pressure exerted by that member will tend to bring the shaft or tube back in line.

Holding Small Work Without a Vise. It is often necessary to make repairs on the road and some minor part must be securely held for filing or other fitting which is difficult to do if a vise is not available. A simple method of holding a key or pin or similar small parts is shown at Fig. 468, C. A large monkey wrench, which is included in most automobile tool kits, is used as a vise and while it is difficult to secure the proper degree of clamping pressure by the movable jaw adjusting screw alone, sufficient pressure to hold the key securely may be easily obtained by placing a bolt between the wrench jaws and the piece to be held in the manner indicated. Considerable pressure may be exerted by holding the bolt head from turning with one wrench and screwing the nut at the end of the bolt out against the fixed wrench jaw with another wrench. If it is desired to hold a round piece a shallow groove may be filed in the bolt head to prevent it from slipping from the work.

Holding Small Work in Vise.—When filing small screws, bolts, or pins that would be difficult to hold in a vise on account of danger of marring the surfaces the best method is to drill holes in a wooden block to receive the screw and cut a slot from the end of the block down to the hole. When the vise jaws are tightened up, they clamp the piece firmly and it may be filed with ease as indicated at Fig. 468, E.

Removing Keys.-On a number of cars of early vintage, such as the double cylinder Maxwell and on many marine engines, the flywheel is held on the crankshaft by means of jib keys. When it is desired to remove the flywheel as is necessary to withdraw the crankshaft from the engine base when rebushing the bearing, difficulty is sometimes experienced in removing the key. A very effective method of accomplishing this is shown at Fig. 469, A. The key extractor or puller is forged of steel as indicated having two

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